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Oura Takahiro - - 2004
Fungi, like plants, are capable of producing the 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. These fatty acids are synthesized by catalytic reactions of Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid desaturases. This paper describes the first cloning and functional characterization of a yeast omega3 fatty acid desaturase gene. The ...
Tso P - - 2004
This article reviews our current understanding of the uptake of fatty acids by the enterocytes of the intestine. The micellar solubilization of fatty acids by bile salts and the factors regulating that process are discussed. The mechanism of how micellar solubilization of fatty acids promotes the uptake of fatty acids ...
Jump Donald B - - 2004
Dietary fat has a dual role in human physiology: a) it functions as a source of energy and structural components for cells; b) it functions as a regulator of gene expression that impacts lipid, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, as well as cell growth and differentiation. Fatty acid effects on gene ...
Frayn K N - - 2003
Glucose and fatty acids are the major fuels for mammalian metabolism and it is clearly essential that mechanisms exist for mutual co-ordination of their utilization. The glucose-fatty acid cycle, as it was proposed in 1963, describes one set of mechanisms by which carbohydrate and fat metabolism interact. Since that time, ...
Cooney D J - - 2003
In previous studies micronized disodium fluorescein (DF) powders were coated with lauric or capric acid. This was a precursor to evaluating the effects of the fatty acids on the hygroscopic growth of the DF aerosols. Studies of the association of fatty acids with DF reflected a limited interpretation of the ...
Carucci L R - - 2003
The most common imaging appearance of the pancreas in cystic fibrosis is diffuse, complete fatty replacement. We present a case of complete fatty replacement of the pancreatic body and tail with total sparing of the pancreatic head. To our knowledge, this pattern of fatty sparing and its associated computed tomographic ...
Wang Yiping - - 2003
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate if fatty acids can increase the iontophoretic delivery of midodrine hydrochloride through human dermatomed skin and to observe the effects of iontophoresis and fatty acids on skin using SEM. METHODS: After prehydration for 1 h, human dermatomed skin was treated with ...
Khan Seher A - - 2003
Long chain fatty acids, derived either from endogenous metabolism or by nutritional sources play significant roles in important biological processes of membrane structure, production of biologically active compounds, and participation in cellular signaling processes. Recently, the structure of dietary fatty acids has become an important issue in human health because ...
O'Neill S - - 2003
Cardiac arrhythmias can be triggered from ischaemic cardiac muscle due to the damage inflicted on individual myocytes. During an ischaemic episode free fatty acids accumulate in the ischaemic tissue. The importance of these fatty acids lies in the apparent ability of some classes of fatty acid to protect against cardiac ...
Harnack Lisa - - 2003
In this study, we examine trends in dietary intake of trans-fatty acids from 1980-1982 to 1995-1997 using data collected as part of the Minnesota Heart Survey (MHS). The MHS is an ongoing observational epidemiologic study among independent cross-sectional probability samples of adults. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected on a subset ...
Wolfram G - - 2003
Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between fat intake, especially saturated and trans fatty acids, plasma cholesterol levels and rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Meanwhile it is clear, that early atherosclerosis is largely preventable by modifying nutritional behaviour and lifestyle. There is clear evidence that a diet ...
Pownall H J - - 2003
Fatty acid transport is an important process in cellular energy distribution and storage in both normal and pathological states, especially obesity-linked type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fatty acid transport has been studied by the complementary approaches of cell biology and biophysics. According to the latter approach, specific proteins that enhance the ...
- - 2003
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on nutrition labeling to require that trans fatty acids be declared in the nutrition label of conventional foods and dietary supplements on a separate line immediately under the line for the declaration of saturated fatty acids. This action responds, in ...
Muth Alexandra - - 2003
The determination of placental fatty acid metabolism using stable isotope-labeled tracers was investigated in the human placental choriocarcinoma (JAR) cell line. Stable isotope incorporation was measured by MDGC-MS. The cultured trophoblast cells incorporated and metabolized the essential fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The described method enables the detection ...
Papina M - - 2003
We compared the fatty acid composition of the host-coral Montipora digitata with the fatty acid composition in the coral's endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Fatty acids as methyl esters were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and verified by GC-mass spectrometry. We found the main difference between the fatty acids in the host ...
Broadfield Emma - - 2003
There are few validated methods of measuring dietary fatty acid intake that are suitable for epidemiological research. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to measure individual dietary fatty acid intakes against 7 d weighed dietary records, in a sample of ...
Wang Tong - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To develop an accurate new method to measure the partitioning of adipocyte endogenous fatty acids among different metabolic pathways, a critical step toward understanding the regulatory mechanism by which fat disposition is modulated. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Isolated primary rat adipocytes were pre-incubated with isotope-labeled fatty acids. This allows ...
