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Results 601 - 650 of 1668
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Algarra Andrés G - - 2006
The reaction of the hydride cluster [W3S4H3(dmpe)3]+ (1, dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphanyl)ethane) with acids (HCl, CF3COOH, HBF4) in CH2Cl2 solution under pseudo-first-order conditions of excess acid occurs with three kinetically distinguishable steps that can be interpreted as corresponding to successive formal substitution processes of the coordinated hydrides by the anion of ...
Plankensteiner Kristof - - 2006
For more than 50 years scientists who study prebiotic chemistry have been dealing with chemical evolution as it could have possibly taken place on the primordial Earth. Since we will never know what processes have really taken place around 3.8 to 4 billion years ago we can only come up ...
Zhao Chumang - - 2006
5-Methoxyacenaphthylene 1,2-oxide (5) was synthesized by the reaction of 5-methoxyacenaphthylene with dimethyldioxirane. The rates and products from the acid-catalyzed and pH-independent reactions of 5 in 50:50 dioxane/water have been determined. The half-life of the pH-independent reaction of this very reactive epoxide in 50:50 dioxane/water is only 22 s. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis ...
Onel Lavinia - - 2006
The title reaction was studied with various techniques in 1 M sulfuric acid, a usual medium for the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. It was found to be a more complex process than the bromomalonic acid (BrMA)-BrO3- reaction studied previously in the first part of this work. Malonic acid (MA) can ...
Wang Guan-Wu - - 2006
[reaction: see text] Novel reactions of C60 with amino acid ester hydrochlorides and CS2 in the presence of Et3N affording fullerene derivatives 2 and 3 containing biologically active amino acids, thioamide, and thiourea units have been investigated. The thioamide groups in compounds 2 are sensitive to moisture and can easily ...
Nanita Sergio C - - 2006
The emergence of homochirality continues to be one of the most challenging topics associated with the origin of life. One possible scenario is that aggregates of amino acids might have been involved in a sequence of chemical events that led to chiral biomolecules in self-replicating systems, that is, to homochirogenesis. ...
Albert Joan - - 2006
We report that the action of Lewis bases, such as triphenylphosphine, pyridine, or trimethylamine, on imine metallacycles derived from amino acids leads to the formation of the first organometallic compound of an NH aldimine, a highly reactive organic species, and the corresponding alpha-ketoester, in a deamination reaction that mimics the ...
Occhipinti Emanuela - - 2006
Sulfolobus solfataricus carboxypeptidase, (CPSso), is a heat- and pressure-resistant zinc-metalloprotease. Thanks to its properties, it is an ideal tool for investigating the role of non-covalent interactions in substrate binding. It has a broad substrate specificity as it can cleave any N-blocked amino acid (except for N-blocked proline). Its catalytic and ...
Gitari M W - - 2006
Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been reacted with two South African fly ashes in a batch setup in an attempt to evaluate their neutralization and major, trace elements removal capacity. Different fly ash: acid mine drainage ratios (FA: AMD) were stirred in a beaker for a set time and the ...
Iriarte-Velasco Unai - - 2006
Chloroform formation from chlorination of aquatic humic and fulvic acid solutions was studied. Second order overall kinetic model was assumed, first order with respect to chlorine and precursor content. Rate constants have been measured, resulting in values that varied significantly with reaction conditions, in the range of 0.177-7.206 [L/ mmol ...
Chong Fui Chin - - 2006
An intensified esterification process was operated by circulating 10 l of reaction mixtures, consisting of palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and glycerol in hexane, through a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with 10 kg of delipidated rice bran lipase (RBL). The influence of the process parameters, such as reaction temperature ...
Prajapati Dipak - - 2006
Various novel pyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 5 and furopyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 7 were synthesized in 80-99% yields via a multicomponent domino Knoevenagel/hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid with an aromatic aldehyde and ethyl vinyl ether/2,3-dihydrofuran in presence of 1 mol% of indium(III) chloride. The reaction also proceeds in aqueous media without using any ...
Richter Susann - - 2006
Staining with Congo red according to is the most commonly used method for the demonstration of amyloid, but structures other than amyloid can give false-positive results. To overcome this problem, introduced an aqueous Congo red staining with gum arabic as the mounting medium, which we have used in this and ...
