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Gillies Peter J - - 2011
Omega-3 fatty acid research, which began as an epidemiologic curiosity, has generated perhaps the strongest dataset for any nutrient in regard to cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Although once a relatively descriptive field, advances in analytic techniques have opened up the biochemistry of omega-3 fatty acids and nutritional genomics in plants ...
Wen Qi - - 2011
A new triterpenoid saponin acylated with monoterpenic acid, together with two known triterpenoid saponins, has been isolated from the fruit of Gymnocladus chinensis Baill. Their structures were elucidated as 2β,23-dihydroxy-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-21-O-{(6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-[3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2,7-octadienoyl)-β-L-arabinopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl}-acacic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), gymnocladus saponin E (2), and gymnocladus saponin F(2) (3).
Patel Dinesh Kumar - - 2011
Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an ...
Canakci Songül - - 2011
The present study examined the effects of salicylic acid pre-application on the responses of seven-day-old chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seedlings to nickel. For this purpose, the plants were treated with 1 mM salicylic acid solution for 6 and 10 hours and then treated with 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mM nickel ...
Freitas Cristina Setim - - 2011
H+, K(+)-ATPase enzyme is a therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric disturbances. Several medicinal plants and isolated compounds inhibit the acid gastric secretion through interaction with the proton pump. In order to add new properties to some natural constituents, five compounds, a benzylated derivative of vincoside, a diterpene (abietic ...
Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau A - - 2011
Five multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fed red clover silage-based diets were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of various plant oils or camelina expeller on animal performance and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments consisted of 5 concentrate supplements containing no ...
Jaiswal Rakesh - - 2011
In this study, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n) ; n = 2-3) has been used to characterize and distinguish chlorogenic acid lactones from cinnamoylshikimate esters. This is the first time when an LC-MS(n) method has been developed to distinguish between these two isomeric classes of compounds formed in particular in food processing ...
Kosińska Agnieszka - - 2011
Phenolic compounds were extracted from defatted flaxseeds using ethanol-dioxane (1:1, v/v). The crude extract obtained was purified using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography with water and methanol as mobile phases. RP-HPLC and SE-HPLC showed a lignan macromolecule (LM) as a dominant phenolic compound in the purified extract. After the alkaline hydrolysis ...
Zhang Jin-jie - - 2011
Three cooking methods, namely boiling, steaming, and stir-frying for 5 to 10 min, were used to evaluate the effect on nutrient components, free amino acids, L-ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox). Results showed that boiling and stir-frying had a great effect on the ...
Schäfer Martin - - 2011
Recent investigations showed that the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana specifically responds to herbivory-associated molecular patterns by activating a sophisticated signaling network. The lipase activity of insect oral secretions was shown to elevate oxylipin levels when applied to puncture wounds in leaves. The results also demonstrated that the oral secretions of ...
Piotrowska Alicja - - 2011
Phytohormones, including auxins, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins, and jasmonates, are involved in all aspects of plant growth, and developmental processes as well as environmental responses. However, our understanding of hormonal homeostasis is far from complete. Phytohormone conjugation is considered as a part of the mechanism to control cellular ...
Orcaray Luis - - 2011
Chlorsulfuron and imazethapyr (herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase; ALS, EC 4.1.3.18) produced a strong accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acids that was related to the induction of the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (EC 2.5.2.54). The exogenous application of two hydroxycinnamic acids, ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to pea ...
Wu Ting - - 2011
A new triterpenoid glycoside, heterobetulinic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with a new phenylacrylic acid derivative, 3'S,4'-dihydroxyl-2'-methylene-but-1'-enyl caffeate (2), were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. Their structures were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, 1-D and 2-D NMR analyses and chemical methods. In addition, the absolute configuration of 2 was established by ...
Wang Ying - - 2011
Four new flavone C-glycosides, luteolin 6- C- α-L-arabinopyranosyl-7- O- β-D-glucopyranoside ( 1), apigenin 6- C- β-D-galactopyranosiduronic acid (1 → 2)- α-L-arabinopyranoside ( 2), luteolin 6- C- β-D-galactopyranosiduronic acid (1 → 2)- α-L-arabinopyranoside ( 3), and luteolin 6- C- β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (1 → 2)- α-L-arabinofuranoside ( 4), along with three known ones, were isolated from the leaves ...
