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Results 301 - 350 of 1668
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Everett Renata - - 2009
The preparation of 5-bromo-2-naphthol (4) in three steps from 5-amino-2-naphthol (1) is described. A sulfonic acid group is introduced at the 1-position as an activating and protecting group for the Sandmeyer reaction. The sulfonate group allows for the use of only water and sulfuric acid as solvents. The sulfonic acid ...
Motokura Ken - - 2009
Acidic montmorillonite-immobilized primary amines (H-mont-NH(2)) were found to be excellent acid-base bifunctional catalysts for one-pot reaction sequences, which are the first materials with coexisting acid and base sites active for acid-base tamdem reactions. For example, tandem deacetalization-Knoevenagel condensation proceeded successfully with the H-mont-NH(2), affording the corresponding condensation product in a ...
Chhabra Meenu - - 2009
Laccase/mediator systems are important bioremediation agents as the rates of reactions can be enhanced in the presence of the mediators. The decolorization mechanism of two triarylmethane dyes, namely, Basic Green 4 and Acid Violet 17 is reported using Cyathus bulleri laccase. Basic Green 4 was decolorized through N-demethylation by laccase ...
Michielssens Servaas - - 2009
L-Aspartic acid has recently been found to be a good leaving group during HIV reverse transcriptase catalyzed incorporation of deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP) in DNA. This showed that L-Asp is a good mimic for the pyrophosphate moiety of deoxyadenosine triphosphate. The present work explores the thermochemistry and mechanism for hydrolysis of ...
Gara Pedro M David - - 2009
The kinetics of the reaction of sulfate radicals with the IHSS Waskish peat fulvic acid in water was investigated in the temperature range from 289.2 to 305.2 K. The proposed mechanism considers the reversible binding of the sulfate radicals by the fulvic acid. The kinetic analysis of the data allows ...
Marcq Olivier - - 2009
The ozonation of d-glucose-1-(13)C, 2-(13)C, and 6-(13)C was carried out at pH 2.5 in a semi-batch reactor at room temperature. The products present in the liquid phase were analyzed by GC-MS, HPAEC-PAD, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Common oxidation products of glucose have also been submitted to identical ozonation conditions. For ...
Macht Josef - - 2009
We address here the manner in which acid catalysis senses the strength of solid acids. Acid strengths for Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) clusters and zeolites, chosen because of their accurately known structures, are described rigorously by their deprotonation energies (DPE). Mechanistic interpretations of the measured dynamics of alkane isomerization and alkanol ...
Illing H P A - - 2009
A series of chemically modified rosin resins have been tested for their potential to cause skin sensitization using the mouse LLNA. Where direct comparative evidence is available, the results of the mouse LLNA are consistent with previously obtained data using the GPMT. Reactions with sufficient fumaric acid or maleic anhydride ...
Majik Mahesh S - - 2009
The first example of a tandem Wittig-intramolecular ene reaction approach and its application toward the synthesis of kainic acid is reported. The synthetic pathway involves conversion of prenyl bromide into phosphorane 3, followed by one-pot Wittig olefination and an ene reaction with glyoxalic acid to give the cis fused pyrrolidine ...
Mädler Stefanie - - 2009
Structure elucidation of tertiary or quaternary protein structures by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (MS) has recently gained importance. To locate the cross-linker modification, dedicated software is applied to analyze the mass or tandem mass spectra (MS/MS). Such software requires information on target amino acids to limit the data analysis ...
Barshteyn Nella - - 2009
Previously, our laboratory has shown that hydroxymethylvinyl ketone (HMVK), a Michael acceptor oxidation product of the 1,3-butadiene metabolite, 3-butene-1,2-diol, readily reacts with hemoglobin at physiological conditions and that mass spectrometry of trypsin-digested peptides suggested adduct formation with various nucleophilic amino acids. In the present study, we characterized reactions ofHMVK (3 ...
Schopfer F J FJ Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2009
Nitroalkene fatty acid derivatives manifest a strong electrophilic nature, are clinically detectable, and induce multiple transcriptionally regulated anti-inflammatory responses. At present, the characterization and quantification of endogenous electrophilic lipids are compromised by their Michael addition with protein and small-molecule nucleophilic targets. Herein, we report a trans-nitroalkylation reaction of nitro-fatty acids ...
