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Results 251 - 300 of 1677
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Burns Misty-Dawn - - 2010
A total of eight CF(3)-substituted phenylacetic and mandelic acids are shown to undergo efficient photodecarboxylation (PDC; Phi = 0.37-0.74) in basic aqueous solution to give the corresponding trifluoromethyltoluenes or trifluoromethylbenzyl alcohols. The products are consistent with the almost exclusive formation of benzylic carbanions that subsequently react with water, with minor ...
Ghosh Soumyadip - - 2010
Thiol-thioester exchange was found to readily generate libraries of cyclic thiodepsipeptides under thermodynamic control, which will enable their use in a variety of dynamic combinatorial chemistry assays. The kinetic determinants of macrocycle formation and the role of amino acid structure on the reaction dynamics are discussed.
Trivedi Ashish - - 2010
Many of the traditional herbal formulations contain extracts of Piper longum and Glycyrrhiza glabra, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid respectively, being active constituents of these two herbs. An attempt has been made to develop a simple, precise, rapid, and cost-effective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for simultaneous estimation of these in ...
Sakhno Yana I - - 2010
Heterocyclization reactions of pyruvic acids, aromatic aldehydes and 5-amino-N-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamides yielding four different types of final compounds are described. The reactions involving arylidenpyruvic acids lead with high degree of selectivity to either 4,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids or 5-[(2-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)amino]-1H-pyrazoles, depending on the catalyst type or temperature regime. The interactions based on arylpyruvic acids can ...
Yin De Lu Tyler de - - 2010
Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold ...
Takahashi Kaito - - 2010
The early time dynamics of vibrationally excited glyoxylic acid and of its monohydrate 2,2-dihydroxyacetic acid are investigated by theoretical and spectroscopic methods. A combination of "on-the-fly" dynamical simulations and cavity ring-down spectroscopy on the excited O-H stretching vibrational levels of these molecules observed that conformers that possess the correct structure ...
Sipil? Mikko - - 2010
Nucleation is a fundamental step in atmospheric new-particle formation. However, laboratory experiments on nucleation have systematically failed to demonstrate sulfuric acid particle formation rates as high as those necessary to account for ambient atmospheric concentrations, and the role of sulfuric acid in atmospheric nucleation has remained a mystery. Here, we ...
Sch?tzle Sebastian - - 2010
Amine-transaminases (ATAs, omega-transaminases, omega-TA) are PLP-dependent enzymes that catalyze amino group transfer reactions. In contrast to the widespread and well-known amino acid-transaminases, ATAs are able to convert substrates lacking an alpha-carboxylic functional group. They have gained increased attention because of their potential for the asymmetric synthesis of optically active amines, ...
Furrow Stanley D - - 2010
It was found that oxalic acid is one of the main products in the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. In nonoscillating solutions, oxidation of iodomalonic acid and/or diiodomalonic acid by Fenton-type reactions also produced oxalic acid as well as I(2). Mesoxalic acid yielded oxalic acid under similar conditions. Tartronic acid was nearly ...
Rinaldi Roberto - - 2010
Cellulose is a renewable and widely available feedstock. It is a biopolymer that is typically found in wood, straw, grass, municipal solid waste, and crop residues. Its use as raw material for biofuel production opens up the possibility of sustainable biorefinery schemes that do not compete with food supply. Tapping ...
Maurer Patrick - - 2010
We introduce a novel approach to compute dissociation free energy and entropy values in simulations that employ a density functional theory description of the acidic moiety and of the solvent. The approach consists of utilizing an alchemical transformation of a weak acid A-COOH into the strong acid B-COOH, which makes ...
Ram?n Rub?n S - - 2010
The gold/silver-cocatalyzed conversion of aldoximes into primary amides is reported. The reaction, which proceeds under neat and acid-free conditions, allows for the conversion of a range of aldoximes, and is a rare example of cooperative catalysis involving well-defined gold species.