Pardeike Jana - - 2011
Folic acid was used as a model drug to demonstrate the advantages of formulating poorly soluble drugs as nanosuspensions and their use in an inkjet-type printing technique to produce personalized medicines. 10% folic acid nanosuspensions stabilized with Tween 20, a stabilizer showing the best wetting potential for folic acid, were ...
Ternes Philipp - - 2011
• The bioactive lipid ceramide is produced by the enzyme ceramide synthase, which exists in several isoforms in most eukaryotic organisms. Here, we investigated functional differences between the three ceramide synthase isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana. • The biochemical properties of the three ceramide synthases were investigated by comparing lipid profiles ...
Bi Wentao - - 2011
Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid ...
Starkenmann Christian - - 2011
The l-cysteine derivatives (R)-2-amino-3-(methyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-methylthio-l-cysteine), (R)-2-amino-3-(propyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-propylthio-l-cysteine), (R)-2-amino-3-(1-propenyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-(1-propenylthio)-l-cysteine), and (R)-2-amino-3-(2-propenyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-allylthio-l-cysteine) were prepared from 3-[(methoxycarbonyl)dithio]-l-alanine, obtained from the reaction of l-cysteine with methoxycarbonylsulfenyl chloride. The occurrence of these S-(+)-alk(en)ylthio-l-cysteine derivatives in onion ( Allium cepa L.) was proven by using UPLC-MS-ESI(+) in SRM mode. Their ...
Yu Juan - - 2011
Two new lupene-type triterpenoids, 3β,6β-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid β-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 2α-acetoxyl-3β,6β-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid β-glucopyranosyl ester (2), along with 18 known compounds, were isolated from Liquidambar formosana. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, as well as by comparison of the ...
Uddin Ghias - - 2011
The present study was designed to investigate the whole plant of Pistacia integerrima Stewart in order to examine the pharmacological basis of the use of the plant in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and disorder. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies led to the isolation of a new triterpene ...
Huang Yun-Ting - - 2011
Bioassay-guided fractionation of roots of Beilschmiedia tsangii led to the isolation of six new endiandric acid analogues: tsangibeilin A (1), tsangibeilin B (2), endiandramide A (3), endiandric acid K (4), endiandric acid L (5), and endiandramide B (6). Also isolated were two new lignans, beilschminol A (7) and tsangin C ...
Wong Keng-Chong - - 2011
The aqueous methanolic extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. exhibited antibacterial activity when assayed against seven microorganisms by the agar diffusion method. Solvent fractionation afforded active chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions from the leaves and the flowers, respectively. A phytochemical study resulted in the identification of ursolic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid ...
Qi Wen - - 2011
Two new triterpenoid saponins acylated with monoterpenic acid, 2β,23-dihydroxy-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-21-O-{(6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-[3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-4-O-(2-methylbutanoyl)-β-L-arabinopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl)-acacic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 2β,23-dihydroxy-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-21-O-{(6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-[4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-L-arabinopyranosyl)-2,7-octadienoyl)]-β-L-arabinopyranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl}-acacic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) were isolated from the fruit of Gymnocladus chinensis Baill. and the structural elucidation of both the compounds was accomplished by extensive studies of their spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR, TOF-MS, QFT-MS) ...
Oražem Primož - - 2011
Two peach cultivars, 'Redhaven' and 'Royal Glory', grafted on 7 different rootstocks (Adesoto, Barrier 1, GF 677, Ishtara, Monegro, Penta and peach seedling) were analyzed for tree vigor and yield. Fruit of similar ripeness (fruit firmness) was analyzed in terms of pomological (fruit weight, soluble solids content) and biochemical parameters ...
Singh Onkar - - 2011
Phytochemical investigation of the defatted seeds of Entada phaseoloides Merill. (Mimosaceae) led to the isolation of three new phenolic acid glucosides, which were characterized as 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzoyl-β-l-glucopyranoside (p-cresotyl glucoside, 1), 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzoyl-β-l-glucopyranosyl (2 → 1)-β-l-glucopyranosyl (2 → 1)-β-l-glucopyranoside (p-cresotyl triglucoside, 2), and 2-hydroxybenzoyl-β-l-glucopyranosyl (2 → 1)-β-l-glucopyranosyl (2 → 1)-β-l-glucopyranosyl (2 → 1)-β-l-glucopyranoside (salicylic acid tetraglucoside, 5), along with sucrose and triglucoside. The ...
