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Results 251 - 300 of 1147
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Hutton Brian - - 2012
To estimate the relative risks of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure or dysfunction between antifibrinolytics and no treatment following the suspension of aprotinin from the market in 2008 for safety reasons and its recent reintroduction in Europe and Canada. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. A Cochrane review of ...
Bryner Randall W RW Division of Exercise Physiology, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9227, - - 2012
Background. Accumulation of free fatty acids leads to lipid-toxicity-associated skeletal muscle atrophy. Palmitate treatment reduces myoblast and myotube growth and causes apoptosis in vitro. It is not known if omega-3 fatty acids will protect muscle cells against palmitate toxicity. Therefore, we examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on skeletal ...
Esmaeili Vahid V Department of Embryology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedi- cine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Animal Science, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, - - 2012
Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), but reliable data concerning dietary effects on fatty acid (FA) profile in ram's sperm and the persistency of FA in the ration to the FA in sperm has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study ...
Servillo Luigi - - 2011
The presence of pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine, also known as homostachydrine, is herein reported for the first time in Citrus genus plants. Homostachydrine was found in fruits, seeds, and leaves of orange, lemon, and bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit). As homostachydrine was not commercially available, as ...
Almeida Rodrigo P P - - 2011
In Xylella fastidiosa the fatty acid signal molecule DSF is produced and sensed by components of the regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) cluster; lack of DSF production in RpfF mutants results in a non-vector transmissible phenotype yet cells are hypervirulent to grape. rpfB has not been characterized in X. fastidiosa, ...
Abellán Adela - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Enzymes present in the flowers of Cynara cardunculus (cyprosins) are used in the production of some traditional Spanish and Portuguese cheeses, replacing animal rennet. The aim of this work was to study the changes that take place in free amino acids during the ripening of a goat's milk cheese ...
Kochevenko Andrej - - 2011
The branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) have a crucial role in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These enzymes catalyze the last step of synthesis and the initial step of degradation of these amino acids. Although the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in plants ...
Shiraiwa Ken - - 2011
A new benzyl benzoate glycoside and five new 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid derivatives were isolated from the entire plant of Solidago decurrens together with three known compounds. Their structures were established by extensive analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and by comparison with physical data of known compounds.
Xu K - - 2011
Three new alkaloids, N-hexacosanoylanthranilic acid (1), N-octacosanoylanthranilic acid (2) and N-eicosanoyltyramine (3), along with 19 known compounds, were isolated from the seeds of Notopterygium incisum, whose rhizomes are used as a traditional Tibetan medicine. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and ESI-MS spectrometer evidence.
McGhie Tony Kevin - - 2011
Apple peel contains numerous phytochemicals, many of which show bioactivity. We have investigated the identity of triterpenoid compounds contained in ethanolic extracts of peel from seven apple cultivars. Using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-HRMS, accurate mass information was obtained for 43 compounds, and chemical identity was inferred from the calculated elemental composition, fragment masses, ...
Chen Hsi-Chuan - - 2011
The hydroxylation of 4- and 3-ring carbons of cinnamic acid derivatives during monolignol biosynthesis are key steps that determine the structure and properties of lignin. Individual enzymes have been thought to catalyze these reactions. In stem differentiating xylem (SDX) of Populus trichocarpa, two cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylases (PtrC4H1 and PtrC4H2) and ...
Pudelski Birgit - - 2011
Previously, the OEP16.1 channel pore in the outer envelope membrane of mature pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts in vitro has been characterized to be selective for amino acids. Isolation of OEP16.2, a second OEP16 isoform from pea, in the current study allowed membrane localization and gene expression of OEP16 to be ...
Rautengarten Carsten - - 2012
The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an ...
Ying Jie-Zheng - - 2011
Plant seed oil is important for human dietary consumption and industrial application. The oil trait is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but no QTLs for fatty acid composition are known in rice, the monocot model plant. QTL analysis was performed using F(2) and F(2:3) progeny from a cross of ...
Routaboul Jean-Marc - - 2012
The photosynthetic thylakoid has the highest level of lipid unsaturation of any membrane. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown at 22°C, approximately 70% of the thylakoid fatty acids are trienoic - they have three double bonds. In Arabidopsis, and other species, the levels of trienoic fatty acids decline substantially at higher ...
da Silva Juliana Melo - - 2011
Rooted molars were subjected to standardized canal instrumentation to a master apical file (MAF). The samples were dressed with Ca(OH)(2), and after 7 days, teeth were reopened and Ca(OH)(2) medication was removed by 1 of 4 different experimental procedures: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 10); 17% EDTA-T (n = ...
Doan Thuy T P - - 2011
Primary long-chain fatty alcohols are present in a variety of phyla. In eukaryotes, the production of fatty alcohols is catalyzed by fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) enzymes that convert fatty acyl-CoAs or acyl-ACPs into fatty alcohols. Here, we report on the biochemical properties of a purified plant FAR, Arabidopsis FAR6 (AtFAR6). ...
