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Lovejoy J C - - 1999
High-fat diets have been associated with insulin resistance, a risk factor for both Type II diabetes and heart disease. The effect of dietary fat on insulin varies depending on the type of fatty acid consumed. Saturated fatty acids have been consistently associated with insulin resistance. On the other hand, medium ...
Irie M - - 1999
Spectroscopy using four types of fiberoptic probes and a sensor at wavelengths of 400 to 1,100 nm was evaluated to assess porcine fat quality. The shapes of the spectrum for the leaf fat with white color and various firmnesses differed with the type of probe: surface, contact, insertion, or transmittance. ...
Jezek P - - 1999
The phenomena of fatty acid interaction with mitochondrial integral membrane proteins, namely uncoupling proteins (UCPs), are reviewed to emphasize the fatty acid cycling mechanism that has been suggested to explain the UCP function. Fatty acid-induced uncoupling is suggested to serve in bioenergetic systems, to set the optimum efficiency, and to ...
Grimsgaard S - - 1999
The role of individual fatty acids in blood pressure regulation is unclear. We studied the cross-sectional relationship of blood pressure, total plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentrations, and proportions of individual fatty acids among participants in a population study. Blood pressure was measured automatically, and plasma phospholipid fatty acids were determined ...
Ferré P - - 1999
Fatty acid synthase (EC 2.3.1.85) is an enzyme involved in the lipogenic pathway allowing fatty acid synthesis from glucose. Glucose up-regulates the transcription of the fatty acid synthase gene in both adipocytes and hepatocytes, with insulin having only an indirect role. The signal metabolite could be glucose-6-phosphate rather than glucose ...
Zelles L - - 1999
Fatty acid profiles obtained from single cultured organisms have been used to estimate which taxonomic groups are actually represented. The lipid extraction was modified to liberate fatty acids with ester-linkages, as well as those with non-ester-linkages and classify them in different chemically relevant groups. The discriminatory power of fatty acids, ...
Hasegawa N - - 1999
Lean tuna meat suspensions (LEAN), with a fat content of 0.006%, and fatty tuna meat suspension (FATTY), with a fat content of 3.0% were inoculated with four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) or allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added before incubation at 37 degrees C. During the ...
Sparagna G C - - 1999
Fatty acids are the primary source of energy in the adult heart. Recently, however, it was discovered that certain saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate and stearate, cause cardiac and other types of cells to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). In cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, where blood flow is blocked and ...
Elliott J P - - 1999
Five steers (mean BW 526 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 5 x 6 Youden square design with 14-d periods. Diets contained chopped alfalfa hay, corn silage, and concentrate (25:35:40, DM basis). Treatments were 1) control (no added fat); 2) tallow (T), iodine value ...
Corbett J R - - 1999
Radioiodinated free fatty acids are tracers that can be used to assess both myocardial perfusion and metabolism. There have been several fatty acids and structurally modified fatty acids studied since Evans' initial report of radiolabeled I-123 oleic acid in 1965. The radiolabeling of a phenyl group added to the long ...
Innis S M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Currently, the published information on trans fatty acid composition of foods is incomplete and of questionable accuracy. Detailed fatty acid analysis of over 200 foods was undertaken for the purpose of determining the variability in trans fatty acid content among foods within a product category, and the significance of ...
Higgins S - - 1999
Muntjac cells were cultured at 5 X 10(5) cells/10 cm Petri dish for 24 h prior to addition of fatty acids (50 microM) which were delivered to the cells complexed with 2% bovine serum albumin (fatty acid-free) and incubated for a further 24 h. Parallel dishes were processed for lipid ...
Parcerisa J - - 1999
Fifteen samples of the most common industrial bakery products sold in Spain were analyzed for their fatty acid composition. Saturated fatty acids occurred in the largest proportions in all samples (mean = 52.8%), followed by monounsaturated (mean = 23.5%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (mean = 17.2%). A small percentage of ...