Irie Hiroshi - - 2003
Long-chain fatty acid uptake, which provides a large part of myocardial energy, is impaired in human and murine hearts deficient in the membrane fatty acid translocase, FAT/CD36. We examined myocardial function in CD36-null mice using the working heart. Fatty acid oxidation and stores of glycogen, triglycerides, and ATP were reduced ...
Dewhurst R J - - 2003
The declining consumption of ruminant products has been partly associated with their high proportion (but not necessarily content) of saturated fatty acids. Recent studies have focused on the less prominent fact that they are also important sources of beneficial fatty acids, including n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids. alpha-Linolenic ...
Wahle Klaus W J - - 2003
Over the last 30 years it has become apparent that specific dietary fatty acids are capable of regulating, either directly or indirectly through various signal pathways, the expression of numerous genes, either positively or negatively. Such nutrient-gene interactions have important effects on cell metabolism, differentiation and growth, and ultimately on ...
Ge Lan - - 2003
Delta-6 desaturase, also known as fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that converts the essential fatty acids linoleate and alpha-linolenate into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Isolation of Delta-6 desaturase/FADS2 cDNA from human skin predicts an identical protein to that expressed in human brain and ...
Sloof G W - - 2003
Intact perfusion, preserved metabolism of free fatty acids and glucose, and the presence of contractile reserve have been used as markers of viable myocardium. However, not all viable myocardium may exhibit all these characteristics. Accordingly, these features were evaluated in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. ...
Surh Jeonghee - - 2003
Seasonal variations of fatty acids in various Korean shellfish were investigated in relation to the changes in total fatty acids contents, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (P/S), and that of n-3 fatty acids to n-6 fatty acids (n-3/n-6). A distinct seasonal pattern was found in ...
Triantafillou Dimitrios - - 2003
The fatty acid composition, including trans-fatty acids, of 15 margarine samples from the Greek market was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Saturated, cis-monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found in the ranges of 24.1-53.3%, 15.5-50.3%, and 14.3-50.2% of total fatty acids, respectively. The trans-fatty acid content of Greek margarines varied ...
Lada Aaron T - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to evaluate recent findings concerning dietary fats and the risk of coronary heart disease. Monounsaturated fatty acids are often regarded as healthy, and many have recommended their consumption instead of saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Support for the benefits of monounsaturated fatty ...
Pravenec M - - 2003
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NIH strain) harbor a deletion variant in the Cd36 fatty acid transporter and display defective fatty acid metabolism, insulin resistance and hypertension. Transgenic rescue of Cd36 in SHR ameliorates insulin resistance and improves dyslipidemia. However, the role of Cd36 in blood pressure regulation remains controversial due to ...
Vicario Isabel M - - 2003
The fatty acid compositions of 39 brands of cookies and bakery products were analyzed with special attention to the their trans-fatty acid content. The average contents (percent w/w of the total fatty acids detected) for the different nutritional fractions were as follows: saturated fatty acids (SFA), 49.43% (SD = 17.04); ...
Lima T M - - 2002
The fatty acids have an important role in the control of leukocyte metabolism and function. Higher concentrations of certain fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and volatile fatty acids, can cause cell death via apoptosis or, when concentrations are greater, necrosis. In this study, we determined the highest concentrations ...
William W N WN - - 2002
Leptin directly increases the rate of exogenous glucose and fatty acids oxidation in isolated adipocytes. However, the effects of leptin on fatty acid metabolism in white adipose tIssue have not been examined in detail. Here, we report that in adipocytes incubated for 6 h in the presence of leptin (10 ...
Arab Lenore - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review the various biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty adds in human populations, their measurement, limitations and analytical considerations. DESIGN:Review of the literature. RESULTS: Although there is no good biomarker of intake of total fat, a number of alternatives exist for assessing the intakes of exogenously produced fatty ...
Baggio Bruno - - 2002
Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence suggests that fatty acids may have an effect (due to their chemical structure) on calcium metabolism in animals and man. Fatty acid deficiency in animals can lead to a loss of bone calcium and matrix, resulting in marked bone demineralization, and treatment with a mixture ...
Saevik B K - - 2002
Fatty acids are increasingly used in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis and their beneficial effects are documented in several prospective, controlled studies. Results from recent studies have indicated that atopic dogs have disordered fat metabolism, due to decreased desaturase activity. To further clarify these possible abnormalities, we examined serum ...
Zank Thorsten K - - 2002
The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high proportions of polyunsaturated very-long-chain fatty acids with up to 20 carbon atoms. Starting from preformed C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids, their biosynthesis involves a sequence of Delta6-desaturation, Delta6-elongation and Delta5-desaturation. In this report we describe for the first time the characterisation of a cDNA (PSE1) ...
