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Chen Hubert C - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in modulating glucose metabolism. Recent models of mice with disruptions in genes involved in cellular fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism have provided insight into the long recognized but incompletely understood relationship between fatty acid metabolism and glucose metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: ...
Dembitsky Valery M - - 2002
A comprehensive survey has been made of all fatty acids containing halogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon and which are deemed as naturally occurring. Generally thought to be minor components produced by many different organisms, these interesting compounds now number more than 300. Recent research, especially in the marine area, ...
Glatz Jan F C - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle metabolic energy, needed to maintain contractile activity, is mainly obtained from glucose and long-chain fatty acids. Recent studies have revealed a remarkable parallel between the regulation of uptake of glucose and fatty acids by muscle, in that each is mediated by sarcolemmal transporters that are ...
Fang Jiasong - - 2002
A combined molecular and isotopic approach was used in this study to reveal the source and transport of aerosols at a remote oceanic site. Fatty acid distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids were determined in the aerosol samples collected at Chichi-Jima in the western North Pacific ...
Freites Luis - - 2002
Fatty acid profiles of seeds of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis originating from two habitats (rocky shore and subtidal) were compared after transfer to the same habitat (subtidal). The objective was to study the initial levels of different fatty acids of metabolic importance and, furthermore, the variability of these fatty acids ...
Laaksonen D E - - 2002
AIMS: Dietary fatty acid intake is reflected in serum fatty acid composition. Studies prospectively investigating serum fatty acids and development of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM) are largely lacking. We assessed the association of serum fatty acid composition with development of IFG or DM. METHODS: Middle-aged normoglycaemic ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2002
Very-long-chain and multibranched polyunsaturated fatty acids of three freshwater sponges, Ephydatia syriaca, Nudospongilla sp., and Cortispongilla barroisi, were studied by silver TLC, GC-MS, UV, IR, HRMS, and NMR methods. One hundred and eighty-five conventional fatty acids were identified by GC-MS, out of which five were new multibranched polyunsaturated fatty acids. ...
Gravena C - - 2002
Fatty acids have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on insulin secretion. Long-term exposure to fatty acids results in impaired insulin secretion whilst acute exposure has generally been found to enhance insulin release. However, there are conflicting data in the literature as to the relative efficacy of various fatty acids and ...
Boshoff Helena I - - 2002
The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during ...
Haggarty Paul - - 2002
More than 90 per cent of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy during which it increases exponentially to reach a rate of accretion of around 7 g/day close to term. All of the n -3 and n -6 fatty acid structure acquired ...
Wright T C - - 2002
Supplemental fat fed to dairy cows affects the fat composition of milk by reducing the yield of mammary synthesized fatty acids. The effect has been attributed to a potential allosteric inhibition of acetyl coenzyme-A, a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. In vitro experiments have demonstrated an inhibition of fatty ...
Conklin Kenneth A - - 2002
Preclinical studies have shown that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids may actually enhance the cytotoxicity of several antineoplastic agents and the anticancer effects of radiotherapy. These effects are possibly mediated by incorporation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids into cancer cell membranes, thus altering the physical and functional properties. In addition, certain ...
Liu Binqiu - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human type I fatty acid synthase has been proposed as a chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer based on the inactivation of human beta-ketoacyl synthase activity by cerulenin. Triclosan, a common antibiotic, functions by inhibiting the enoyl-reductase enzymes of type II fatty acid synthases in ...
Benson R S P - - 2002
Fatty acids induce cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion both in humans and from murine enteroendocrine cell lines. In both cases, only fatty acids above a critical acyl chain length (C(10)) are capable of inducing a response. Using the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1, the aim of this study was to determine whether this ...
Moon H - - 2001
Lesquerella fendleri seed oil contains up to 60% hydroxy fatty acids, nearly all of which is the 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acid lesquerolic acid (D-14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic acid). Previous work suggested that lesquerolic acid in L. fendleri was formed by the elongation of the 18-carbon hydroxy fatty acid, ricinoleic acid. To identify a ...
Schrauwen P - - 2001
The physiological function of the human uncoupling protein 3 UCP3, which was discovered in 1997, is unknown. Here we evaluate the available data on human UCP3 expression and show that UCP3 is up-regulated in situations where fatty acid delivery to the mitochondria exceeds oxidative capacity, whereas down-regulation of UCP3 is ...
Larqué E - - 2001
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double trans configuration, resulting in a more rigid molecule close to a saturated fatty acid. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, and in hydrogenated oils; margarines, shortenings and baked goods contain relatively high levels of trans ...
Watanabe K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid is a main source of cardiac energy in aerobic conditions. We used iodine-123-beta-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) myocardial scintigraphy to study the efficacy of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) by evaluating its therapeutic effects on myocardial fatty acid metabolism. ...