Kandinska Meglena I - - 2006
The reaction of homophthalic anhydride and N-(furan-2-yl-methylidene)- benzylamine in different solvents and varying temperatures was studied in detail. Mixtures of the expected trans- and cis-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-4-carboxylic acids trans-5 and cis-5, along with by-products 6 and 7 were obtained in dichloroethane or benzene. In pyridine, used for the first time, the reaction ...
Templer Jennifer - - 2006
During anaerobic treatment, several microorganisms mediate a series of reactions to convert reduced compounds (electron donors) into methane. Inhibitors such as long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) can affect several anaerobic microbial populations and decrease the treatment efficiency. The effects of three C18 LCFAs on hydrogenotrophic methanogens in a flocculated mixed ...
Oliveira André P - - 2005
A clock reaction produced by mixing chlorate and iodine solutions in perchloric acid media is reported. This is the first example of a clock reaction using chlorate as a reagent. Increasing chlorate and acid concentration reduces the induction period. Changing the initial iodine concentration does not affect the length of ...
Andreozzi R - - 2006
The nitration process of salicylic acid for the production of the important intermediate 5-nitrosalicylic acid is studied from thermokinetic and safety points of view. Investigations carried out by considering, as process deviations, the loss of the thermal control point out the possibility of runaway phenomena due to the occurrence of ...
Singh Ashok Kumar - - 2006
The kinetics of Pd(II)-catalysed and Hg(II)-co-catalysed oxidation of D-glucose (Glc) and D-fructose (Fru) by N-bromoacetamide (NBA) in the presence of perchloric acid using mercury(II) acetate as a scavenger for Br- ions have been studied. The results show first-order kinetics with respect to NBA at low concentrations, tending to zero order ...
Huang Jiaxing - - 2006
Polyaniline nanofibers are shown to form spontaneously during the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline. The nanofibrillar morphology does not require any template or surfactant, and appears to be intrinsic to polyaniline synthesized in water. Two approaches--interfacial polymerization and rapidly-mixed reactions--have been developed to prepare pure nanofibers. The key is suppressing ...
Chi Young Shik - - 2005
Reactions that occur at interfaces often show different behaviors from their solution analogues. In this paper, we demonstrated how proximity effect, one of the unique phenomena at interfaces, could control the product distributions of interfacial reactions. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid on gold surfaces were treated with cyanuric fluoride ...
Loeppky Richard N - - 2005
N-Nitroso-2-hydroxymorpholine (NHMOR), a relatively reactive metabolite of two potent carcinogens, N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), has been reported to not be carcinogenic. Two isomeric acetate esters of the alpha-hydroxynitrosamines expected to be produced from the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of NHMOR have been synthesized, and their hydrolytic decomposition products, hydrolysis rates, ...
Costas-Costas U - - 2005
The effects of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TTAB, and hexadecyl-trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB, micellar systems on the reaction of 3-methylbenzenediazonium, 3MBD, tetrafluoroborate with ascorbic acid, VC, and with the hydrophobic derivatives 6-O-dodecyl-L-ascorbic acid, VC12, and 6-O-palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid, VC16, were investigated at different pH values by employing a combination of UV-vis spectroscopy and high-performance ...
Onel Lavinia - - 2005
The uncatalyzed reactions of bromomalonic acid (BrMA) with acidic bromate and with hypobromous acid were studied in 1 M sulfuric acid, a usual medium for the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, by following the rate of the carbon dioxide evolution associated with these reactions. In addition, the decarboxylation rate of dibromomalonic ...
Stoyanovsky Detcho A - - 2005
The nitrosation of cellular thiols has attracted much interest as a regulatory mechanism that mediates some of the pathophysiological effects of nitric oxide (NO). In cells, virtually all enzymes contain cysteine residues that can be subjected to S-nitrosation, whereby this process often acts as an activity switch. Nitrosation of biological ...
Ueki Hisanori - - 2005
[Reaction: see text]. Regio- and stereoselectivity in reactions of gem-difluorinated vinyloxiranes with heteronucleophiles were successfully controlled. Halogen atoms were introduced regioselectively at the allylic epoxide carbon with an inversion in stereochemistry using MgBr2*Et2O or Li2CuCl4 to produce anti-vic-halohydrine. The other diastereomers were obtained selectively using LiBr/AcOH or BCl3, and SN2' ...
