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Results 401 - 450 of 1078
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Gu Yan - - 2010
A comprehensive metabonomic method, in combination with fingerprint analysis and target analysis, was performed to reveal potential mechanisms of berberine action in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Serum samples of 60 patients before and after treatment with either berberine or placebo were collected. Ultra-performance liquid ...
Sørensen Thorkild I A TI Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2010
The risk functions for obesity (defined as the quantitative relation between degree of obesity throughout its range and the risk of health problems) have been used to define 'obesity' as an excess storage of fat in the body to such an extent that it causes health problems leading to increased ...
Jayabalasingham Bamini - - 2010
The malarial parasite has a tremendous requirement for fatty acids during the replicative stages that take place in the mammalian host. A series of recent papers, discussed below, have revealed some of the mechanisms employed by the parasite to meet these demands.
Li Ming - - 2010
Comparisons of microbial community structure, in eight filter media of zeolites, anthracite, shale, vermiculite, ceramic filter media, gravel, steel slag and bio-ceramic, were undertaken by analyzing the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. A total of 20 fatty acids in the range of C11 to C20 were determined but only 13 ...
Brignole Edward J - - 2010
We have used macromolecular electron microscopy (EM) to characterize the conformational flexibility of the animal fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we describe in detail methods employed for image collection and analysis. We also provide an account of how EM results were interpreted by considering a high-resolution static FAS X-ray structure ...
Almendingen K - - 2010
A few familial adenomatous polyposis studies have focused upon faecal sterols and bile acids but none has analysed the fecal content of fatty acids. We report here findings of an observational study on 29 colectomized familial adenomatous polyposis patients that describe the fecal content of fatty acids, and relate this ...
Ford Judith H - - 2010
The relationship between adipose fatty acid levels and age is examined in 635 Scottish fertile women aged 25-48. Fatty acids levels are highly significantly correlated with age. Factor analysis identifies four factors that account for 79.6% of variance in the data. Three Factors show significant regressions with age and patterns ...
Glew R S - - 2010
Although the leaves of Kigelia africana are used to make a palm-nut soup which is consumed mainly by lactating women in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the nutrient qualities of this underutilized and underappreciated plant food. Leaves of Kigelia africana, called "sausage tree" in English and ...
Witte Theodore R - - 2010
Results from increasing numbers of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that omega 3 fatty acids incorporated in cell culture media or in the diet of the animals can suppress the growth of cancers. When human clinical trials are initiated to determine the ability of omega 3 fatty ...
Yuki Kenya - - 2010
To determine the free fatty acid levels in the sera of patients with normal-tension glaucoma and compare it with that of normal controls. Forty-four consecutive patients with newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma and forty-four age and gender matched controls were evaluated. The type and level of fatty acids in the sera ...
Cocchi Massimo - - 2010
Novel markers for ischemic heart disease are under investigation by the scientific community at international level.This work focuses on a specific platelet membrane fatty acid condition of viscosity which is linked to molecular aspects such as serotonin and G proteins, factors involved in vascular biology.A suggestive hypothesis is considered about ...
Brouwer Ingeborg A - - 2010
Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids from ruminant animals ...
Zhang Zhen - - 2010
fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigate the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. On day 7 ...
Yamada Mai M Department of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, - - 2010
The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database ...
Hama Hiroko - - 2010
2-Hydroxy fatty acids (hFA) are important components of a subset of mammalian sphingolipids. The presence of hFA in sphingolipids is best described in the nervous system, epidermis, and kidney. However, the literature also indicates that various hFA-sphingolipids are present in additional tissues and cell types, as well as in tumors. ...
Castro Michelle Alessandra de - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acid intake among the general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in S?o Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2003, on a representative sample of 2,298 male and female subjects, including 803 adolescents (12 to 19 years), 713 adults (20 to 59 ...
Honeyfield Dale C - - 2009
We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected ...
Heather Lisa C LC Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics, Sherrington Building, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Thyroid hormones can modify cardiac metabolism via multiple molecular mechanisms, yet their integrated effect on overall substrate metabolism is poorly understood. Here we determined the effect of hyperthyroidism on substrate metabolism in the isolated, perfused, contracting rat heart. Male Wistar rats were injected for 7 d with T(3) (0.2 mg/kg ...
Liu Jiang - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the present study is to elucidate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in the course of lipogenesis in fatty acids induced hepatic steatosis and the potential effect of metformin on endoplasmic reticulum stress. METHODS: HepG2 cells were exposed to different types of culture media. After ...
