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Sintov Amnon - - 2006
The development of topical and transdermal drug delivery systems has aimed at overcoming the remarkably efficient barrier property of human skin by nontoxic and nonirritant methods. Numerous chemical and physical approaches have been investigated to overcome the skin's formidable barrier function. This article reviews two types of drug delivery approaches ...
du Bois T M - - 2006
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different fat diets on serotonin receptor and transporter binding. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet of either high saturated fat, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid or low fat (control) for eight weeks. Using Beta-Imager quantification ...
Wang Yingming - - 2006
We hypothesized that the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the butterfly were probably derived from the diet and that there might be a great loss of body fat during metamorphosis. To substantiate these hypotheses, we analyzed the fatty acid composition and content of the diet, the larva, and the butterfly Morpho ...
Haag Marianne - - 2005
Insulin resistance is a growing worldwide phenomenon, which progressively develops over years, and finally, if unchecked, predisposes to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. Insulin resistance is a generalized metabolic disorder characterized by inefficient insulin function in skeletal muscle, liver and adipocytes. There is growing evidence that an increased ...
Elchalal Uriel - - 2005
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that insulin and fatty acids regulate adipophilin expression in cultured human trophoblasts. Cytotrophoblasts isolated from term human placentas were cultured in the absence or presence of insulin (10 nmol/L), and a mix of oleic and linoleic acid in serum-free medium. The expression ...
López Miguel - - 2005
Recent evidence has demonstrated that circulating long chain fatty acids act as nutrient abundance signals in the hypothalamus. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) results in profound decrease in food intake and body weight in rodents. These anorectic actions are mediated by the modulation of hypothalamic neuropeptide systems, ...
Kiuru Paula S - - 2006
Deuterated analogs of estrogen fatty acid esters are needed as internal standards for isotope dilution GC/MS analyses. We have developed a rapid and efficient synthesis for 2,4,16,16-D4-estrone palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, and linolenate and the corresponding 2,4,16,16,17alpha-D5-estradiol fatty acid 17-mono and 3,17-diesters using analogous fatty acid chlorides or fatty acid ...
Smith Caren E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To compare myocardial concentrations of fatty acids in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with concentrations in control dogs. SAMPLE POPULATION: Myocardial tissues from 7 dogs with DCM and 16 control dogs. PROCEDURE: Myocardial tissues were homogenized, and total fatty acids were extracted and converted to methyl esters. Myocardial concentrations ...
Trépanier Martin - - 2005
Lipids are the major form of carbon storage in arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. We studied fatty acid synthesis by Glomus intraradices and Gigaspora rosea. [(14)C]Acetate and [(14)C]sucrose were incorporated into a synthetic culture medium to test fatty acid synthetic ability in germinating spores (G. intraradices and G. rosea), mycorrhized carrot roots, and ...
Kapur Payal - - 2005
Mammalian fatty acid synthase is a multifunctional enzyme complex involved in de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids, and inhibitors of fatty acid synthase are being evaluated as potential therapeutic agents. Increased fatty acid synthase expression has been demonstrated in subsets of malignancies, including colon, breast, endometrium, prostate and ovarian ...
McNeil Christopher J - - 2005
The fetus requires an adequate supply of fatty acids for optimum growth and development. It has been hypothesized that reduced activity of enzymes of fatty acid metabolism could contribute to inadequate fetal growth. In a porcine model of differential fetal growth we examined heart and liver fatty acid synthase, delta5-desaturase ...
Tsai Chung-Jyi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The consumption of trans-fatty acids adversely affects blood lipid levels. The relationship with the incidence of gallstone disease is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied consumption of trans-fatty acids in relation to the risk of gallstone disease in a cohort of 45,912 men. trans-Fatty acid consumption was assessed using a ...
Singh Surinder P - - 2005
Metabolic engineering of plants to express high levels of new fatty acids that are of nutritional and industrial importance has proven to be highly challenging. Significant advances have been made recently, however, particularly in the development of the first plant oils to contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic ...
Härtig Claus - - 2005
Fatty acid compositions in growing and resting cells of several strains of Pseudomonas putida (P8, NCTC 10936, and KT 2440) were studied, with a focus on alterations of the saturation degree, cis-trans isomerization, and cyclopropane formation. The fatty acid compositions of the strains were very similar under comparable growth conditions, ...
Lopez-Garcia Esther - - 2005
Trans fatty acid intake has been associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The relation is explained only partially by the adverse effect of these fatty acids on the lipid profile. We examined whether trans fatty acid intake could also affect biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction including C-reactive ...