Li Yuexiang - - 2006
In the presence of chloroacetic acids, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and decomposition of the pollutants over Pt/TiO2 have been investigated. The Pt/TiO2 was prepared by photodeposition. Monochloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid enhance photocatalytic hydrogen generation, whereas trichloroacetic acid does not. The photocatalytic oxidation of monochloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid mainly ...
Huetz Philippe - - 2005
The reaction coordinate between a typical ultimate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) and ellagic acid, a proven chemopreventive agent active against cancers caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was examined by density functional theory (DFT) and semiempirical MO calculations, and activation energy was calculated. The effect of a polar environment was included ...
Potapenko Dmitrii I - - 2005
A new method of measurement of thiol concentration by 19F NMR spectroscopy is developed. The method is based on the detection of products of the exchange reaction of thiols with a newly synthesized fluorinated disulfide, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-mercaptobenzoic acid (BSSB). A significant broadening of the 19F NMR signal of BSSB in the ...
Peller Julie - - 2005
Hydroxyl radical reactions of selected chlorinated aromatic phenols (2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol) and chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4-D methyl ester, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid (2,4-DP)] were studied using the radiolysis techniques of pulse radiolysis and gamma radiolysis. Hydroxyl radical addition was the prominent reaction pathway for the chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids ...
Levin M E - - 2006
The cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide, in the presence of sulfuric acid, to form phenol and acetone has been examined by adiabatic calorimetry. As expected, acid can catalyze cumene hydroperoxide reaction at temperatures below that of thermally-induced decomposition. At elevated acid concentrations, reactivity is also observed at or below room temperature. ...
Kukhanova Marina K - - 2005
Pyrophosphate analogues, namely, pyrophosphorous, hypophosphoric, and hypophosphorous acids, were evaluated as inhibitors in elongation reactions and substrates in pyrophosphorolysis reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase I (the Klenow fragment). The substrate efficacy of hypophosphoric acid in pyrophosphorolysis reaction exceeded that of pyrophosphate for both enzymes by more ...
Cvetovich Raymond J - - 2005
A practical synthesis of benzisoxazole 1 and its conversion to alpha-aryloxyisobutyric acid 2 using 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chloretone) was developed. Benzisoxazole 1 was formed in high yields by the action of either methanesulfonyl chloride/base upon intermediate oxime 8 or with thionyl chloride/base, which initially forms cyclic sulfite 10. A highly reactive, short-lived ...
Dambruoso Paolo - - 2005
[reaction: see text] L-proline failed to act as an organocatalyst in the homoaldol reaction of ethyl pyruvate; however, it reacted with the ester to give an azomethine ylide that in turn underwent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a second molecule of pyruvate. Direct catalytic homoaldol reaction of ethyl pyruvate was performed using ...
Orte Angel - - 2005
2',7'-Difluorofluorescein (Oregon Green 488, OG488) is a novel fluorescein dye derivative which presents important advantages for improving the fluorimetric applications in the biomedical and biochemical sciences. In aqueous solution it displays four prototropic forms, namely cation (C), neutral (N), monoanion (M), and dianion (D). In previous works, we found (J. ...
Choudhary Vasant R - - 2005
Hydrogen peroxide in high yields can be generated with high efficiency at mild conditions (25 degrees C and atmospheric pressure) with the formation of only environment-friendly by-products (N2 and H2O) by a reduction of O2 by hydrazine from its hydrate/salt with its complete conversion in a short reaction period (<or=0.5 ...
Sabally Kebba - - 2005
Lipase-catalyzed esterification of selected phenolic acids with linolenyl alcohols was investigated in selected organic solvent media. The enzyme activity for the esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with linolenyl alcohol in solvent mixtures of hexane/2-butanone of 75:25 (v/v) and 65:35 (v/v) was 0.88 and 0.47 micromol of esterified dihydrocaffeic acid/(g of solid ...
Tsipis Constantinos A - - 2005
The mechanism of the noncatalyzed and reagent-catalyzed Bazarov synthesis of urea has extensively been investigated in the gas phase by means of density functional (B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)) and high quality ab initio (CBS-QB3) computational techniques. It was found that the first step of urea formation from NH3(g) and CO2(g) corresponds to a ...
