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Visser F C - - 2001
The heart metabolizes a wide variety of substrates such as free fatty acids, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies and amino acids, but under normal conditions, free fatty acids and glucose are the major sources of energy. In contrast, in ischaemia with less than normal delivery of oxygen, oxidative metabolism of ...
Hayes K C - - 2001
It has been suggested that the molecular species or structure of the triglyceride, i.e. not only what fatty acids are present but also their relative order in the sn1, 2, or 3 position on the triglyceride, can influence the metabolism of the triglyceride and its fatty acids, including lipoprotein metabolism. ...
Nasser J A - - 2001
Recent studies with rat taste cells treated with polyunsaturated fatty acids suggest that fatty acids may play a role in dietary fat perception. In humans, sensitivity to the textural properties of fat is associated with the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound 6-N-2-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, it has not been ...
Agren J J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The affinity of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP) for fatty acids is regulated by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene (alanine-to-threonine shift). We found earlier that the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) is associated with an increased postprandial lipemic response. OBJECTIVE: We studied the postprandial responses of ...
Boger D L - - 2000
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), also referred to as oleamide hydrolase and anandamide amidohydrolase, is a serine hydrolase responsible for the degradation of endogenous oleamide and anandamide, fatty acid amides that function as chemical messengers. FAAH hydrolyzes a range of fatty acid amides, and the present study examines the relative ...
Freeman V L - - 2000
PURPOSE: The consumption of various fatty acids has been associated with advanced stage and fatal prostate cancer. While numerous mechanisms have been postulated, to our knowledge there physiological data linking exposure and prognosis in humans are lacking. We examined prostatic levels of individual fatty acids in relation to the prevalence ...
Burdge G C - - 2000
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a critical role in the structure and function of the developing nervous system. It has been proposed that fatty acids may effect a variety of biologic processes through the activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs)-ligand activated transcription factors. In this report, we demonstrate that ...
Wältermann M - - 2000
The in vivo effects of sterculic acid methyl ester on triacylglycerol fatty acid composition in the oleaginous, hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium R. opacus strain PD630 was investigated. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid and an inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system, strongly inhibited the synthesis of monoenic fatty acids, of saturated fatty ...
Raitakari O T - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: We sought to study the effects of a fatty meal on vascular reactivity, including endothelial function and maximal vasodilation. BACKGROUND: Recent reports regarding the physiological changes in peripheral vasculature after eating a fatty meal have been controversial. METHODS: Twelve volunteers were studied before, 3 h after, and 6 h ...
Taylor K E - - 2000
There is mounting evidence that developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder which involves abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism, particularly with respect to certain long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Psychophysical evidence also strongly suggests that dyslexics may have visual deficits as well as phonological problems. Specifically, these visual deficits appear ...
Hertzel A V - - 2000
Intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins associate with fatty acids and other hydrophobic biomolecules in an internal cavity, providing for solubilization and metabolic trafficking. Analyses of their in vivo function by molecular and genetic techniques reveal specific function(s) that fatty acid-binding proteins perform with respect to fatty acid uptake, oxidation and overall ...
Katan M B - - 2000
Perceptions of the health effects of trans fatty acids, particularly in the form of margarine, have undergone several changes during the past 10 years. What was once heralded as the healthy alternative to butter now assumes the role of coconspirator. A new study finds that consumption of trans fatty acids, ...
Joachim A - - 2000
Total methylated fatty acid patterns of various developmental stages (third-stage larvae (L3), L3 and fourth-stage larvae (L4) cultured in vitro, L4 and female and male adults derived from intestinal contents) of the porcine nodular worms Oesophagostomum dentatum and Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum and their cultivation medium were analysed by gas chromatography using ...
Lichtenstein A H - - 2000
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration. In the diet they occur at relatively low levels in meat and dairy products as a by-product of fermentation in ruminant animals or in hydrogenated fats as a consequence of the hydrogenation ...
Kuhajda F P - - 2000
This review documents the changing perspectives on the function of fatty-acid synthase and fatty-acid synthesis in human tumor biology. With the recent discovery that human cancer cells express high levels of fatty-acid synthase and undergo significant endogenous fatty-acid synthesis, our understanding of the role of fatty acids in tumor biology ...
Van Der Lee K A - - 2000
Fatty acids are thought to play a role in the activity of uncoupling proteins (UCP) and have been shown to regulate the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid handling. Therefore, we investigated whether fatty acids, which are the main substrates for the heart, affect rat cardiac UCP-2 ...
Gao J - - 2000
Adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) is a 50-kDa protein expressed in adipocytes and transcriptionally activated when adipocyte precursors differentiate into mature adipocytes. Recent experiments have demonstrated that ADRP is a fatty acid binding protein that specifically facilitates the uptake of long-chain fatty acids. The present investigation provides evidence that ADRP ...