Zhang Chen - - 2010
New reactions of azomethine ylides with nontraditional dipolarophiles are reported. Azomethine ylides, formed in situ via decarboxylative condensations of alpha-amino acids with aldehydes, undergo reactions with naphthols, indoles, alkynes, and nitroalkanes.
Li Xinzhong - - 2010
Mild and efficient Fischer esterification reactions of lactic acid with a variety of straight chain aliphatic alcohols, cyclohexanol and benzyl alcohol were successfully performed using two novel Brønsted acidic ionic liquids that bear an aromatic sulfonic acid group on the imidazolium or pyridinium cation under ultrasound irradiation. These reactions carried ...
Singh Suneel P - - 2010
An increasing number of reactions of sulfenic acid anions are being demonstrated in the literature. As such, mild, general and reliable means for the generation of sulfenates are due. In the current paper, an addition/elimination of 2-sulfinyl acrylates using various nucleophiles is demonstrated and evaluated as a protocol for alkane- ...
Boronat Mercedes - - 2010
Bifunctional acid-base ionic liquid organocatalysts with different distances between the two sites have been synthesised, and their activity for the Knoevenagel condensation has been tested. As has been found to be the case with enzymes, the distance between the acidic and basic sites determines the activity of the bifunctional organocatalyst, ...
Louis Benoit - - 2010
The heterogeneous acid-catalyzed activation step of alkanes leading to the reaction intermediates (carbocationic or alkoxy species) was up to now the matter of a longstanding controversy. Gas chromatography and online mass spectroscopy measurements show that H(2) and methane are formed over H-zeolites, whereas HD and CH(3)D are formed over D-zeolites ...
Imaoka Masashi - - 2010
γ-glutamyltranspeptidase from Pseudomonas nitroreducens IFO12694 (PnGGT) exhibited higher hydrolytic activity than transfer activity, as compared with other γ-glutamyltranspeptidases (GGTs). PnGGT showed little activity towards most of L-amino acids and towards glycyl-glycine, which is often used as a standard γ-glutamyl accepter in GGT transfer reactions. The preferred substrates for PnGGT as ...
Topal Kevser Gocmen - - 2010
The mechanism of all elementary steps involved in the catalytic cycle of benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD, E.C. 4.1.1.7) to generate the acyloin linkage is investigated by extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Models involving different charge states of amino acids and/or mutants of critical residues were constructed to understand the involvement of the ...
Al-Mulla Emad A Jaffar - - 2010
Fatty thiohydroxamic acids (FTAs) have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and thiohydroxamic acid by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RMIM) as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction ...
Yang Dan - - 2010
Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are two highly reactive oxygen species generated in biological systems. The overproduction of peroxynitrite or hypochlorous acid is implicated in a broad array of human pathologies including vascular, immunological, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, unambiguous detection of these reactive oxygen species has been relatively difficult ...
Tanaka Tatsushi - - 2010
Enzymatic synthesis of phospholipids (PLs) containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was studied. The main purpose was to establish an efficient production method for PLs containing docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid using only food-compatible reagents. Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-mediated ester synthesis was employed to introduce the PUFAs into the sn-2 position of ...
Lawson Thuy - - 2009
It was found that the inhibitory effect of resorcinol is less pronounced if it is added in a later stage of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, which indicates that an accumulating intermediate--most probably iodomalonic acid--can suppress the inhibition. In fact, when iodomalonic acid was added to the reaction mixture, the inhibitory period ...
Zanoelo Everton Fernando - - 2009
A set of experiments was carried out to investigate the chemical stability of 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) in the presence of superheated steam. A batch cylindrical reactor made of glass and isothermally operated between 398 and 499 K was used in the experiments. A high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode ...
Varga D?nes - - 2009
The tetrathionate-hypochlorous acid reaction has been investigated in nearly neutral medium at I = 0.5 M ionic strength and T = 25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C in dihydrogen-phosphate-hydrogen-phosphate buffer by UV-vis spectrophotometry. In excess of hypochlorous acid, the stoichiometry was found to be S(4)O(6)(2-) + 7HOCl + 3H(2)O --> 4SO(4)(2-) ...
