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Results 251 - 300 of 1130
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Aardema Matthew L - - 2011
Cardenolides are a class of plant secondary compounds that inhibit the proper functioning of the Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase enzyme in susceptible animals. Nonetheless, many insect species are able to sequester cardenolides for their own defence. These include butterflies in the subfamily Danainae (Family: Nymphalidae) such as the monarch (Danaus ...
Aboy Ana Lúcia - - 2011
Baccharis trimera commonly named 'carqueja', is wide-spread in South America and are used as raw material for herbal medicines. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) method coupled to diode array detector was developed for the analysis of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), the main compounds responsible for its digestive activity. The identity of ...
Häkkinen Suvi T - - 2011
The aim of this study was to use whole cell catalysts as tools for modification of selected resin acids in order to obtain value-added functional derivatives. The enzymatic bioconversion capacities of two plant species were tested towards dehydroabietic acid. Dehydroabietic acid (DHA) is an abundant resin acid in conifers, representing ...
Rajamurugan R - - 2011
Profound research has been done on the medicinal value of Brassica nigra (BN) seeds, and the leaves of the plant have been investigated in this study. The methanol extracts of the leaves were subjected to several in vitro studies. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract was demonstrated with a wide range ...
Yang Hua-Meng - - 2011
The study showed that a combination of an achiral silicon-based Lewis acid and chiral Lewis base, such as iodotrimethylsilane (TMSI) and cinchonine, generated a highly enantioselective catalyst system under solvent-free conditions which gave aromatic β-amino ketones with up to >99% ee. Mechanistic studies demonstrate the enhanced asymmetric induction may be ...
Nicholson Tim M - - 2011
Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, ...
Ruan Jianyun - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Free amino acids in young tea shoots are important chemical constituents, remarkably influencing the quality of green teas. Nutrient solution, soil pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of magnesium nutritional status on accumulation and transport of free amino acids in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) ...
Skriptsova Anna V - - 2011
Sterile and reproductive tissues of five brown algae (Sargassum pallidum, Silvetia babingtonii, Fucus evanescens, Saccharina japonica, and Alaria ochotensis) from Russian Far East seas were compared for the content and monosaccharide composition of fucoidans as well as the content of laminarans and alginic acids. It was proved that reproduction has ...
Bi Linlin - - 2011
Four new oleanane type triterpenoid saponins (1-4) and a known saponin (5) were isolated from the root bark of Aralia taibaiensis Z.Z. Wang et H.C. Zheng. The structures of the four new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucurono-pyranosyl}-olean-11,13(18)-diene-28-oic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), 3-O-{β-d-gluco-pyranosyl-(1→3)-[α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl}-olean-11,13(18)-diene-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→4)]-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl}-oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester ...
Jernerén Fredrik - - 2011
Jasmonic acid (JA) is synthesized from linolenic acid (18:3n-3) by sequential action of 13-lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase (AOS), and allene oxide cyclase. The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae can produce large amounts of JA and was recently reported to form the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid. The objective of our study was to ...
Cretton Sylvian - - 2011
Schizanthus grahamii is an endemic Chilean plant that is known to contain tropane alkaloids. Five new alkaloids, grahamines A-E (1-5), were isolated and characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Their structures were determined to be 2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylic acid (1), 2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-tigloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylic acid (2), 1-methyl-2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylic acid (3), 1,2-bis{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylate (4), and 1-{[(3α-mesaconyloxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-{[(3α-hydroxytropo-6β-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-2-methyl-3-{[((6β-angeloyloxy)-3α-yl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-phenylcyclobutanecarboxylate (5).
Pecchia Paola - - 2011
Several different classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and quinic acid derivatives, are found in Aster spp. (Fam. Asteraceae). Several Aster compounds revealed biological as well as pharmacological activities. In this work, a phytochemical investigation of A. caucasicus evidenced the presence of quinic acid derivatives, as well as ...