Drinkine Jessica - - 2005
(+)-Catechin reaction with two aldehydes (acetaldehyde and glyoxylic acid) was studied in winelike model solution. The two aldehydes were reacted either individually or together with (+)-catechin and in molar excess. The reactions were followed by HLPC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS to monitor (+)-catechin disappearance as well as dimer and polymer appearance. In ...
Troia A - - 2006
Single bubble cavitation offers an unique opportunity to evaluate the effect of bubble activity in promoting chemical reactions. In this paper we study the isomerization reaction of maleic acid into fumaric acid using an aqueous solution of maleic acid saturated with CH2Br2. The Br* radicals are generated at the bubble ...
Kleiner Gregory - - 2005
[reaction: see text] Reduction of benzophenone by SmI2 yields benzopinacol. Addition of proton donors results in an initial increase in the amount of the benzhydrol formed. However, the ratio benzhydrol/benzopinacol reaches a maximum, decreases, and then levels off as the proton donor concentration is further increased. The position of the ...
Duvelleroy Dorothée - - 2005
Rapid synthesis of quinoline-4-carboxylic acid derivatives has been achieved by reaction of 2-methoxy acrylates or acrylamides with N-arylbenzaldimines in acetonitrile under InCl3 catalysis and microwave irradiation. Isolated yields up to 57% within 3 min have been obtained. The Lewis acid and the microwave activation appeared as crucial parameters for the ...
Freccero Mauro - - 2005
Several catalyzed alkylation reactions of 9-methyladenine by a model [CPI, cyclopropa[c]pyrrolo[3,2-e]indol-4(5H)-one (1)] of duocarmycin anticancer drugs have been compared to the uncatalyzed reaction in gas phase and in water solvent bulk, using density functional theory at the B3LYP level with the 6-31+G(d,p) basis set and C-PCM solvation model. The effect ...
Mu Guannan - - 2005
The inhibiting action of a nonionic surfactant of Tween-20 on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.5-7.0 M sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) was studied by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. Atomic force microscope (AFM) provided the surface conditions. The results show that inhibition efficiency increases with the inhibitor ...
Sun Jinhua - - 2005
In order to evaluate the catalytic effects of inorganic acids on the decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN), the heat releases of decomposition or reaction of pure AN and its mixtures with inorganic acids were analyzed by a heat flux calorimeter C80. Through the experiments, the different reaction mechanisms of AN ...
Hossain Md Delwar - - 2005
An easy, safe, and effective method for preparing (diacetoxyiodo)arenes from iodoarenes is presented. Addition of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (triflic acid) as a promoter causes a drastic increase in the yield of (diacetoxyiodo)arenes in the reaction of iodoarenes with sodium perborate. The reaction of the iodoarenes with sodium perborate in acetic acid ...
Subbiah Ayyappan - - 2005
Reaction of Sn(IV) with phosphonic acids results in the formation of tin phosphonates with a spherical morphology arising from the aggregation of nanosized individual particles. Under high magnification, the spheres are shown to be porous with surface areas of 200-515 m2/g, depending on the type of phosphonic acid and the ...
Holm Nils G - - 2005
The potential of life's origin in submarine hydrothermal systems has been evaluated by a number of investigators by conducting high temperature-high pressure experiments involving organic compounds. In the majority of these experiments little attention has been paid to the importance of constraining important parameters, such as the pH and the ...
Zeng Jingmin - - 2005
Nonenzymatic covalent adduction of glucose, or aldehydes derived from glucose or oxidation reactions, to proteins (glycation) has been proposed as a key factor in the vascular complications of diabetes. In conditions of chronic glucose elevation, alpha-dicarbonyl compounds, including glyoxal and methylglyoxal, are also present at elevated levels. These carbonyls react ...
Morooka Saiko - - 2005
Hydrothermal reaction pathways and kinetics of C1 (carbon-one) aldehydes, formaldehyde (HCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH = HOCHO), are studied at 225 degrees C without and with hydrochloric acid (HCl) up to 0.6 M (mol dm(-3)). Reactions unveiled are the following: (i) the self-disproportionation forming methanol and formic acid, a redox ...
Benitez F Javier - - 2005
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a major pollutant present in the wastewater generated in the boiling cork process, as well as in other wastewaters from food manufacturing industries. Its decay in aqueous solutions has been studied by the action of several oxidation systems: monochromatic UV radiation alone and combined with ...
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