Crawford T O - - 1999
Our previous experience with abnormal fatty acid metabolism in several children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) prompted evaluation of fatty acid metabolism in a larger cohort. Thirty-three infants with severe infantile SMA were shown to have a significantly increased ratio of dodecanoic to tetradecanoic acid in plasma compared with normal ...
Sidossis L S - - 1999
The effects of combined hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia on whole body, splanchnic, and leg fatty acid metabolism were determined in five volunteers. Catheters were placed in a femoral artery and vein and a hepatic vein. U-13C-labeled fatty acids were infused, once in the basal state and, on a different occasion, during infusion of ...
Worgall T S - - 1999
Fatty acids are a major constituent of dietary fats and form an integral part of the cellular membrane and lipoproteins. The gene regulatory potential of fatty acids has long been recognized, but the precise regulatory mechanisms are unknown. The regulatory ability of fatty acids on the expression of a number ...
Bernlohr D A - - 1999
The insolubility of fatty acids in cellular environments requires that specific trafficking mechanisms be developed to vectorally orient and deliver lipids for cellular needs. The roles of putative membrane bound fatty acid transporters and soluble carrier proteins are discussed in terms of mechanisms of fatty acid trafficking. The numerous roles ...
Vanden Heuvel J P - - 1999
It has been known for many years that long-chain fatty acids derived from endogenous metabolism and/or nutrition can act as second messengers and regulators of cell signaling pathways. For example, fatty acids regulate the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in a mechanism distinct from activation by diacylglycerol. Like PKC ...
Hulshof K F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids ...
Allison D B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mean level of trans fatty acid intakes using a representative sample of the US population. DESIGN: The study used food intake data from the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and the trans fatty acid contents of specific foods calculated from a database compiled ...
Gibney M J - - 1999
Quantitative dietary guidelines for fats were first issued in 1977 in the USA and these guidelines have changed little since then. In the UK only 14% of the population achieve the dietary goal for fat (33% energy) and only 3% achieve the target (10% energy) from saturated fatty acids. Analysis ...
Muszbek L - - 1999
The goals of this investigation were, first, to develop a chemical strategy to identify and quantitate the mass of fatty acid which is covalently bound to proteins by thioester linkage in unactivated platelets, and, second, to determine whether exogeneously added fatty acids can alter the fatty acid composition of thioester ...
Valenzuela A - - 1999
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration. These fatty acids occur naturally in dairy and other natural fats and in some plants. However, industrial hydrogenation of vegetable or marine oils is largely the main source of trans fatty acids in ...
King J M - - 1999
Trans fatty acids are formed during hydrogenation which is done to improve the functionality and oxidative stability of oils. Several process conditions affect the content of trans fatty acids in hydrogenated oil. There is conflicting evidence as to whether intake of trans fatty acids, in foods such as margarine, affects ...
Farmer E E - - 1998
Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a ...
Fagot-Campagna A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: An inconsistent relationship has been reported between insulin and hypertension incidence. Free fatty acids are related to insulin-resistance and may have a direct effect on hypertension. We examined the effect of free fatty acids on hypertension incidence, taking into account other abnormalities of the insulin-resistance syndrome. METHODS: In all, ...
Louw L - - 1998
The purpose of the third part of this study is to construct a basic lipid model (this includes information regarding total and free saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents, as well as total and free fatty acid saturation and double bond indexes, and comparisons of total and free n-3, ...
Chou H J - - 1998
Diethanolamine (DEA) is a precursor of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), an animal carcinogen. A gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed for determining DEA in fatty acid diethanolamides that are commonly used in cosmetic products. Methanolic solutions of the amides were analyzed by GC with flame ionization detection on either a wide-bore methyl ...
Berghaus T M - - 1998
The fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters and nonesterified fatty acids was determined by high-resolution capillary gas-liquid chromatography in 41 pairs of mothers and their term infants at time of birth. The total free fatty acid content in maternal and cord plasma was positively correlated, possibly reflecting ...
