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Wang Tong - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To develop an accurate new method to measure the partitioning of adipocyte endogenous fatty acids among different metabolic pathways, a critical step toward understanding the regulatory mechanism by which fat disposition is modulated. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Isolated primary rat adipocytes were pre-incubated with isotope-labeled fatty acids. This allows ...
Irie Hiroshi - - 2003
Long-chain fatty acid uptake, which provides a large part of myocardial energy, is impaired in human and murine hearts deficient in the membrane fatty acid translocase, FAT/CD36. We examined myocardial function in CD36-null mice using the working heart. Fatty acid oxidation and stores of glycogen, triglycerides, and ATP were reduced ...
Dewhurst R J - - 2003
The declining consumption of ruminant products has been partly associated with their high proportion (but not necessarily content) of saturated fatty acids. Recent studies have focused on the less prominent fact that they are also important sources of beneficial fatty acids, including n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids. alpha-Linolenic ...
Wahle Klaus W J - - 2003
Over the last 30 years it has become apparent that specific dietary fatty acids are capable of regulating, either directly or indirectly through various signal pathways, the expression of numerous genes, either positively or negatively. Such nutrient-gene interactions have important effects on cell metabolism, differentiation and growth, and ultimately on ...
Ge Lan - - 2003
Delta-6 desaturase, also known as fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that converts the essential fatty acids linoleate and alpha-linolenate into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Isolation of Delta-6 desaturase/FADS2 cDNA from human skin predicts an identical protein to that expressed in human brain and ...
Sloof G W - - 2003
Intact perfusion, preserved metabolism of free fatty acids and glucose, and the presence of contractile reserve have been used as markers of viable myocardium. However, not all viable myocardium may exhibit all these characteristics. Accordingly, these features were evaluated in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. ...
Surh Jeonghee - - 2003
Seasonal variations of fatty acids in various Korean shellfish were investigated in relation to the changes in total fatty acids contents, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (P/S), and that of n-3 fatty acids to n-6 fatty acids (n-3/n-6). A distinct seasonal pattern was found in ...
Triantafillou Dimitrios - - 2003
The fatty acid composition, including trans-fatty acids, of 15 margarine samples from the Greek market was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Saturated, cis-monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found in the ranges of 24.1-53.3%, 15.5-50.3%, and 14.3-50.2% of total fatty acids, respectively. The trans-fatty acid content of Greek margarines varied ...
Lada Aaron T - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to evaluate recent findings concerning dietary fats and the risk of coronary heart disease. Monounsaturated fatty acids are often regarded as healthy, and many have recommended their consumption instead of saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Support for the benefits of monounsaturated fatty ...
Pravenec M - - 2003
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NIH strain) harbor a deletion variant in the Cd36 fatty acid transporter and display defective fatty acid metabolism, insulin resistance and hypertension. Transgenic rescue of Cd36 in SHR ameliorates insulin resistance and improves dyslipidemia. However, the role of Cd36 in blood pressure regulation remains controversial due to ...
Vicario Isabel M - - 2003
The fatty acid compositions of 39 brands of cookies and bakery products were analyzed with special attention to the their trans-fatty acid content. The average contents (percent w/w of the total fatty acids detected) for the different nutritional fractions were as follows: saturated fatty acids (SFA), 49.43% (SD = 17.04); ...
Lima T M - - 2002
The fatty acids have an important role in the control of leukocyte metabolism and function. Higher concentrations of certain fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and volatile fatty acids, can cause cell death via apoptosis or, when concentrations are greater, necrosis. In this study, we determined the highest concentrations ...
William W N WN - - 2002
Leptin directly increases the rate of exogenous glucose and fatty acids oxidation in isolated adipocytes. However, the effects of leptin on fatty acid metabolism in white adipose tIssue have not been examined in detail. Here, we report that in adipocytes incubated for 6 h in the presence of leptin (10 ...
Arab Lenore - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review the various biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty adds in human populations, their measurement, limitations and analytical considerations. DESIGN:Review of the literature. RESULTS: Although there is no good biomarker of intake of total fat, a number of alternatives exist for assessing the intakes of exogenously produced fatty ...
Baggio Bruno - - 2002
Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence suggests that fatty acids may have an effect (due to their chemical structure) on calcium metabolism in animals and man. Fatty acid deficiency in animals can lead to a loss of bone calcium and matrix, resulting in marked bone demineralization, and treatment with a mixture ...
Saevik B K - - 2002
Fatty acids are increasingly used in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis and their beneficial effects are documented in several prospective, controlled studies. Results from recent studies have indicated that atopic dogs have disordered fat metabolism, due to decreased desaturase activity. To further clarify these possible abnormalities, we examined serum ...
Zank Thorsten K - - 2002
The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high proportions of polyunsaturated very-long-chain fatty acids with up to 20 carbon atoms. Starting from preformed C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids, their biosynthesis involves a sequence of Delta6-desaturation, Delta6-elongation and Delta5-desaturation. In this report we describe for the first time the characterisation of a cDNA (PSE1) ...