Murillo Pulgarín José A - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: 1-Naphthylacetic and 2-naphthoxyacetic acids belong to the synthetic branch of auxins. Auxins have attracted considerable interest as a subject of study by virtue of their biological and physiological significance. Their broad use as plant growth regulators has raised the need for simple, rapid, sensitive and selective analytical methods for ...
Baâtour Olfa - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The effects of salt on the essential oil yield and fatty acid composition of aerial parts of two marjoram varieties were investigated. Plants with 6 leaves were treated with NaCl (75mM). RESULTS: Salt treatment led to a reduction in aerial part growth. Salinity increased the fatty acid content more ...
Zhou Yong - - 2011
Three new compounds, including a sesquiterpenoid glucoside gallate, 2 Z,4 E,1' R,2' S,4' R,6' S-dihydrophaseic acid 4'- O-(6''- O-galloyl)- β- D-glucopyranoside ( 1), two new phenolic glucoside gallates, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid 4- O-(6'- O-galloyl)- β- D-glucopyranoside ( 2) and 3,4-dimethoxyphenol 1- O-(6'- O-galloyl)- β- D-glucopyranoside ( 3), together with eight known ...
Sarı Aynur - - 2011
A new 3-benzylphthalide, scorzoveratrin 4'-O-β-glucoside (1), together with the known 3-benzylphthalides, scorzoveratrin (2) and scorzoveratrozit (3), the caffeoyl derivatives, chlorogenic acid methyl ester (4), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (6), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7) and caffeic acid (8) were isolated from the subaerial parts of Scorzonera latifolia (Fisch. & ...
Kumar Ashok - - 2011
The essential oil of Premna latifolia Roxb. was obtained by hydrodistillation of fresh leaves of the plant having an oil yield of 0.05%, both non-polar and essential oil were analysed by GC and GC-MS. Hexane fraction of the leaves of P. latifolia was transesterified and analysed by GC and GC-MS, ...
Zhang Chen - - 2011
A new sodium salt of anthraquinone named sodium emodin-1-O-β-gentiobioside, together with nine known compounds, viz. rubrofusarin-6-O-β-D-gentiobioside, chrysophanol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, obtusifolin-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, aurantio-obtusin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-hydroxyl-2-acetyl-3,8-dimethoxy-6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-2)-β-D-glucosylnaphthalene, toralactone-9-O-β-D-gentiobioside, aurantio-obtusin, rubrofusarin-6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia and its structure was elucidated by (1) H and (13) C NMR technique assisted with acid-alkali titration. The ...
Vivancos Pedro Diaz - - 2011
The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an ...
Qian Haifeng - - 2011
Imazethapyr (IM) is a chiral herbicide and a widely used racemic mixture. This report investigated the enantioselectivity between R- and S-IM in rice and explored its causative mechanism at the physiological and molecular levels. The results suggested that R-IM inhibited acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity to a greater extent than S-IM, ...
Kaur Harveen - - 2011
Dehydrotryptophan and its derivatives are non-proteinogenic amino acids commonly found in peptide-based natural products produced by microorganisms, marine organisms and plants. These non-proteinogenic amino acids are found in secondary metabolites and are formed by post translational modification processes. Although comprehensive reviews on the synthesis of dehydroamino acids are available, this ...
Cesonienė Laima - - 2011
Benzoic acid, total anthocyanins, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and colour properties in juice of the American cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon and the European cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos were investigated. Berry juices of V. macrocarpon cultivars were distinguished by their higher total anthocyanin and benzoic acid amounts. These cultivars accumulated on average 43.11 mg/l ...
Kashiwada Yoshiki - - 2011
Two new caffeoyl quinic acid α-glucosides, together with three known caffeoyl quinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-(4'-O-α-D: -glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'-O-α-D: -glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses.