Aardema Matthew L - - 2011
Cardenolides are a class of plant secondary compounds that inhibit the proper functioning of the Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase enzyme in susceptible animals. Nonetheless, many insect species are able to sequester cardenolides for their own defence. These include butterflies in the subfamily Danainae (Family: Nymphalidae) such as the monarch (Danaus ...
Aboy Ana Lúcia - - 2011
Baccharis trimera commonly named 'carqueja', is wide-spread in South America and are used as raw material for herbal medicines. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) method coupled to diode array detector was developed for the analysis of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), the main compounds responsible for its digestive activity. The identity of ...
Häkkinen Suvi T - - 2011
The aim of this study was to use whole cell catalysts as tools for modification of selected resin acids in order to obtain value-added functional derivatives. The enzymatic bioconversion capacities of two plant species were tested towards dehydroabietic acid. Dehydroabietic acid (DHA) is an abundant resin acid in conifers, representing ...
Rajamurugan R - - 2011
Profound research has been done on the medicinal value of Brassica nigra (BN) seeds, and the leaves of the plant have been investigated in this study. The methanol extracts of the leaves were subjected to several in vitro studies. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract was demonstrated with a wide range ...
Yang Hua-Meng - - 2011
The study showed that a combination of an achiral silicon-based Lewis acid and chiral Lewis base, such as iodotrimethylsilane (TMSI) and cinchonine, generated a highly enantioselective catalyst system under solvent-free conditions which gave aromatic β-amino ketones with up to >99% ee. Mechanistic studies demonstrate the enhanced asymmetric induction may be ...
Nicholson Tim M - - 2011
Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, ...
Ruan Jianyun - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Free amino acids in young tea shoots are important chemical constituents, remarkably influencing the quality of green teas. Nutrient solution, soil pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of magnesium nutritional status on accumulation and transport of free amino acids in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) ...
Skriptsova Anna V - - 2011
Sterile and reproductive tissues of five brown algae (Sargassum pallidum, Silvetia babingtonii, Fucus evanescens, Saccharina japonica, and Alaria ochotensis) from Russian Far East seas were compared for the content and monosaccharide composition of fucoidans as well as the content of laminarans and alginic acids. It was proved that reproduction has ...
Bi Linlin - - 2011
Four new oleanane type triterpenoid saponins (1-4) and a known saponin (5) were isolated from the root bark of Aralia taibaiensis Z.Z. Wang et H.C. Zheng. The structures of the four new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucurono-pyranosyl}-olean-11,13(18)-diene-28-oic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), 3-O-{β-d-gluco-pyranosyl-(1→3)-[α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl}-olean-11,13(18)-diene-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl}-oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester ...
Jernerén Fredrik - - 2011
Jasmonic acid (JA) is synthesized from linolenic acid (18:3n-3) by sequential action of 13-lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase (AOS), and allene oxide cyclase. The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae can produce large amounts of JA and was recently reported to form the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid. The objective of our study was to ...
Cretton Sylvian - - 2011
Schizanthus grahamii is an endemic Chilean plant that is known to contain tropane alkaloids. Five new alkaloids, grahamines A-E (1-5), were isolated and characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Their structures were determined to be 2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylic acid (1), 2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-tigloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylic acid (2), 1-methyl-2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylic acid (3), 1,2-bis{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylate (4), and 1-{[(3α-mesaconyloxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylate (5).
Pecchia Paola - - 2011
Several different classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and quinic acid derivatives, are found in Aster spp. (Fam. Asteraceae). Several Aster compounds revealed biological as well as pharmacological activities. In this work, a phytochemical investigation of A. caucasicus evidenced the presence of quinic acid derivatives, as well as ...
Mojarrab Mahdi - - 2011
The reversed-phase (RP) preparative HPLC analyses of the MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca yielded four prenylated coumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)coumarin (named armenin), 8-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)coumarin (named isoarmenin), lacarol, and deoxylacarol, together with five other compounds, including three flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, rutin, and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and chlorogenic acid, and tryptophan. ...
von Saint Paul Veronica - - 2011
Plants coordinate and tightly regulate pathogen defense by the mostly antagonistic salicylate (SA)- and jasmonate (JA)-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 is a novel player in this SA-JA signaling crosstalk. UGT76B1 was selected as the top stress-induced isoform among all 122 members of the ...
Bunzel Mirko - - 2011
To analyze the accuracy of the Klason lignin method as applied for the determination of lignin contents in plant based-food products, Klason lignin preparations from curly kale, pears, whole wheat grains, and corn bran were chemically characterized. Characterization included routine ash and protein determinations, the extraction of fat/waxes as well ...
Lynch Anthony H - - 2011
In archaeological studies, the isotopic enrichment values of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen give a degree of information on dietary composition. The isotopic enrichments of individual amino acids from bone collagen and dietary protein have the potential to provide more precise information about the components of diet. A limited ...