Severin Kay - - 2009
Boronic acids are versatile building blocks for the construction of complex molecular architectures. Using reversible condensation reactions, it is possible to obtain macrocycles, cages, dendritic structures, and rotaxanes, as well as 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional polymers in one-pot reactions from simple starting materials. This perspective highlights important recent developments in ...
Yang Jing - - 2009
Two different mechanisms: Shift 1,2-isomerization and isomerization via the disproportionation reaction are investigated for aromatic hydrocarbons over acidic mordenite zeolite by using our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (ONIOM) scheme. The picture shows a schematic energy profile for the isomerization of toluene catalyzed by acidic mordenite.The geometrical ...
Trakhtenberg Leonid I - - 2009
The intramolecular tunneling of hydrogen atom in formic acid HCOOH at low temperatures is considered based on literature experimental data on C-O internal rotation. The energetic and geometric parameters as well as vibrational frequencies for formic acid in cis and trans configurations surrounded by 12 Ar atoms are calculated in ...
Jiang Bo - - 2009
A new domino autocatalytic reaction of imines with Meldrum's acid was described. In this reaction, a series of polycyclic spiro[5.5]undecane-1,5,9-trione and dispiro[4.2.5.2]pentadecane-9,13-dione derivatives, with remarkable diastereoselectivity, were successfully synthesized in acidic condition, and up to six new bonds were formed accompanied by the C=N bond cleavage of the imines and ...
Ehrhardt M R - - 2010
The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20-35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction temperature, ...
Ma Yan - - 2009
This paper describes experimental studies aimed at elucidating mechanisms for the formation of low-volatility organic acids in the gas-phase ozonolysis of 3-carene. Experiments were carried out in a static chamber under 'OH-free' conditions. A range of multifunctional acids-which are analogous to those observed from alpha-pinene ozonolysis-were identified in the condensed ...
Ye Yu - - 2009
Experimentally, it was observed that the oxidized guanine lesion spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) contained in highly purified oligodeoxynucleotides slowly converts to guanidinohydantoin (Gh). The reaction is accelerated in the presence of acid. The possible mechanisms of this transformation have been analyzed computationally. Specifically, the potential energy surface for formation of Gh from ...
Brodhun Florian - - 2009
The homothallic ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans serves as model organism for filamentous fungi because of its ability to propagate with both asexual and sexual life cycles, and fatty acid-derived substances regulate the balance between both cycles. These so-called psi (precocious sexual inducer) factors are produced by psi factor-producing oxygenases (Ppo enzymes). ...
Forsman Jonas J - - 2009
The mechanism of the acid-catalyzed anomerization of 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-O-benzoyl-alpha- and -beta-L-ribofuranoses in different acetic acid-acetic anhydride mixtures was investigated. The progress of the reactions was followed by NMR spectroscopy and the rate constants for the reactions were determined by the use of a kinetic model. The site of anomeric activation was ...
Budija Franc - - 2009
Black poplar wood, diethylene glycol (DEG), and sulphuric acid as a catalyst were used as starting reactants for liquefaction. Optimal conditions for liquefaction were established: reaction temperature 150 degrees C, reaction time 95min, ratio of wood:DEG=1:5 and 3% of sulphuric acid addition. The liquid mixture obtained by the liquefaction was ...
Catak Saron - - 2009
Quantum chemical calculations are reported to provide new insights on plausible mechanisms leading to the deamidation of asparagine residues in proteins and peptides. Direct hydrolysis to aspartic acid and several succinimide-mediated mechanisms have been described. The catalytic effect of water molecules has been explicitly analyzed. Calculations have been carried out ...
Braun Birgit - - 2009
Surface modification of cellulosic nanowhiskers (CNW) is of great interest, especially to facilitate their use as polymer reinforcements. Generally, alteration of the surface chemistry is performed using multiple reaction steps. In contrast, this study demonstrates that the needed hydrolysis of amorphous cellulose chains can be performed simultaneously with the esterification ...