Ibrahim Sarah A - - 2010
The present study evaluated the effects of fatty acids commonly present in cosmetic and topical formulations on permeation enhancement across human epidermal membrane (HEM) lipoidal pathway when the fatty acids saturated the SC lipid domain without cosolvents (Emax). HEM was treated with neat fatty acids or fatty acid suspensions to ...
Keller Markus A - - 2010
Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.48) converts long-chain fatty aldehydes to the corresponding acids. Deficiency in this enzyme causes the Sjogren Larsson Syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, and mental retardation. Using a fluorescent aldehyde, pyrenedecanal, and HPLC with fluorescence detection, we developed a novel method to monitor ...
Horikawa Makoto - - 2009
Fatty acids are the major components of the phospholipid bilayer and are involved in several functions of cell membrane. We previously reported that fatty-acid metabolism is involved in the regulation of DAF-2/insulin signal in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we investigate the role of fatty-acid metabolism in stress resistance with ...
Yonezawa Tomo - - 2009
Brain-specific uncoupling proteins such as uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) and brain mitochondrial carrier protein 1 (BMCP1; also known as UCP5) were identified by computational analysis for expressed sequence tag and hybridization screening. Both were detected at the mRNA level by RT-PCR in cloned bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and lactating ...
Sofi Francesco - - 2009
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids produced by the partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. Over the last few years, an increasing interest on these fatty acids has been shown because of their role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. To date, major scientific associations strongly recommend consuming a low ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2009
The first total syntheses of the naturally occurring acetylenic fatty acids-6-heptadecynoic acid (59% overall yield) and 6-icosynoic acid (34% overall yield)-was accomplished in four steps. Using the same synthetic sequence the naturally occurring fatty acids (6Z)-heptadecenoic acid (46% overall yield) and (6Z)-icosenoic acid (27% overall yield) were also synthesized. The ...
Lai Timothy Y Y - - 2010
PURPOSE: To evaluate the serum fatty acid changes in Chinese patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) in association with CYP4V2 mutation. METHODS: Sixteen Chinese patients with BCD confirmed with CYP4V2 mutation were recruited. Peripheral venous blood was obtained after fasting and serum fatty acid concentrations were measured and compared with ...
Kim Yookyung - - 2009
Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid method for prediction of trans-fatty acid content in ground cereal products without the need for oil extraction. NIR spectra (400-2498 nm) of ground cereal products were obtained with a dispersive NIR spectrometer and correlated to trans- and cis-fatty acid content determined ...
De Pascale Clara - - 2009
Current evidence indicates that chylomicron remnants (CMR) induce macrophage foam cell formation, an early event in atherosclerosis. Inflammation also plays a part in atherogenesis and the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated. In this study, the influence of CMR on the activity of NF-kappaB in macrophages and its ...
Milligan Graeme - - 2009
The free fatty acid receptors FFA2 and FFA3 are recently de-orphanized G protein-coupled receptors that share a group of short-chain free fatty acids as endogenous ligands. The expression of FFA2 and FFA3 by immune cells, in parts of the gastro-intestinal tract and by white adipocytes has suggested their potential as ...
Fernández-San Juan P-M - - 2009
Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%). These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally ...
Thompson Brian R - - 2010
The trafficking of fatty acids into and out of adipocytes is regulated by a complex series of proteins and enzymes and is under control by a variety of hormonal and metabolic factors. The biochemical basis of fatty acid influx, despite its widespread appreciation, remains enigmatic with regard to the biophysical ...
Pillarisetti Sivaram - - 2009
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is responsible for the hydrolysis of several important endogenous fatty acid amides (FAAs), including anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Because specific FAAs interact with cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors, they are often referred to as 'endocannabinoids' or 'endovanilloids'. Initial interest in this area, therefore, has focused on ...
Ring Michael W - - 2009
2-Hydroxy fatty acids can be found in several different organisms, including bacteria. In this study, we have studied the biosynthesis of 2-hydroxy fatty acids in the myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Stigmatella aurantiaca, resulting in the identification of a family of stereospecific fatty acid alpha-hydroxylases. Although the stereospecificities of the hydroxylases ...
White Brett - - 2009
Fatty acids can be divided into four general categories: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats. Saturated fatty acids and trans fats are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease, although these ...