Doi A - - 2000
We encountered a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Exercise-stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin imaging demonstrated reversible ischemia in the lateral wall, whereas resting fatty acid imaging with a new beta-methyl branched fatty acid analogue, I-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-9-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (123I-9-MPA), showed impaired uptake and accelerated washout kinetics in the inferoapical and posteroseptal ...
Murakami Y - - 2000
The chloroplast membrane of higher plants contains an unusually high concentration of trienoic fatty acids. Plants grown in colder temperatures have a higher content of trienoic fatty acids. Transgenic tobacco plants in which the gene encoding chloroplast omega-3 fatty acid desaturase, which synthesizes trienoic fatty acids, was silenced contained a ...
Kim P - - 2000
When the concentration of the antibiotic cerulenin was increased up to 3.0 mg/l in medium containing ethanol as a carbon source, the specific growth rate of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and the fatty acid content of the emulsan decreased from 0.179 h(-1) and 13.9% to 0.015 h(-1) and 3.4%, respectively. The emulsifying ...
Biderre C - - 2000
The fatty acid composition of four microsporidian species (Glugea atherinae, Spraguea lophii, Glugea americanus, and Pleistophora mirandellae) and their host fishes has been determined using gas chromatography. Twenty-four fatty acids were identified with differences in relative abundance of fatty acids among the four parasites. Certain even-saturated fatty acids were found ...
Hwang D - - 2000
Dietary essential fatty acids are the precursors for eicosanoids. Among the eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, prostaglandin (PG) E2 is known to possess immunosuppressive actions. Thus, it has been a prevailing hypothesis that the immuno-modulatory roles of dietary fatty acids are mediated at least in part through the alteration of ...
Salo P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether replacing a proportion of saturated fat with vegetable oils in the diet of young children increases trans fatty acid intake. STUDY DESIGN: Dietary counseling aimed to reach a dietary fat ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat of 2:1 within a total fat intake of 30% to ...
Hussein A - - 1999
A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chlamydia psittaci PK 5082 strain associated with enzootic abortion in ewes was isolated from embryonated hen eggs-grown elementary bodies (EBs) by a phenol/water procedure. Compositional analyses revealed the presence of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo), glucosamine (GlcN), phosphorus, and fatty acids in a molar ratio of 2.6:2.0:2.4:4.4. GlcN ...
Lovejoy J C - - 1999
High-fat diets have been associated with insulin resistance, a risk factor for both Type II diabetes and heart disease. The effect of dietary fat on insulin varies depending on the type of fatty acid consumed. Saturated fatty acids have been consistently associated with insulin resistance. On the other hand, medium ...
Irie M - - 1999
Spectroscopy using four types of fiberoptic probes and a sensor at wavelengths of 400 to 1,100 nm was evaluated to assess porcine fat quality. The shapes of the spectrum for the leaf fat with white color and various firmnesses differed with the type of probe: surface, contact, insertion, or transmittance. ...
Jezek P - - 1999
The phenomena of fatty acid interaction with mitochondrial integral membrane proteins, namely uncoupling proteins (UCPs), are reviewed to emphasize the fatty acid cycling mechanism that has been suggested to explain the UCP function. Fatty acid-induced uncoupling is suggested to serve in bioenergetic systems, to set the optimum efficiency, and to ...
Grimsgaard S - - 1999
The role of individual fatty acids in blood pressure regulation is unclear. We studied the cross-sectional relationship of blood pressure, total plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentrations, and proportions of individual fatty acids among participants in a population study. Blood pressure was measured automatically, and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were determined ...
Ferré P - - 1999
Fatty acid synthase (EC 2.3.1.85) is an enzyme involved in the lipogenic pathway allowing fatty acid synthesis from glucose. Glucose up-regulates the transcription of the fatty acid synthase gene in both adipocytes and hepatocytes, with insulin having only an indirect role. The signal metabolite could be glucose-6-phosphate rather than glucose ...
Zelles L - - 1999
Fatty acid profiles obtained from single cultured organisms have been used to estimate which taxonomic groups are actually represented. The lipid extraction was modified to liberate fatty acids with ester-linkages, as well as those with non-ester-linkages and classify them in different chemically relevant groups. The discriminatory power of fatty acids, ...
Hasegawa N - - 1999
Lean tuna meat suspensions (LEAN), with a fat content of 0.006%, and fatty tuna meat suspension (FATTY), with a fat content of 3.0% were inoculated with four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) or allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added before incubation at 37 degrees C. During the ...
Sparagna G C - - 1999
Fatty acids are the primary source of energy in the adult heart. Recently, however, it was discovered that certain saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate and stearate, cause cardiac and other types of cells to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). In cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, where blood flow is blocked and ...