Okita R T - - 2001
The Cytochrome P450 4A subfamily is one of eighteen subfamilies in the CYP4 family and presently consists of twenty individual forms in nine different mammalian species. The major substrates for CYP4A forms are fatty acids, but recent studies have shown other non-fatty acid substrates may be metabolized by specific CYP4A ...
Decsi T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed significant inverse correlations between values of trans isomeric and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipids of preterm infants and healthy children aged 1-15 y. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the same correlations in full-term infants at birth. DESIGN: We studied healthy full-term infants (n = ...
Craig-Schmidt M C - - 2001
"Isomeric fatty acids" is a term that refers to the trans- and positional isomers formed during hydrogenation of naturally occurring oils. The purposes of this paper are as follows: (i) to summarize potential exposure of infants to isomeric fatty acids by reviewing estimates of isomeric fatty acids in the maternal ...
Tomaino R M - - 2001
To evaluate the impact of Cheddar cheese starter cultures on the level of free fatty acids in liquid whey, a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was utilized. The determination of response factors relative to an internal standard and the verification of linearity over a wide concentration range allowed for the quantitation ...
Gassull M A - - 2001
The biologic role of fatty acids as immunomodulators has been extensively studied in the in vitro and experimental setting because of its potential therapeutic applications in chronic immune-based diseases. Unlike the conventional treatments for such conditions, this approach seldom produces severe side effects. The possibility of manipulating dietary fat as ...
Luiken J J - - 2001
Protein-mediated fatty acid uptake and intracellular fatty acid activation are key steps in fatty acid metabolism in muscle. We have examined (a) the abundance of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) mRNA (a fatty acid transporter) and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (FACS1) mRNA in metabolically heterogeneous muscles (soleus (SOL), red (RG) and ...
Suzuki R - - 2001
The cytotoxicity of fatty acids from seed oils containing conjugated linolenic acids (CLN) was studied. Fatty acids from pomegranate, tung, and catalpa were cytotoxic to human monocytic leukemia cells at concentrations exceeding 5 microM for pomegranate and tung and 10 microM for catalpa, but fatty acids from pot marigold oil ...
Jackson C S - - 2001
Covalent attachment of radiolabeled fatty acids (e.g., [(3)H]myristate or palmitate) is an alternative method for labeling proteins. This unit contains methods for biosynthetic labeling with fatty acids, analysis of the fatty acid linkage with protein, analysis of total protein-bound fatty acid level in cell extracts, and analysis of the identity ...
Karlsson S - - 2001
Lipophilic extractives commonly referred to as wood pitch or wood resin can have a negative impact on paper machine runnability and product quality. The lipophilic extractives are composed mainly of fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, steryl esters and triglycerides. In this work, the suitability of laccases for the modification of ...
Chirala S S - - 2001
The human and animal fatty acid synthases are dimers of two identical multifunctional proteins (M(r) 272,000) arranged in an antiparallel configuration. This arrangement generates two active centers for fatty acid synthesis separated by interdomain (ID) regions and predicts that two appropriate halves of the monomer should be able to reconstitute ...
Oomen C M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relation between trans fatty acid intake and coronary heart disease is limited. We investigated this relation in a Dutch population with a fairly high trans fatty acid intake, including trans fatty acids from partly hydrogenated fish oils. METHODS: We prospectively studied 667 men of the Zutphen ...
Harris W S - - 2001
The notion that marine omega (w)-3 fatty acids might have beneficial cardiovascular effects was first suggested by epidemiologic studies in Greenland Inuits published in the late 1970s. These simple observations spawned hundreds of other studies, the confluence of which strongly suggests a true cardioprotective effect of w-3 fatty acids. The ...
Watkins B A - - 2001
Bone remodelling processes are regulated by systemic hormones and a multitude of local and systemic factors, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and growth factors. Dietary fatty acids and their derivatives (eicosanoids) have been a recent focus of investigation on bone and cartilage metabolism. Specific fatty acids are recognized modulators of eicosanoid biosynthesis, ...
Myers R B - - 2001
PURPOSE: Changes in fatty acid synthase levels were investigated in the CWR22 xenograft model of prostatic adenocarcinoma after castration and during progression to androgen independence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male nude mice with CWR22 tumors were castrated and sacrificed 3, 7, 21, 28 or 42 days after castration. Some mice received ...
Rial E - - 2001
Brown fat is a thermogenic organ that allows newborns and small mammals to maintain a stable body temperature when exposed to cold. The heat generation capacity is based on the uncoupling of respiration from ATP synthesis mediated by the uncoupling protein UCP1. The first studies on the properties of these ...