Gomes Aline D - - 2010
Fatty acids have been used in marine biogeochemistry as food chain biomarkers, but in freshwater these studies are rare. In order to evaluate the fatty acid potential as biomarkers in freshwater, their profile was analyzed during vitellogenesis in two fish species, in both waterfall and reservoir environments of the Paraíba ...
Saraswathi Viswanathan - - 2009
Obesity is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFAs), which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although impairment of cholesterol homeostasis is known to induce toxicity in macrophages, the consequence of altered fatty acid homeostasis is not clear. Long-chain acyl CoA synthetases (ACSLs) play ...
Arshadi Mehrdad - - 2009
Different qualities of biofuel pellets were made from pine and spruce sawdust according to an industrial experimental design. The fatty/resin acid compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for both newly produced pellets and those after 2 and 4 weeks of storage. The aldehydes/ketones compositions were determined by high performance ...
Erridge Clett - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate inflammatory signaling in response to conserved microbial molecules. It has been proposed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) may also serve as endogenous ligands of TLR2 or TLR4, thereby promoting diseases associated with inflammation and dyslipidemia, including atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We ...
Iwamoto Eiji - - 2009
The effects of the fattening period on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of fat deposits, and muscle free amino acid (FAA) and inosinic acid (IMP) contents were evaluated in Japanese Black steers. Ten castrated, 10-month-old calves derived from the same sire were divided into five to be slaughtered at the ...
Wilke M S - - 2009
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is recommended that patients with diabetes reduce their intake of saturated fat and increase their intake of monounsaturated fat or carbohydrate. However, high-carbohydrate diets may result in higher saturated fatty acids in VLDL-triacylglycerol. This is attributed to de novo lipogenesis, although synthesis of specific fatty acids is rarely ...
Li Jianjian - - 2009
Fatty acids covalently bonded with other molecules have been implicated in many important biological processes. We describe here a rapid approach termed isotope-coded fatty acid transmethylation (iFAT) that integrates extraction, transmethylation, and isotopic labeling into a single step with the aid of ultrasonic irradiation for comparative analysis of fatty acids ...
Reich Marlis - - 2009
Here, the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolorwas explored with the aim of constructing a genome-wide inventory of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Sixty-three genes of the major pathways were annotated and validated by the detection of the corresponding transcripts. Seventy-one per cent belonged to multigene families ...
Ryan Robert P - - 2009
Burkholderia cenocepacia produces a diffusible fatty acid signal molecule, cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF), that has been implicated in interspecies and interkingdom communication. Here, we show that BDSF also acts as an intraspecies signal in B. cenocepacia to control factors contributing to virulence of this major opportunistic pathogen.
Tsukamoto Seiichi - - 2009
A variant of human tear lipocalin was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the bound fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Five major fatty acids were identified as hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid, PA), cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid), 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid) ...
Lecerf Jean-Michel - - 2009
Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated ...
Zhang Ying - - 2009
The long-term metabolic and functional effects of a dietary deprivation of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids were recently investigated in second-generation omega3-depleted rats. This study represents the first attempt to explore the direct, but not immediate, effects of omega3 fatty acids on insulin-producing cells. For this purpose, BRIN-BD11 cells were ...
Carrilho M C - - 2009
The effect of the fattening diet on the intramuscular fatty acid composition was studied on a total of 96 hybrid rabbits. Animals were slaughtered at weaning, at 1.6kg after the consumption for three weeks of various diets containing low (14.28%), medium (18.04%) and high (20.48%) fibre content, and at 2 ...
Oh So-Ra - - 2009
Hyperlipidemia and marrow fat are associated with lowering bone density in vivo, suggesting that lipid contributes to bone loss. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we investigated the effect of saturated fatty acids (SFA) on osteoclastogenesis. The level of free fatty acids and adiposity in bone marrow was significantly elevated in obese ...
Li Yonghua - - 2009
Oxygenated fatty acids such as ricinoleic acid and vernolic acid can serve in the industry as synthons for the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals and polymers traditionally produced by chemical conversion of petroleum derivatives. Oxygenated fatty acids can also be useful to synthesize specialty chemicals such as cosmetics ...
Kummerow Fred A - - 2009
Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been in the American diet since 1900. More than 50 years ago they were found to contain trans fatty acids that were different from natural fatty acids in plant oils and in animal fat. There was growing evidence that the consumption of trans fats have ...
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