Elliott J P - - 1999
Five steers (mean BW 526 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 5 x 6 Youden square design with 14-d periods. Diets contained chopped alfalfa hay, corn silage, and concentrate (25:35:40, DM basis). Treatments were 1) control (no added fat); 2) tallow (T), iodine value ...
Corbett J R - - 1999
Radioiodinated free fatty acids are tracers that can be used to assess both myocardial perfusion and metabolism. There have been several fatty acids and structurally modified fatty acids studied since Evans' initial report of radiolabeled I-123 oleic acid in 1965. The radiolabeling of a phenyl group added to the long ...
Innis S M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Currently, the published information on trans fatty acid composition of foods is incomplete and of questionable accuracy. Detailed fatty acid analysis of over 200 foods was undertaken for the purpose of determining the variability in trans fatty acid content among foods within a product category, and the significance of ...
Higgins S - - 1999
Muntjac cells were cultured at 5 X 10(5) cells/10 cm Petri dish for 24 h prior to addition of fatty acids (50 microM) which were delivered to the cells complexed with 2% bovine serum albumin (fatty acid-free) and incubated for a further 24 h. Parallel dishes were processed for lipid ...
Parcerisa J - - 1999
Fifteen samples of the most common industrial bakery products sold in Spain were analyzed for their fatty acid composition. Saturated fatty acids occurred in the largest proportions in all samples (mean = 52.8%), followed by monounsaturated (mean = 23.5%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (mean = 17.2%). A small percentage of ...
Crawford T O - - 1999
Our previous experience with abnormal fatty acid metabolism in several children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) prompted evaluation of fatty acid metabolism in a larger cohort. Thirty-three infants with severe infantile SMA were shown to have a significantly increased ratio of dodecanoic to tetradecanoic acid in plasma compared with normal ...
Sidossis L S - - 1999
The effects of combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body, splanchnic, and leg fatty acid metabolism were determined in five volunteers. Catheters were placed in a femoral artery and vein and a hepatic vein. U-13C-labeled fatty acids were infused, once in the basal state and, on a different occasion, during infusion of ...
Worgall T S - - 1999
Fatty acids are a major constituent of dietary fats and form an integral part of the cellular membrane and lipoproteins. The gene regulatory potential of fatty acids has long been recognized, but the precise regulatory mechanisms are unknown. The regulatory ability of fatty acids on the expression of a number ...
Bernlohr D A - - 1999
The insolubility of fatty acids in cellular environments requires that specific trafficking mechanisms be developed to vectorally orient and deliver lipids for cellular needs. The roles of putative membrane bound fatty acid transporters and soluble carrier proteins are discussed in terms of mechanisms of fatty acid trafficking. The numerous roles ...
Vanden Heuvel J P - - 1999
It has been known for many years that long-chain fatty acids derived from endogenous metabolism and/or nutrition can act as second messengers and regulators of cell signaling pathways. For example, fatty acids regulate the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in a mechanism distinct from activation by diacylglycerol. Like PKC ...
Hulshof K F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids ...
Allison D B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mean level of trans fatty acid intakes using a representative sample of the US population. DESIGN: The study used food intake data from the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and the trans fatty acid contents of specific foods calculated from a database compiled ...
Gibney M J - - 1999
Quantitative dietary guidelines for fats were first issued in 1977 in the USA and these guidelines have changed little since then. In the UK only 14% of the population achieve the dietary goal for fat (33% energy) and only 3% achieve the target (10% energy) from saturated fatty acids. Analysis ...
Muszbek L - - 1999
The goals of this investigation were, first, to develop a chemical strategy to identify and quantitate the mass of fatty acid which is covalently bound to proteins by thioester linkage in unactivated platelets, and, second, to determine whether exogeneously added fatty acids can alter the fatty acid composition of thioester ...
Valenzuela A - - 1999
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration. These fatty acids occur naturally in dairy and other natural fats and in some plants. However, industrial hydrogenation of vegetable or marine oils is largely the main source of trans fatty acids in ...
King J M - - 1999
Trans fatty acids are formed during hydrogenation which is done to improve the functionality and oxidative stability of oils. Several process conditions affect the content of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated oil. There is conflicting evidence as to whether intake of trans fatty acids, in foods such as margarine, affects ...
Farmer E E - - 1998
Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a ...
Fagot-Campagna A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: An inconsistent relationship has been reported between insulin and hypertension incidence. Free fatty acids are related to insulin-resistance and may have a direct effect on hypertension. We examined the effect of free fatty acids on hypertension incidence, taking into account other abnormalities of the insulin-resistance syndrome. METHODS: In all, ...
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