Esteban M B - - 2010
A recycling method using sub-critical water hydrolysis to convert hog hair from slaughterhouses into amino acids was developed. The influence of the reaction parameters such as temperature, time of reaction and initial substrate concentration were investigated in a batch reactor. The quality and quantity of amino acids in hydrolysates were ...
Guillerm Vincent - - 2010
The exchange of the monocarboxylate ligand of the zirconium methacrylate oxocluster Zr(6)O(4)(OH)(4)(OMc)(12) (OMc = CH(2)=CH(CH(3))COO) with dicarboxylic acids (trans,trans muconic acid and terephthalic acid) leads to porous zirconium dicarboxylates exhibiting the UiO-66 architecture; the mild reaction conditions allow the control of their particle size.
Galano Annia - - 2009
The OOH radical reactions with allicin and its Cope elimination products (2-propenesulfenic acid and thioacrolein) in aqueous solution have been studied. The CBS-QB3 quantum chemistry method has been used, with geometries and frequencies at BHandHLYP/6-311++G(d,p) level and conventional transition state theory. 2-Propenesulfenic acid is predicted to be over 1000 times ...
Kukurová Kristína - - 2009
A dough resembling traditional Spanish rosquillas was used as a model to represent classical fried-dough pastry to investigate the effects of asparaginase and heat treatment on amino acid levels and acrylamide mitigation. Wheat-based dough was deep fried at 180 and 200 degrees C for 4, 6, and 8 min. Two ...
Hsu Teng-Chieh - - 2010
This study aim is to propose operational conditions for the dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw and to explore the effect of the structural properties of the solid residues on the enzymatic hydrolysis. A maximal sugar yield of 83% was achieved when the rice straw was pretreated with 1% (w/w) ...
Vulpius D - - 2010
The excited-state proton transfer of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with ultra-short laser pulses. The excited-state reactions were identified in aqueous media as a function of the pH value. Apart from the well-known inversion of the ordinary dissociation properties of these compounds, new ...
Karabulut Ihsan - - 2009
With the aim of determining the fatty acid (FA) selectivity of lipases, a mixture of oleic acid and monoacid triacylglycerols (TAGs) including tricaproin (T6), tricaprylin (T8), tricaprin (T10), trilaurin (T12), trimyristin (T14), tripalmitin (T16) and tristearin (T18) was used as the substrate in acidolysis performed in hexane. Three immobilized lipases, ...
Jiang Deshou - - 2009
The chemistry and fate of hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumeric, caffeic, sinapic, and cinnamic acid) in a glucose/glycine simulated baking model (10% moisture at 200 degrees C for 15 min) were investigated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of glucose/glycine and glucose/glycine/hydroxycinnamic acid model systems confirmed the phenolics reacted with Maillard intermediates; two ...
Nagy P?ter - - 2009
Hypothiocyanite is a major oxidant generated by mammalian peroxidases. Although reported to react specifically with thiol groups in biological molecules, a detailed mechanistic study of this reaction has not been conducted. We have investigated the reaction of hypothiocyanous acid/hypothiocyanite with 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid and with reduced glutathione by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The ...
Quirk Stephen - - 2009
Proteinoid microspheres (PM) are formed by the thermal condensation of amino acids. They have been useful to further evolutionary theory, as catalysts for some biochemical reactions, but they have not been overly useful as controlled delivery agents. It is possible however to construct PMs that contain organic small molecules in ...
Tan Yi - - 2009
Previous experiments demonstrated that aqueous OH radical oxidation of glyoxal yields low-volatility compounds. When this chemistry takes place in clouds and fogs, followed by droplet evaporation (or if it occurs in aerosol water), the products are expected to remain partially in the particle phase, forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Acidic ...