Chen Hubert C - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in modulating glucose metabolism. Recent models of mice with disruptions in genes involved in cellular fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism have provided insight into the long recognized but incompletely understood relationship between fatty acid metabolism and glucose metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: ...
Dembitsky Valery M - - 2002
A comprehensive survey has been made of all fatty acids containing halogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon and which are deemed as naturally occurring. Generally thought to be minor components produced by many different organisms, these interesting compounds now number more than 300. Recent research, especially in the marine area, ...
Glatz Jan F C - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle metabolic energy, needed to maintain contractile activity, is mainly obtained from glucose and long-chain fatty acids. Recent studies have revealed a remarkable parallel between the regulation of uptake of glucose and fatty acids by muscle, in that each is mediated by sarcolemmal transporters that are ...
Fang Jiasong - - 2002
A combined molecular and isotopic approach was used in this study to reveal the source and transport of aerosols at a remote oceanic site. Fatty acid distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids were determined in the aerosol samples collected at Chichi-Jima in the western North Pacific ...
Freites Luis - - 2002
Fatty acid profiles of seeds of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis originating from two habitats (rocky shore and subtidal) were compared after transfer to the same habitat (subtidal). The objective was to study the initial levels of different fatty acids of metabolic importance and, furthermore, the variability of these fatty acids ...
Laaksonen D E - - 2002
AIMS: Dietary fatty acid intake is reflected in serum fatty acid composition. Studies prospectively investigating serum fatty acids and development of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM) are largely lacking. We assessed the association of serum fatty acid composition with development of IFG or DM. METHODS: Middle-aged normoglycaemic ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2002
Very-long-chain and multibranched polyunsaturated fatty acids of three freshwater sponges, Ephydatia syriaca, Nudospongilla sp., and Cortispongilla barroisi, were studied by silver TLC, GC-MS, UV, IR, HRMS, and NMR methods. One hundred and eighty-five conventional fatty acids were identified by GC-MS, out of which five were new multibranched polyunsaturated fatty acids. ...
Gravena C - - 2002
Fatty acids have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on insulin secretion. Long-term exposure to fatty acids results in impaired insulin secretion whilst acute exposure has generally been found to enhance insulin release. However, there are conflicting data in the literature as to the relative efficacy of various fatty acids and ...
Boshoff Helena I - - 2002
The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during ...
Haggarty Paul - - 2002
More than 90 per cent of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy during which it increases exponentially to reach a rate of accretion of around 7 g/day close to term. All of the n -3 and n -6 fatty acid structure acquired ...
Wright T C - - 2002
Supplemental fat fed to dairy cows affects the fat composition of milk by reducing the yield of mammary synthesized fatty acids. The effect has been attributed to a potential allosteric inhibition of acetyl coenzyme-A, a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. In vitro experiments have demonstrated an inhibition of fatty ...
Conklin Kenneth A - - 2002
Preclinical studies have shown that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids may actually enhance the cytotoxicity of several antineoplastic agents and the anticancer effects of radiotherapy. These effects are possibly mediated by incorporation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids into cancer cell membranes, thus altering the physical and functional properties. In addition, certain ...
Liu Binqiu - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human type I fatty acid synthase has been proposed as a chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer based on the inactivation of human beta-ketoacyl synthase activity by cerulenin. Triclosan, a common antibiotic, functions by inhibiting the enoyl-reductase enzymes of type II fatty acid synthases in ...
Benson R S P - - 2002
Fatty acids induce cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion both in humans and from murine enteroendocrine cell lines. In both cases, only fatty acids above a critical acyl chain length (C(10)) are capable of inducing a response. Using the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1, the aim of this study was to determine whether this ...
Moon H - - 2001
Lesquerella fendleri seed oil contains up to 60% hydroxy fatty acids, nearly all of which is the 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acid lesquerolic acid (D-14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic acid). Previous work suggested that lesquerolic acid in L. fendleri was formed by the elongation of the 18-carbon hydroxy fatty acid, ricinoleic acid. To identify a ...
Schrauwen P - - 2001
The physiological function of the human uncoupling protein 3 UCP3, which was discovered in 1997, is unknown. Here we evaluate the available data on human UCP3 expression and show that UCP3 is up-regulated in situations where fatty acid delivery to the mitochondria exceeds oxidative capacity, whereas down-regulation of UCP3 is ...
Larqué E - - 2001
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double trans configuration, resulting in a more rigid molecule close to a saturated fatty acid. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, and in hydrogenated oils; margarines, shortenings and baked goods contain relatively high levels of trans ...
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