Eichel J - - 2001
The green microalga Apatococcus constipatus was investigated for its fatty acid composition using GC and MS techniques. Considerable variations were found in individual fatty acid contents according to the stage of culture development. A set of saturated fatty acid homologues was distinguished as the main component regardless of the culture ...
Bezuglov V - - 2001
New amides of different fatty acids from the C18, C20, and C22 series with dopamine were synthesized. Pharmacological characterization in binding assays with rat brain membrane preparations and in the 'tetrad' of cannabinoid behavioral tests showed that, for these compounds, cannabinoid-like activity was dependent on the fatty acid moiety. Our ...
Inoue S - - 2001
Perioperative myocardial infarction or ischaemia is a potential consequence of cardiac surgery and elevated free fatty acids can increase the severity of myocardial ischaemic damage. We investigated perioperative changes in serum free fatty acids, and other serum lipids, as a consequence of using propofol infusions for cardiac surgery during cardiopulmonary ...
Visser F C - - 2001
The heart metabolizes a wide variety of substrates such as free fatty acids, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies and amino acids, but under normal conditions, free fatty acids and glucose are the major sources of energy. In contrast, in ischaemia with less than normal delivery of oxygen, oxidative metabolism of ...
Hayes K C - - 2001
It has been suggested that the molecular species or structure of the triglyceride, i.e. not only what fatty acids are present but also their relative order in the sn1, 2, or 3 position on the triglyceride, can influence the metabolism of the triglyceride and its fatty acids, including lipoprotein metabolism. ...
Nasser J A - - 2001
Recent studies with rat taste cells treated with polyunsaturated fatty acids suggest that fatty acids may play a role in dietary fat perception. In humans, sensitivity to the textural properties of fat is associated with the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound 6-N-2-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, it has not been ...
Agren J J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The affinity of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP) for fatty acids is regulated by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene (alanine-to-threonine shift). We found earlier that the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) is associated with an increased postprandial lipemic response. OBJECTIVE: We studied the postprandial responses of ...
Boger D L DL Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. - - 2000
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), also referred to as oleamide hydrolase and anandamide amidohydrolase, is a serine hydrolase responsible for the degradation of endogenous oleamide and anandamide, fatty acid amides that function as chemical messengers. FAAH hydrolyzes a range of fatty acid amides, and the present study examines the relative ...
Freeman V L - - 2000
PURPOSE: The consumption of various fatty acids has been associated with advanced stage and fatal prostate cancer. While numerous mechanisms have been postulated, to our knowledge there physiological data linking exposure and prognosis in humans are lacking. We examined prostatic levels of individual fatty acids in relation to the prevalence ...
Burdge G C - - 2000
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a critical role in the structure and function of the developing nervous system. It has been proposed that fatty acids may effect a variety of biologic processes through the activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs)-ligand activated transcription factors. In this report, we demonstrate that ...
Wältermann M - - 2000
The in vivo effects of sterculic acid methyl ester on triacylglycerol fatty acid composition in the oleaginous, hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium R. opacus strain PD630 was investigated. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid and an inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system, strongly inhibited the synthesis of monoenic fatty acids, of saturated fatty ...
Raitakari O T - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: We sought to study the effects of a fatty meal on vascular reactivity, including endothelial function and maximal vasodilation. BACKGROUND: Recent reports regarding the physiological changes in peripheral vasculature after eating a fatty meal have been controversial. METHODS: Twelve volunteers were studied before, 3 h after, and 6 h ...
Taylor K E - - 2000
There is mounting evidence that developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder which involves abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism, particularly with respect to certain long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Psychophysical evidence also strongly suggests that dyslexics may have visual deficits as well as phonological problems. Specifically, these visual deficits appear ...
Hertzel A V - - 2000
Intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins associate with fatty acids and other hydrophobic biomolecules in an internal cavity, providing for solubilization and metabolic trafficking. Analyses of their in vivo function by molecular and genetic techniques reveal specific function(s) that fatty acid-binding proteins perform with respect to fatty acid uptake, oxidation and overall ...
Katan M B - - 2000
Perceptions of the health effects of trans fatty acids, particularly in the form of margarine, have undergone several changes during the past 10 years. What was once heralded as the healthy alternative to butter now assumes the role of coconspirator. A new study finds that consumption of trans fatty acids, ...
Joachim A - - 2000
Total methylated fatty acid patterns of various developmental stages (third-stage larvae (L3), L3 and fourth-stage larvae (L4) cultured in vitro, L4 and female and male adults derived from intestinal contents) of the porcine nodular worms Oesophagostomum dentatum and Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum and their cultivation medium were analysed by gas chromatography using ...
Lichtenstein A H - - 2000
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration. In the diet they occur at relatively low levels in meat and dairy products as a by-product of fermentation in ruminant animals or in hydrogenated fats as a consequence of the hydrogenation ...
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