Yu Fei - - 2009
CuX(2)-mediated (X = Cl, Br) halolactonization of monoesters of 1,2-allenyl phosphonic acids is presented. The reaction proceeded smoothly under the mild condition for differently substituted allenic substrates giving the 4-halo-2,5-dihydro[1,2]oxaphosphole 2-oxides in good yields. The Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of these bromides and even chlorides with organic boronic acids under the ...
Zhu Jianglong - - 2009
An improved method for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure isonitriles from amino acid esters and dipeptides is described.
Wu Bian - - 2009
The phenylalanine aminomutase (PAM) from Taxus chinensis catalyses the conversion of alpha-phenylalanine to beta-phenylalanine, an important step in the biosynthesis of the N-benzoyl phenylisoserinoyl side-chain of the anticancer drug taxol. Mechanistic studies on PAM have suggested that (E)-cinnamic acid is an intermediate in the mutase reaction and that it can ...
Schopfer F J - - 2009
Nitroalkene fatty acid derivatives manifest a strong electrophilic nature, are clinically detectable and induce multiple transcriptionally-regulated anti-inflammatory responses. At present, the characterization and quantification of endogenous electrophilic lipids is compromised by their Michael addition with protein and small molecule nucleophilic targets. Herein, we report a trans-nitroalkylation reaction of nitro-fatty acids ...
Vaida Veronica - - 2009
This article focuses on the mechanism and molecular dynamics of light-initiated atmospheric reactions. The availability of photons of the correct wavelengths, the response to collisions, and the effect of heterogeneous environments will be considered in this discussion. A new class of light-initiated reactions occurring in the ground electronic state by ...
Zhu, Xiaochun
In this dissertation, we show that the apparent 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE)Lys Michael adducts (m+154) actually represent the isomeric 4-ketoamides. The same type of 4-ketoamide on Lys residues was formed by 9,12-dioxo-10(E)-dodecenoic acid (KODA). By incubation of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and ONE, HNE was found to form Cys/His/Lys/N-terminal amine Michael ...
Lange Jean-Paul - - 2009
Furfural, a potential coproduct of levulinic acid, can be converted into levulinic acid via hydrogenation to furfuryl alcohol and subsequent ethanolysis to ethyl levulinate. The ethanolysis reaction is known to proceed in the presence of H(2)SO(4). We show here that several strongly acidic resins are comparably effective catalysts for this ...
Zhang Junhua - - 2009
In this study, we aimed to dissolve microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with phosphoric acid to obtain high-quality fermentable saccharides. MCC was directly dissolved in phosphoric acid (the concentration was 83%) for 10 hours at temperatures of 30, 50, and 70 degrees C. The structural changes of MCC were determined in detail ...
Cressman Erik N K - - 2009
Purpose: To test thermochemical ablation for potential as a new method to coagulate tissue and create a prototype device for administration. Materials and Methods: Reactions of either HCl or acetic acid and either NH(4)OH or NaOH were run in triplicate in a gel phantom as a simple calorimeter. Data were ...
Rinaldi Roberto - - 2009
Cellulose is a major source of glucose because it is readily available, renewable, and does not compete with the food supply. Hydrolysis of cellulose is experiencing a new research and development cycle in which this reaction is carried out over solid catalysts and coupled to other reactions for increased efficiency. ...
Alnajjar Abdul-aziz - - 2009
The reported structures of reaction products of enaminones with malononitrile in ethanolic piperidine are revised. A novel route to 2,3-dihydropyridazine-4-carboxylic acids 4a-c via reactions of 2-cyano-5-(dimethylamino)-5-arylpenta-2,4-dienamides 8a-c with nitrous acid or with benzenediazonium chloride is reported. Compounds 8a-c are converted to 1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylic acid and 1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives upon reflux in EtOH/ ...
Lu Yulin - - 2008
Maleic acid-catalyzed hemicellulose hydrolysis reaction in corn stover was analyzed by kinetic modeling. Kinetic constants for Saeman and biphasic hydrolysis models were analyzed by an Arrhenius-type expansion which include activation energy and catalyst concentration factors. The activation energy for hemicellulose hydrolysis by maleic acid was determined to be 83.3 +/- ...