Mojarrab Mahdi - - 2011
The reversed-phase (RP) preparative HPLC analyses of the MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia armeniaca yielded four prenylated coumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)coumarin (named armenin), 8-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)coumarin (named isoarmenin), lacarol, and deoxylacarol, together with five other compounds, including three flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, rutin, and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and chlorogenic acid, and tryptophan. ...
von Saint Paul Veronica - - 2011
Plants coordinate and tightly regulate pathogen defense by the mostly antagonistic salicylate (SA)- and jasmonate (JA)-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 is a novel player in this SA-JA signaling crosstalk. UGT76B1 was selected as the top stress-induced isoform among all 122 members of the ...
Bunzel Mirko - - 2011
To analyze the accuracy of the Klason lignin method as applied for the determination of lignin contents in plant based-food products, Klason lignin preparations from curly kale, pears, whole wheat grains, and corn bran were chemically characterized. Characterization included routine ash and protein determinations, the extraction of fat/waxes as well ...
Lynch Anthony H - - 2011
In archaeological studies, the isotopic enrichment values of carbon and nitrogen in bone collagen give a degree of information on dietary composition. The isotopic enrichments of individual amino acids from bone collagen and dietary protein have the potential to provide more precise information about the components of diet. A limited ...
Kuhns Emily H - - 2011
Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been identified in lepidopteran larvae as elicitors of plant defenses. Plant responses include the production of primary defense compounds and induction of secondary defense strategies including attraction of parasitoid wasps. These elicitors are present despite fitness costs, suggesting that they are important for the ...
Salas Joaquín J - - 2011
Sphingolipids are a group of lipids that are derived from long chain 1,3-dihydoxy-2-amino bases and that are involved in important processes in plants. Long chain bases are usually found bound to long chain fatty acids forming ceramides, the lipophilic moiety of the most common sphingolipid classes found in plant tissues: ...
Camarano S - - 2011
Ladybird beetles produce a large number of defensive alkaloids. Previous studies suggest that the structural diversity of these endogenous alkaloids can be traced to a common biosynthetic route based on the condensation of several acetate units. In this study, adults of Epilachna paenulata, a phytophagous neotropical species, were fed on ...
Fukushima Ery O - - 2011
Triterpenoids are a diverse group of secondary metabolites that are associated with a variety of biological activities. Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and betulinic acid are common triterpenoids in plants with diverse biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial, anti-HIV, and/or antitumor activities. In the present study, using the gene co-expression analysis tool ...
Lin Long-Ze - - 2011
An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MS(n) profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the phenolic components of red mustard greens ( Brassica juncea Coss variety) and identified 67 anthocyanins, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned on the basis of direct comparison of ...
Won Christina C Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, - - 2011
Auxin is an essential hormone, but its biosynthetic routes in plants have not been fully defined. In this paper, we show that the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of amino transferases converts tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) and that the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases participates in converting IPA ...
Ye Victor M - - 2011
Driven by requirements for sustainability as well as affordability and efficiency, metabolic engineering of plants and microorganisms is increasingly being pursued to produce compounds for clinical applications. This review discusses three such examples of the clinical relevance of metabolic engineering: the production of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of ...
Könczöl Arpád - - 2011
Although Artemisia gmelinii Webb. ex Stechm. has long been used in south and south-east Asia to treat many kinds of inflammatory diseases, up until now its bioactivity-coupled phytochemical characterization has not been reported. We identified one fraction of the methanolic extract of A. gmelinii as a hit in our antioxidant ...
Shahwar Durre - - 2011
In the search of new trypsin inhibitors caffeic acid (1), cinnamic acid (2), gallic acid (3) and eugenol (4) from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, ferulic acid (5) from Impatiens bicolor, vanillin (6) from Melia azedarach and catechol (7) from Allium cepa were isolated through bioassay guided fractionation of the plant extracts. IC ...