Sharma Rishi - - 2009
Microwave-assisted synthesis of 2-oxazolines from carboxylic acids using the open vessel technique is described. This efficient method involves direct condensation of carboxylic acids with excess 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol at 170 °C to give the corresponding 2-oxazolines in moderate to excellent yields.
Jeong Gwi-Taek - - 2010
This study focused on optimization of reaction conditions for formation of sugars and levulinic acid from marine algal biomass Gelidium amansii using acid catalyst and by using statistical approach. By this approach, optimal conditions for production of sugars and levulinic acid were found as follows: glucose (reaction temperature of 139.4 ...
Chen Xiaoming - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to investigate solid-state acid-base reactions between polymorphs of flufenamic acid (FFA) and magnesium oxide (MgO) using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Polymorphs of FFA were blended with MgO and stored under conditions of 96.5% RH and 89% RH at 40 degrees C. The disappearance of ...
Sevastik Robin - - 2009
The reaction mechanism of cis-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (cis-CaaD) is studied using the B3LYP density functional theory method. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolytic dehalogenation of cis-3-chloroacrylic acid to yield malonate semialdehyde and HCl. The uncatalyzed reaction is first considered, and excellent agreement is found between the calculated barrier and the measured ...
Sandercock P Mark L - - 2009
We report a recent investigation into the death of a cat that was initially thought to involve intentionally burning the animal via the use of an ignitable liquid. The exposure of the animal to flame was ruled out. Instead, forensic investigation revealed the intentional mixing together of a common outdoor ...
Wong Kin-Yiu - - 2009
Primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on a series of carboxylic acid-catalyzed protonation reactions of aryl-substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes (X-1) to form oxocarbenium ions have been computed using the second-order Kleinert variational perturbation theory (KP2) in the framework of Feynman path integrals (PI) along with the potential energy surface obtained at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) ...
Bayse Craig A - - 2010
The toxicity of selenium is a major barrier to its application to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic ailments. Organic seleninic acids, as well as other reducible selenium compounds, have been shown to react with biological sulfhydryls to disrupt a variety of biochemical signaling pathways, including transcription ...
Shiu Pei-Jing - - 2010
The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by a two-step in-situ transesterification from two kinds of rice bran was investigated in this study. The method included an in-situ acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an in-situ base-catalyzed transesterification. Free fatty acids (FFAs) level was reduced to less than 1% for both ...
Kolarovic Andrej - - 2009
A very efficient protocol enabling catalytic decarboxylation of a wide range of 2-alkynoic acids is described. The reaction conditions and the scope of the process are examined. The method is further utilized in a model decarboxylative coupling.
Koller Raffael - - 2009
A variety of sulfonic acids have been trifluoromethylated using 1-trifluoromethyl-1,2-benziodoxol-3(1H)-one under mild conditions in good to excellent yields. Initial mechanistic investigations of this reaction show a clean second-order kinetics and only very weak substrate electronic effects.
Takagaki Atsushi - - 2009
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), one of the most important intermediates derived from biomass, was directly produced from monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and disaccharides (sucrose and cellobiose) by a simple one-pot reaction including hydrolysis, isomerization and dehydration using solid acid and base catalysts under mild conditions.
Jones Kimberly G - - 2009
Bimolecular rate constants for the hydroxyl radical, .OH, reaction with domoic acid, kainic acid, and several model compounds were determined using electron pulse radiolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy. These oxidation rate constants were determined as (9.22 +/- 0.60) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) and (2.46 +/- 0.19) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), ...
Watts Zachary I - - 2009
Photochemical reactions of free and N-acetyl alpha-amino acids with chlorine and deuterium labeled hydrogen peroxide have been used to determine both the relative rates of reaction of molecules of these classes and the relative reactivity of their different types of hydrogen toward abstraction by chlorine and oxygen centered radicals. The ...
Jin Shan - - 2009
Fluoride has been found to protect boronic acids from copper(i)-mediated decomposition; such findings should be very useful for the preparation of boronic acid-based carbohydrate sensors and boronic acid conjugates using the copper(i)-mediated click reaction.
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