Duan Hui - - 2005
Some members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CYP86A and CYP94B cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamilies, which share some sequence homology with the animal and fungal fatty acid hydroxylases, have been functionally defined as fatty acid omega-hydroxylases. With these activities, these and other fatty acid hydroxylases have potential roles in the synthesis ...
Bode Helge B - - 2005
The biosynthesis of iso-fatty acids was investigated in the myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Stigmatella aurantiaca by feeding labeled precursors of these fatty acids and by conducting detailed analysis of the fatty acid profiles and fatty acid MS and NMR spectra. These experiments revealed that in S. aurantiaca all iso-even fatty ...
Helenius, Katja
Mechanisms of Eukaryotic Transcription. Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 31 Aug. – 4 Sept. 2005
Bysted A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18:1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. DESIGN: A randomised crossover experiment where five interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic ...
Thijssen M A - - 2005
Most research concerning the effects of dietary fatty acids on atherosclerotic risk has focused on their effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, it is known that fatty acids also influence a number of other relevant mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis such as lipid peroxidation, inflammation and haemostasis. The most favourable ...
Cronan John E JE - - 2004
On page 1667 of this issue, Stuart Smith and colleagues [1] demonstrate that the animal fatty acid synthase is a head-to-head dimer rather than the head-to-tail dimer depicted in textbooks. This has important ramifications for the mechanisms of other multifunctional enzymes such as polyketide synthases [2].
Mu Huiling - - 2004
To investigate whether biotransport constitutes an entry route into pristine ecosystems for nonpersistent, nonvolatile xenobiotic compounds, extractable organically bound halogen in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Alaska was determined before and after spawning migration. The major organohalogen compounds in the salmon were halogenated fatty acids, predominantly chlorinated species that accounted ...
Kitahara Takashi - - 2004
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antimicrobial activity of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines was determined by oxygen meters with multi-channels and disposable oxygen electrode sensors (DOX-96). Lauric acid, the most ...
Pégorier Jean-Paul - - 2004
The last decade provided evidence that major (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids) or minor (iron, vitamin, etc.) dietary constituents regulated gene expression in an hormonal-independent manner. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms by which fatty acids control the expression genes encoding regulatory protein involved in their own metabolism. Nonesterified fatty ...
German J Bruce - - 2004
Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was ...
Roland Isabelle - - 2004
Increasing interest in the role of omega3 fatty acids has arisen in these latest years since evidence of their implication in the cardioprotective fish based diet of the Inuit has been demonstrated. Furthermore, several in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies support the benefit of this fatty acids intake in ...
Ye J-M - - 2004
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Thiazolidinediones can enhance clearance of whole-body non-esterified fatty acids and protect against the insulin resistance that develops during an acute lipid load. The present study used [(3)H]-R-bromopalmitate to compare the effects of the thiazolidinedione, rosiglitazone, and the biguanide, metformin, on insulin action and the tissue-specific fate of non-esterified fatty ...
Shabalina Irina G - - 2004
Elucidation of the regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activity in its native environment, i.e. the inner membrane of brown-fat mitochondria, has been hampered by the presence of UCP1-independent, quantitatively unresolved effects of investigated regulators on the brown-fat mitochondria themselves. Here we have utilized the availability of UCP1-ablated mice to ...
Oura Takahiro - - 2004
Fungi, like plants, are capable of producing the 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. These fatty acids are synthesized by catalytic reactions of Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid desaturases. This paper describes the first cloning and functional characterization of a yeast omega3 fatty acid desaturase gene. The ...
Tso P - - 2004
This article reviews our current understanding of the uptake of fatty acids by the enterocytes of the intestine. The micellar solubilization of fatty acids by bile salts and the factors regulating that process are discussed. The mechanism of how micellar solubilization of fatty acids promotes the uptake of fatty acids ...
Jump Donald B - - 2004
Dietary fat has a dual role in human physiology: a) it functions as a source of energy and structural components for cells; b) it functions as a regulator of gene expression that impacts lipid, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, as well as cell growth and differentiation. Fatty acid effects on gene ...
Frayn K N - - 2003
Glucose and fatty acids are the major fuels for mammalian metabolism and it is clearly essential that mechanisms exist for mutual co-ordination of their utilization. The glucose-fatty acid cycle, as it was proposed in 1963, describes one set of mechanisms by which carbohydrate and fat metabolism interact. Since that time, ...
Cooney D J - - 2003
In previous studies micronized disodium fluorescein (DF) powders were coated with lauric or capric acid. This was a precursor to evaluating the effects of the fatty acids on the hygroscopic growth of the DF aerosols. Studies of the association of fatty acids with DF reflected a limited interpretation of the ...