Shetty Radhakrishna R - - 2011
Application of 3.6 mM silicon (Si+) to the rose cultivar Smart increased the concentration antimicrobial phenolic acids and flavonoids in response to infection by rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and chalcone synthase) ...
Kuga Milton Carlos - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the penetration of 2.5% NaOCl associated with 17.0% EDTA, 1.0% citric acid, and 1.0% peracetic acid into dentin tubules. STUDY DESIGN: The roots of 44 bovine incisors were cross-sectioned and 5-mm-long fragments were produced from their middle thirds. The specimens were ...
Meesapyodsuk Dauenpen - - 2011
Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) are essential components of cell membranes, and are precursors for a group of hormone-like bioactive compounds (eicosanoids and docosanoids) involved in regulation of various physiological ...
Guarnerio Chiara Francesca - - 2011
Echinacea angustifolia cell suspension cultures are usually grown and maintained in the dark, but we also exposed cells to light for one culture cycle (14 days) and then compared the metabolomes of dark-grown and illuminated cells by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among 256 signals, we putatively identified 159 molecules corresponding to 56 ...
Warren Charles R - - 2011
• The quantitative significance of amino acids to plant nutrition remains controversial. This experiment determined whether post-uptake metabolism and root to shoot export differ between glycine and glutamine, and examined implications for estimation of amino acid uptake. • Field soil containing a Eucalyptus pauciflora seedling was injected with uniformly (13) ...
Cobankara Funda Kont - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of several chelating agents on the mineral content of root dentin. STUDY DESIGN: Extracted human mandibular incisor roots were prepared and divided into groups according to the following irrigation protocols: 1) 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); 2) 10% ...
Moreno-Pérez Antonio J - - 2011
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that control the termination of intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP complexes. Among the different thioesterase gene families found in plants, the FatA-type fulfills a fundamental role in the export of the C18 fatty acid moieties that will be used to ...
Djebbar Reda - - 2011
To investigate the role of plant mitochondria in drought tolerance, the response to water deprivation was compared between Nicotiana sylvestris wild type (WT) plants and the CMSII respiratory complex I mutant, which has low-efficient respiration and photosynthesis, high levels of amino acids and pyridine nucleotides, and increased antioxidant capacity. We ...
Abdelkafi Fatma - - 2011
Alfa grass lignin obtained by the acetic acid/formic acid/water CIMV pulping process was characterized by FTIR and (1)H, (13)C-(1)H 2D HSQC, and (31)P NMR spectroscopies. Lignin samples purified by further dissolution/precipitation or basic hydrolysis steps were also analyzed. The CIMV alfa lignin is a mixture of low molar mass compounds ...
Xu Xiao-Yu - - 2011
Nine compounds were isolated from the leaves of Anthocephalus chinensis by column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques as clethric acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), mussaendoside T (2), β-stigmasterol (3), hederagenin (4), ursolic acid (5), clethric acid (6), 3β,6β,19α,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), mussaendoside I ...
Tsuda Hirohisa - - 2012
During the investigation of the metabolism of (14)C-acetate or (14)C-succinate in rice seedlings, an unknown organic acid (X) with a high specific radioactivity was detected in 10,000 × g 30 min precipitate-fraction of rice roots. The X was hardly extracted by 0.1 N-H(2)SO(4) boiling, but was extracted by 0.5 N-KOH boiling. The X was co-chromatographed ...
CieĊ›lik Ewa - - 2011
Introduction. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered ...
Hanh Tran Thi Hong - - 2011
To identify inhibitors of nitric oxide production and NF-κB activity from Chromolaena odorata (C. odorata). The compounds isolated from the aerial parts of C. odorata by bioassay-guided fractionation were investigated for their inhibitory effects on the NO production and NF-κB activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Six fatty acids (S)-coriolic acid ...
Nabais Cristina - - 2011
This work aimed to compare the allocation of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, amino acids and sugars in different fractions of root cells of Paspalum notatum with 21 and 120 days old grown in quartz sand. In general younger roots showed a higher content of Al, Fe, Cu Ni, amino acids ...