Chen Hubert C - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in modulating glucose metabolism. Recent models of mice with disruptions in genes involved in cellular fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism have provided insight into the long recognized but incompletely understood relationship between fatty acid metabolism and glucose metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: ...
Dembitsky Valery M - - 2002
A comprehensive survey has been made of all fatty acids containing halogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon and which are deemed as naturally occurring. Generally thought to be minor components produced by many different organisms, these interesting compounds now number more than 300. Recent research, especially in the marine area, ...
Glatz Jan F C - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle metabolic energy, needed to maintain contractile activity, is mainly obtained from glucose and long-chain fatty acids. Recent studies have revealed a remarkable parallel between the regulation of uptake of glucose and fatty acids by muscle, in that each is mediated by sarcolemmal transporters that are ...
Fang Jiasong - - 2002
A combined molecular and isotopic approach was used in this study to reveal the source and transport of aerosols at a remote oceanic site. Fatty acid distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids were determined in the aerosol samples collected at Chichi-Jima in the western North Pacific ...
Freites Luis - - 2002
Fatty acid profiles of seeds of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis originating from two habitats (rocky shore and subtidal) were compared after transfer to the same habitat (subtidal). The objective was to study the initial levels of different fatty acids of metabolic importance and, furthermore, the variability of these fatty acids ...
Laaksonen D E - - 2002
AIMS: Dietary fatty acid intake is reflected in serum fatty acid composition. Studies prospectively investigating serum fatty acids and development of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM) are largely lacking. We assessed the association of serum fatty acid composition with development of IFG or DM. METHODS: Middle-aged normoglycaemic ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2002
Very-long-chain and multibranched polyunsaturated fatty acids of three freshwater sponges, Ephydatia syriaca, Nudospongilla sp., and Cortispongilla barroisi, were studied by silver TLC, GC-MS, UV, IR, HRMS, and NMR methods. One hundred and eighty-five conventional fatty acids were identified by GC-MS, out of which five were new multibranched polyunsaturated fatty acids. ...
Gravena C - - 2002
Fatty acids have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on insulin secretion. Long-term exposure to fatty acids results in impaired insulin secretion whilst acute exposure has generally been found to enhance insulin release. However, there are conflicting data in the literature as to the relative efficacy of various fatty acids and ...
Boshoff Helena I - - 2002
The effects of low extracellular pH and intracellular accumulation of weak organic acids were compared with respect to fatty acid synthesis by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The profile of fatty acids synthesized during exposure to benzoic, nicotinic, or pyrazinoic acids, as well as that observed during ...
Haggarty Paul - - 2002
More than 90 per cent of the fat deposition in the fetus occurs in the last 10 weeks of pregnancy during which it increases exponentially to reach a rate of accretion of around 7 g/day close to term. All of the n -3 and n -6 fatty acid structure acquired ...
Wright T C - - 2002
Supplemental fat fed to dairy cows affects the fat composition of milk by reducing the yield of mammary synthesized fatty acids. The effect has been attributed to a potential allosteric inhibition of acetyl coenzyme-A, a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. In vitro experiments have demonstrated an inhibition of fatty ...
Conklin Kenneth A - - 2002
Preclinical studies have shown that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids may actually enhance the cytotoxicity of several antineoplastic agents and the anticancer effects of radiotherapy. These effects are possibly mediated by incorporation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids into cancer cell membranes, thus altering the physical and functional properties. In addition, certain ...
Liu Binqiu - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human type I fatty acid synthase has been proposed as a chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer based on the inactivation of human beta-ketoacyl synthase activity by cerulenin. Triclosan, a common antibiotic, functions by inhibiting the enoyl-reductase enzymes of type II fatty acid synthases in ...
Benson R S P - - 2002
Fatty acids induce cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion both in humans and from murine enteroendocrine cell lines. In both cases, only fatty acids above a critical acyl chain length (C(10)) are capable of inducing a response. Using the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1, the aim of this study was to determine whether this ...
Moon H - - 2001
Lesquerella fendleri seed oil contains up to 60% hydroxy fatty acids, nearly all of which is the 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acid lesquerolic acid (D-14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic acid). Previous work suggested that lesquerolic acid in L. fendleri was formed by the elongation of the 18-carbon hydroxy fatty acid, ricinoleic acid. To identify a ...
Schrauwen P - - 2001
The physiological function of the human uncoupling protein 3 UCP3, which was discovered in 1997, is unknown. Here we evaluate the available data on human UCP3 expression and show that UCP3 is up-regulated in situations where fatty acid delivery to the mitochondria exceeds oxidative capacity, whereas down-regulation of UCP3 is ...
Larqué E - - 2001
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double trans configuration, resulting in a more rigid molecule close to a saturated fatty acid. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, and in hydrogenated oils; margarines, shortenings and baked goods contain relatively high levels of trans ...