Fu Shao-Bin - - 2011
The structural modification of ursolic acid by an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora, isolated from medicinal plant Huperzia serrata was reported for the first time. The structure diversity was very important for the SAR study of ursolic acid and its derivatives. Incubation of ursolic acid 1 with P. microspora afforded four ...
Hu Hao-Bin - - 2011
A new diterpene glycoside, tomentoside I (1), along with eleven known compounds, including the four coumarins, 4,5-dimethoxyl-7-methylcoumarin (2), 4,7-dimethoxyl-5-methylcoumarin (3), isofraxidin (4) and fraxidin (5) as well as the seven triterpenoids, oleanolic acid (6), oleanolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (7), oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (9), betulinic acid (10), 18-hydroxyursolic acid ...
Cantrell Charles L - - 2011
An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas L., was performed to identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil. J. curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and parts of Africa to repel biting insects, primarily mosquitoes. The seed ...
Rojas Julio - - 2011
Kaurenic acid (1a) is a tetracyclic diterpene that has an exocyclic double bond at delta16. Isokaurenic acid (2a) has an endocyclic delta15double bond. This compound has been isolated from Espeletia tenore (Espeletinae), a resinous plant from the Venezuelan Andes, but its occurrence is rare. In order to obtain a larger ...
Stuttmann Johannes - - 2011
Reliance of biotrophic pathogens on living plant tissues to propagate implies strong interdependence between host metabolism and nutrient uptake by the pathogen. However, factors determining host suitability and establishment of infection are largely unknown. We describe a loss-of-inhibition allele of ASPARTATE KINASE2 and a loss-of-function allele of DIHYDRODIPICOLINATE SYNTHASE2 identified ...
Siddiqi Ejaz Hussain - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has gained considerable ground as a potential oil-seed crop. However, its yield and oil production are adversely affected under saline conditions. The present study was conducted to appraise the influence of salt (NaCl) stress on yield, accumulation of different inorganic elements, free proline and activities ...
Chaturvedula Venkata Sai Prakash - - 2011
From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two new minor diterpene glycosides having α-glucosyl linkage were isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, steviolbioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The structures of the two compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-(3-α-O-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), and ...
Pham Anh-Tung - - 2011
The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other oils. In the lipid ...
He Xianghui - - 2011
CUSCUTA CHINENSIS and CUSCUTA AUSTRALIS, the two botanical sources of the Chinese herbal medicine Tu-Si-Zi, were distinguished from each other based on qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. By HPLC-DAD-MS, a total of 36 compounds were characterized from these two CUSCUTA species, including 14 flavonoids, 17 quinic acid derivatives, and 5 ...
Shi Leilei - - 2011
The histone variant H3.3 and the canonical histone H3.1, which differ in only 4- to 5-aa positions, are coexpressed in complex multicellular eukaryotes from fly to human and plant. H3.3 is mainly associated with active chromatin by replacing H3.1 through chaperones such as histone regulator A, death domain associated protein ...
Lee Yew - - 2011
The effects of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), one of products of the disproportionation of monodehydroascorbate (MDHA) by AA oxidase (AAO, EC 1.10.3.3), on the gravitropic curvature of Arabidopsis roots were characterized by biochemical and genetic approaches. Exogenously applied AA and DHA both stimulated root gravitropic responses in ...
Beato Victor Manuel - - 2011
The contents of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and phenolic acids were determined in selected garlic cultivars grown at four locations. The total phenolic content varied from 3.4 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of dry matter (dm) to 10.8 mg GAE/g of dm with a mean value of 6.5 mg GAE/g of dm. The ...
Brown Adrian P - - 2011
Ricinoleic acid is a feedstock for nylon-11 (N11) synthesis which is currently obtained from castor (Ricinus communis) oil. Production of this fatty acid in a temperate oilseed crop is of great commercial interest, but the highest reported level in transgenic plant oils is 30%, below the 90% observed in castor ...
Wongchai C - - 2011
Global warming increases plant salt stress via evaporation after irrigation, but how plant cells sense salt stress remains unknown. Here, we searched for correlation-based targets of salt stress sensing in Chenopodium rubrum cell suspension cultures. We proposed a linkage between the sensing of salt stress and the sensing of distinct ...
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