Souza Marcella S - - 2009
The objective of this work was to study the synthesis of ethyl esters via esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with ethanol, using solid acid catalysts and commercial immobilized lipases, in a solvent-free system. Three commercially immobilized lipases were used, namely, Lipozyme RM-IM, Lipozyme TL-IM, and Novozym 435, all from ...
Pournamdari Mostafa - - 2009
A method was developed for the analysis of amino acids within bovine serum albumin (BSA) which had been modified by reaction with different enals. BSA was reacted with the aldehydes and the reaction products were stabilised by reaction with NaBH(4). The protein was then hydrolysed with 6N HCl and the ...
Lee Jong Ho - - 2008
In this study, the enzymatic process for biodiesel production was optimized using a mixture of immobilized Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa lipases. The optimal temperature and agitation speed for biodiesel production were 45oC and 300 rpm, respectively. The optimal ratio of R. oryzae and C. rugosa lipases in the mixture ...
Duarte Luís C - - 2009
The dilute acid posthydrolysis of wheat straw hemicellulosic oligosaccharides obtained by autohydrolysis was evaluated. An empirical model was used to describe the effect of catalyst concentration (sulfuric acid, 0.1-4% w/w) and reaction time (0-60 min) based on data from a Doehlert experimental design. Catalyst concentration is the main variable influencing ...
Onel Lavinia - - 2008
A recent report on an intense CO 2 and CO evolution in the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) reaction revealed that iodination of malonic acid (MA) is not the only important organic reaction in the classical BR oscillator. To disclose the source of the gas evolution, iodomalonic (IMA) and diiodomalonic (I2MA) acids were ...
Lee On-Yi - - 2008
A new strategy has been developed for reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones with the InCl3/Et3SiH/MeOH system, which is a nontoxic system with highly chemoselective and nonwater sensitive properties. The methodology can be applied to a variety of cyclic, acyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines. Functionalities including ester, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, ...
Negi Devendra P S - - 2008
We present a novel method for the selective detection of cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, which plays a crucial role in many important biological functions such as protein folding. Surface-modified colloidal CdS nanoparticles have been used as a fluorescent probe to selectively detect cysteine in the presence of other amino ...
Yoshida Masahiro - - 2008
Studies about the regiocontrolled addition of arylboronic acids to allenes using a palladium or a platinum catalyst have been described. The selectivity of the reaction can be altered by the choice of the metal reagent and base. Contrary to the formation of endo-olefinic products in the reactions using hydroxopalladium complex, ...
Chu Fong Lam - - 2009
Imines or Schiff bases formed through the interaction of reducing sugars with amino acids are known to play a critical role not only in initiating the Maillard reaction but also in its propagation through isomerization reactions initiated by the intermediate oxazolidin-5-one. FTIR spectroscopic evidence for the formation of this intermediate ...
Yuan Jian-Ping - - 2008
Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and contains the largest amount of SDG oligomers, which are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of ...
Qureshi Ziyauddin S - - 2009
A simple and convenient methodology for selective sulfonation of aromatic compounds using sulfuric acid under sonication is described. The present methodology shows a considerable enhancement in the reaction rate along with improved selectivity compared with the reactions performed under silent conditions. The effect of various parameters such as agitation speed, ...
García-Río Luis - - 2008
Nitrosation of enols shows a well-differentiated behavior depending on whether the reaction proceeds through the carbon (nucleophilic catalysis is observed) or the oxygen atom (general acid-base catalysis is observed). This is due to the different operating mechanisms for C- and O-nitrosation. Nitrosation of acetylacetone (AcAc) shows a simultaneous nucleophilic and ...
Bellido Guillermo G - - 2008
Among a number of impediments to a wider use of chemical leavening agents in bakery applications is the lack of standardized instrumentation capable of providing information on the rates of CO2 production from chemical leaveners in a format that is meaningful to both the technologist (i.e., the dough rate of ...
Wu Xingqiang - - 2008
Microcystins (MCs) are a family of related cyclic hepatotoxic heptapeptides, of which more than 70 types have been identified. The chemically unique nature of the C20 beta-amino acid, (2S,3S,8S,9S)-3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4,6-dienoic acid (Adda), portion of the MCs has been exploited to develop a strategy to analyze the entirety. Oxidation of MCs causes ...
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