Watanabe K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid is a main source of cardiac energy in aerobic conditions. We used iodine-123-beta-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) myocardial scintigraphy to study the efficacy of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) by evaluating its therapeutic effects on myocardial fatty acid metabolism. ...
Okita R T - - 2001
The Cytochrome P450 4A subfamily is one of eighteen subfamilies in the CYP4 family and presently consists of twenty individual forms in nine different mammalian species. The major substrates for CYP4A forms are fatty acids, but recent studies have shown other non-fatty acid substrates may be metabolized by specific CYP4A ...
Decsi T - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed significant inverse correlations between values of trans isomeric and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipids of preterm infants and healthy children aged 1-15 y. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the same correlations in full-term infants at birth. DESIGN: We studied healthy full-term infants (n = ...
Craig-Schmidt M C - - 2001
"Isomeric fatty acids" is a term that refers to the trans- and positional isomers formed during hydrogenation of naturally occurring oils. The purposes of this paper are as follows: (i) to summarize potential exposure of infants to isomeric fatty acids by reviewing estimates of isomeric fatty acids in the maternal ...
Tomaino R M - - 2001
To evaluate the impact of Cheddar cheese starter cultures on the level of free fatty acids in liquid whey, a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was utilized. The determination of response factors relative to an internal standard and the verification of linearity over a wide concentration range allowed for the quantitation ...
Gassull M A - - 2001
The biologic role of fatty acids as immunomodulators has been extensively studied in the in vitro and experimental setting because of its potential therapeutic applications in chronic immune-based diseases. Unlike the conventional treatments for such conditions, this approach seldom produces severe side effects. The possibility of manipulating dietary fat as ...
Luiken J J - - 2001
Protein-mediated fatty acid uptake and intracellular fatty acid activation are key steps in fatty acid metabolism in muscle. We have examined (a) the abundance of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) mRNA (a fatty acid transporter) and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (FACS1) mRNA in metabolically heterogeneous muscles (soleus (SOL), red (RG) and ...
Suzuki R - - 2001
The cytotoxicity of fatty acids from seed oils containing conjugated linolenic acids (CLN) was studied. Fatty acids from pomegranate, tung, and catalpa were cytotoxic to human monocytic leukemia cells at concentrations exceeding 5 microM for pomegranate and tung and 10 microM for catalpa, but fatty acids from pot marigold oil ...
Jackson C S - - 2001
Covalent attachment of radiolabeled fatty acids (e.g., [(3)H]myristate or palmitate) is an alternative method for labeling proteins. This unit contains methods for biosynthetic labeling with fatty acids, analysis of the fatty acid linkage with protein, analysis of total protein-bound fatty acid level in cell extracts, and analysis of the identity ...
Karlsson S - - 2001
Lipophilic extractives commonly referred to as wood pitch or wood resin can have a negative impact on paper machine runnability and product quality. The lipophilic extractives are composed mainly of fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, steryl esters and triglycerides. In this work, the suitability of laccases for the modification of ...
Chirala S S - - 2001
The human and animal fatty acid synthases are dimers of two identical multifunctional proteins (M(r) 272,000) arranged in an antiparallel configuration. This arrangement generates two active centers for fatty acid synthesis separated by interdomain (ID) regions and predicts that two appropriate halves of the monomer should be able to reconstitute ...
Oomen C M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relation between trans fatty acid intake and coronary heart disease is limited. We investigated this relation in a Dutch population with a fairly high trans fatty acid intake, including trans fatty acids from partly hydrogenated fish oils. METHODS: We prospectively studied 667 men of the Zutphen ...
Harris W S - - 2001
The notion that marine omega (w)-3 fatty acids might have beneficial cardiovascular effects was first suggested by epidemiologic studies in Greenland Inuits published in the late 1970s. These simple observations spawned hundreds of other studies, the confluence of which strongly suggests a true cardioprotective effect of w-3 fatty acids. The ...
Watkins B A - - 2001
Bone remodelling processes are regulated by systemic hormones and a multitude of local and systemic factors, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and growth factors. Dietary fatty acids and their derivatives (eicosanoids) have been a recent focus of investigation on bone and cartilage metabolism. Specific fatty acids are recognized modulators of eicosanoid biosynthesis, ...
Myers R B - - 2001
PURPOSE: Changes in fatty acid synthase levels were investigated in the CWR22 xenograft model of prostatic adenocarcinoma after castration and during progression to androgen independence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male nude mice with CWR22 tumors were castrated and sacrificed 3, 7, 21, 28 or 42 days after castration. Some mice received ...
Rial E - - 2001
Brown fat is a thermogenic organ that allows newborns and small mammals to maintain a stable body temperature when exposed to cold. The heat generation capacity is based on the uncoupling of respiration from ATP synthesis mediated by the uncoupling protein UCP1. The first studies on the properties of these ...
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