Ochieng' Charles O - - 2011
The chloroform and ethyl acetate extract (100mg/kg) of Caesalpinia volkensii H. exhibited significant (P≤0.05) antinociceptive activities using hot plate and writhing tests in mice while the later showed antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 0.23±0.07 and 4.39±2.49μg/ml) against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2), respectively. Two new furanoditerpenes [rel. 1β,5α-dihydroxyvoucapane (1) and rel. ...
Reboul Rebecca - - 2011
UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGD) plays a key role in the nucleotide sugar biosynthetic pathway, as its product UDP-glucuronic acid is the common precursor for arabinose, xylose, galacturonic acid, and apiose residues found in the cell wall. In this study we characterize an Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant ugd2,3 that lacks two of ...
Selvakumar Jayaraman - - 2011
Activation of imide carbonyl group with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid facilitates the intramolecular cyclization of phenethylphthalimides to give a fused isoindoloisoquinolinone skeleton. The first one pot regioselective synthesis of isoindoloisoquinolinone alkaloid (±)-nuevamine has been successfully executed using this methodology.
Grechkin Alexander N - - 2011
The allene oxide synthase (AOS) pathway is widespread in plants. Its products, such as cyclopentenone 12-oxo-10,15-phytodienoic acid (12-oxo-PDA) and related jasmonates, play important biological roles in plants. We found that 12-oxo-PDA in some plant tissues co-occur with an unknown minor oxylipin 1. In vitro incubations of AOSs with α-linolenic acid ...
Teichmann Beate - - 2011
Flocculosin and ustilagic acid (UA), two highly similar antifungal cellobiose lipids, are respectively produced by Pseudozyma flocculosa, a biocontrol agent, and Ustilago maydis, a plant pathogen. Both glycolipids contain a short-chain fatty acid hydroxylated at the β position but differ in the long fatty acid, which is hydroxylated at the ...
Fait Aaron - - 2011
In seeds, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) operates at the metabolic nexus between carbon and nitrogen metabolism by catalyzing the unidirectional decarboxylation of glutamate to form γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To elucidate the regulatory role of GAD in seed development, we generated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants expressing a truncated GAD from Petunia ...
Liu Dongping - - 2011
Src homology-2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (Shp2), a novel proto-oncogenic protein, is an important target in cancer therapy research. Approximately 2000 plant extracts were screened to find its natural specific inhibitors, with the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) active extract of the root of Angelica dahurica showing considerable inhibitory effects (IC(50)=21.6mg/L). Bioguided ...
Bocianowski Jan - - 2012
One of the goals in oilseed rape programs is to develop genotypes producing oil with low linolenic acid content (C18:3, ≤3%). Low linolenic mutant lines of canola rapeseed were obtained via chemical mutagenesis at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute - NRI, in Poznan, Poland, and allele-specific SNP markers were ...
Sayanova Olga - - 2011
The role of acyl-CoA-dependent Δ6-desaturation in the heterologous synthesis of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was systematically evaluated in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana. The acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturase from the picoalga Ostreococcus tauri and orthologous activities from mouse (Mus musculus) and salmon (Salmo salar) were shown to generate substantial levels of ...
Watanabe Masayuki - - 2011
The glucosylceramide components were characterized in the 33 species of the grass family (Poaceae). Pooideae contained 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenines [i.e., t18:1(8Z) plus t18:1(8E)] as major components, the relative levels of t18:1(8Z) being higher than those of the 8-E isomers. 2-Hydroxy arachidic acid was a major component in all species other than Pooideae, ...
Gillies Peter J - - 2011
Omega-3 fatty acid research, which began as an epidemiologic curiosity, has generated perhaps the strongest dataset for any nutrient in regard to cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Although once a relatively descriptive field, advances in analytic techniques have opened up the biochemistry of omega-3 fatty acids and nutritional genomics in plants ...
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