Kuhns Emily H - - 2011
Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been identified in lepidopteran larvae as elicitors of plant defenses. Plant responses include the production of primary defense compounds and induction of secondary defense strategies including attraction of parasitoid wasps. These elicitors are present despite fitness costs, suggesting that they are important for the ...
Salas Joaquín J - - 2011
Sphingolipids are a group of lipids that are derived from long chain 1,3-dihydoxy-2-amino bases and that are involved in important processes in plants. Long chain bases are usually found bound to long chain fatty acids forming ceramides, the lipophilic moiety of the most common sphingolipid classes found in plant tissues: ...
Camarano S - - 2011
Ladybird beetles produce a large number of defensive alkaloids. Previous studies suggest that the structural diversity of these endogenous alkaloids can be traced to a common biosynthetic route based on the condensation of several acetate units. In this study, adults of Epilachna paenulata, a phytophagous neotropical species, were fed on ...
Fukushima Ery O - - 2011
Triterpenoids are a diverse group of secondary metabolites that are associated with a variety of biological activities. Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and betulinic acid are common triterpenoids in plants with diverse biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial, anti-HIV, and/or antitumor activities. In the present study, using the gene co-expression analysis tool ...
Lin Long-Ze - - 2011
An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MS(n) profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the phenolic components of red mustard greens ( Brassica juncea Coss variety) and identified 67 anthocyanins, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned on the basis of direct comparison of ...
Won Christina C Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, - - 2011
Auxin is an essential hormone, but its biosynthetic routes in plants have not been fully defined. In this paper, we show that the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of amino transferases converts tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) and that the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases participates in converting IPA ...
Ye Victor M - - 2011
Driven by requirements for sustainability as well as affordability and efficiency, metabolic engineering of plants and microorganisms is increasingly being pursued to produce compounds for clinical applications. This review discusses three such examples of the clinical relevance of metabolic engineering: the production of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of ...
Könczöl Arpád - - 2011
Although Artemisia gmelinii Webb. ex Stechm. has long been used in south and south-east Asia to treat many kinds of inflammatory diseases, up until now its bioactivity-coupled phytochemical characterization has not been reported. We identified one fraction of the methanolic extract of A. gmelinii as a hit in our antioxidant ...
Shahwar Durre - - 2011
In the search of new trypsin inhibitors caffeic acid (1), cinnamic acid (2), gallic acid (3) and eugenol (4) from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, ferulic acid (5) from Impatiens bicolor, vanillin (6) from Melia azedarach and catechol (7) from Allium cepa were isolated through bioassay guided fractionation of the plant extracts. IC ...
Shetty Radhakrishna R - - 2011
Application of 3.6 mM silicon (Si+) to the rose cultivar Smart increased the concentration antimicrobial phenolic acids and flavonoids in response to infection by rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and chalcone synthase) ...
Kuga Milton Carlos - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the penetration of 2.5% NaOCl associated with 17.0% EDTA, 1.0% citric acid, and 1.0% peracetic acid into dentin tubules. STUDY DESIGN: The roots of 44 bovine incisors were cross-sectioned and 5-mm-long fragments were produced from their middle thirds. The specimens were ...
Meesapyodsuk Dauenpen - - 2011
Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) are essential components of cell membranes, and are precursors for a group of hormone-like bioactive compounds (eicosanoids and docosanoids) involved in regulation of various physiological ...
Guarnerio Chiara Francesca - - 2011
Echinacea angustifolia cell suspension cultures are usually grown and maintained in the dark, but we also exposed cells to light for one culture cycle (14 days) and then compared the metabolomes of dark-grown and illuminated cells by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among 256 signals, we putatively identified 159 molecules corresponding to 56 ...
Warren Charles R - - 2011
• The quantitative significance of amino acids to plant nutrition remains controversial. This experiment determined whether post-uptake metabolism and root to shoot export differ between glycine and glutamine, and examined implications for estimation of amino acid uptake. • Field soil containing a Eucalyptus pauciflora seedling was injected with uniformly (13) ...
Cobankara Funda Kont - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of several chelating agents on the mineral content of root dentin. STUDY DESIGN: Extracted human mandibular incisor roots were prepared and divided into groups according to the following irrigation protocols: 1) 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); 2) 10% ...
Moreno-Pérez Antonio J - - 2011
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that control the termination of intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP complexes. Among the different thioesterase gene families found in plants, the FatA-type fulfills a fundamental role in the export of the C18 fatty acid moieties that will be used to ...
Djebbar Reda - - 2011
To investigate the role of plant mitochondria in drought tolerance, the response to water deprivation was compared between Nicotiana sylvestris wild type (WT) plants and the CMSII respiratory complex I mutant, which has low-efficient respiration and photosynthesis, high levels of amino acids and pyridine nucleotides, and increased antioxidant capacity. We ...
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