Carucci L R - - 2003
The most common imaging appearance of the pancreas in cystic fibrosis is diffuse, complete fatty replacement. We present a case of complete fatty replacement of the pancreatic body and tail with total sparing of the pancreatic head. To our knowledge, this pattern of fatty sparing and its associated computed tomographic ...
Wang Yiping - - 2003
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate if fatty acids can increase the iontophoretic delivery of midodrine hydrochloride through human dermatomed skin and to observe the effects of iontophoresis and fatty acids on skin using SEM. METHODS: After prehydration for 1 h, human dermatomed skin was treated with ...
Khan Seher A - - 2003
Long chain fatty acids, derived either from endogenous metabolism or by nutritional sources play significant roles in important biological processes of membrane structure, production of biologically active compounds, and participation in cellular signaling processes. Recently, the structure of dietary fatty acids has become an important issue in human health because ...
O'Neill S - - 2003
Cardiac arrhythmias can be triggered from ischaemic cardiac muscle due to the damage inflicted on individual myocytes. During an ischaemic episode free fatty acids accumulate in the ischaemic tissue. The importance of these fatty acids lies in the apparent ability of some classes of fatty acid to protect against cardiac ...
Harnack Lisa - - 2003
In this study, we examine trends in dietary intake of trans-fatty acids from 1980-1982 to 1995-1997 using data collected as part of the Minnesota Heart Survey (MHS). The MHS is an ongoing observational epidemiologic study among independent cross-sectional probability samples of adults. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected on a subset ...
Wolfram G - - 2003
Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between fat intake, especially saturated and trans fatty acids, plasma cholesterol levels and rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Meanwhile it is clear, that early atherosclerosis is largely preventable by modifying nutritional behaviour and lifestyle. There is clear evidence that a diet ...
Pownall H J - - 2003
Fatty acid transport is an important process in cellular energy distribution and storage in both normal and pathological states, especially obesity-linked type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fatty acid transport has been studied by the complementary approaches of cell biology and biophysics. According to the latter approach, specific proteins that enhance the ...
- - 2003
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on nutrition labeling to require that trans fatty acids be declared in the nutrition label of conventional foods and dietary supplements on a separate line immediately under the line for the declaration of saturated fatty acids. This action responds, in ...
Muth Alexandra - - 2003
The determination of placental fatty acid metabolism using stable isotope-labeled tracers was investigated in the human placental choriocarcinoma (JAR) cell line. Stable isotope incorporation was measured by MDGC-MS. The cultured trophoblast cells incorporated and metabolized the essential fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The described method enables the detection ...
Papina M - - 2003
We compared the fatty acid composition of the host-coral Montipora digitata with the fatty acid composition in the coral's endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Fatty acids as methyl esters were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and verified by GC-mass spectrometry. We found the main difference between the fatty acids in the host ...
Broadfield Emma - - 2003
There are few validated methods of measuring dietary fatty acid intake that are suitable for epidemiological research. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to measure individual dietary fatty acid intakes against 7 d weighed dietary records, in a sample of ...
Wang Tong - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To develop an accurate new method to measure the partitioning of adipocyte endogenous fatty acids among different metabolic pathways, a critical step toward understanding the regulatory mechanism by which fat disposition is modulated. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Isolated primary rat adipocytes were pre-incubated with isotope-labeled fatty acids. This allows ...
Irie Hiroshi - - 2003
Long-chain fatty acid uptake, which provides a large part of myocardial energy, is impaired in human and murine hearts deficient in the membrane fatty acid translocase, FAT/CD36. We examined myocardial function in CD36-null mice using the working heart. Fatty acid oxidation and stores of glycogen, triglycerides, and ATP were reduced ...
Dewhurst R J - - 2003
The declining consumption of ruminant products has been partly associated with their high proportion (but not necessarily content) of saturated fatty acids. Recent studies have focused on the less prominent fact that they are also important sources of beneficial fatty acids, including n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids. alpha-Linolenic ...
Wahle Klaus W J - - 2003
Over the last 30 years it has become apparent that specific dietary fatty acids are capable of regulating, either directly or indirectly through various signal pathways, the expression of numerous genes, either positively or negatively. Such nutrient-gene interactions have important effects on cell metabolism, differentiation and growth, and ultimately on ...
Ge Lan - - 2003
Delta-6 desaturase, also known as fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that converts the essential fatty acids linoleate and alpha-linolenate into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Isolation of Delta-6 desaturase/FADS2 cDNA from human skin predicts an identical protein to that expressed in human brain and ...
Sloof G W - - 2003
Intact perfusion, preserved metabolism of free fatty acids and glucose, and the presence of contractile reserve have been used as markers of viable myocardium. However, not all viable myocardium may exhibit all these characteristics. Accordingly, these features were evaluated in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. ...
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