Thewke D P - - 1998
Activation of genes containing SRE-1 (sterol regulatory element 1) sequences is known to be under the regulation of sterols through modulation of the proteolytic maturation of SREBPs (SRE-1-binding proteins). Previous work has demonstrated SREBP-mediated transcriptional activation of genes encoding enzymes of sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Because synthesis of both ...
Tsimikas S - - 1998
Although it is well established that dietary saturated fatty acid intake is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, there remains substantial controversy regarding whether these dietary fatty acids should be replaced with either carbohydrates, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids or a combination of these. This review highlights ...
Dan L - - 1998
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), esterification products of fatty acids and ethanol, have been increasingly implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage. The first goal of this study was to determine the mass of FAEE synthesized by Hep G2 cells exposed to a given dose of ethanol. The second goal ...
Matorras R - - 1998
The aim of the study was to assess the fatty acid composition of human fertilization-failed oocytes. A total of 150 unfertilized oocytes from 43 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were analysed using capillary gas chromatography. The majority of fatty acids were saturated (79.22%), of which stearic (38.65%) and palmitic (32.66%) ...
Nelson G J - - 1998
Results from human feeding studies and recent large-scale epidemiologic surveys suggest that dietary trans fatty acids enhance the risk of developing coronary heart diseases. Despite a lack of accurate data regarding dietary intake of trans fatty acids, existing epidemiologic data and evidence from experimental feeding studies support the idea that ...
Bartelds B - - 1998
No information is available on perinatal changes in myocardial metabolism in vivo. We measured myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in chronically instrumented fetal, newborn (1-4 days), and juvenile (7 wk) lambs, by measuring aorta-coronary sinus concentration differences and blood flow. In the fetal lambs, ...
Meyer H H - - 1998
Depot fat samples from ruminants of different feeding type and--for comparison--fat samples from simple-stomached animals were collected within 3 months. Individual fatty acid proportions, especially the relation of essential, polyunsaturated fatty acids to nonessential, saturated plus monounsaturated fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. Species can be separated into two ...
Guo Z - - 1998
We evaluated the applicability of stable isotopic tracers to the study of intramuscular fatty acid metabolism by infusing both [U-13C]palmitate and [1-13C]oleate intravenously for 4 h into fasted conscious rats. Skeletal muscles were sequentially biopsied, and the concentration and 13C enrichment of fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio ...
Yaqoob P - - 1998
The effects of fatty acids on immune responses have been studied since the early 1970s, but much controversy still remains. The present review examines recent studies in both animals and in humans, and highlights some new and exciting ideas concerning the mechanism by which fatty acids may affect immune responses ...
Herranz L - - 1998
Triglyceride levels and free fatty acid metabolism are influenced by body fat distribution. To test whether the pattern of fat distribution in obese subjects results in distinct insulin mediated suppression of non-esterified fatty acids which could account for differences in plasma triglycerides, we studied 59 obese subjects who were classified ...
Lukito W - - 1998
The associations between platelet fatty acids and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were studied in 78 institutionalized elderly individuals (27 men and 51 women), aged 67 to 100. Platelet fatty acids were assessed by gas chromatography, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were quantitated by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. It was found ...
Yamada S - - 1998
The 20S proteasome purified from animal cells has various latent peptidase activities. Fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids strongly activate both the chymotrypsin-type and peptidylglutamylpeptide (PGP) hydrolase-type activities, but have been reported to have little activation or inhibition of the trypsin-type activity. We show here that an ...
Degrace P - - 1998
These studies were designed to investigate the lymph absorption of a lipid emulsion in rats prefed different long-term high-fat diets. Particular emphasis was placed on the consequences of endogenous fatty acid alteration on the lymph recovery of two labeled fatty acids. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard diet (LF) ...
Holz R A - - 1998
The total lipid content of the dry weight of whole cysts and 2nd-stage juveniles (J2) of Globodera rostochiensis was 17.1% in dry cysts, 20.9% in cysts soaked in distilled water (DW), 20.3% in cysts that had been in potato root diffusate (PRD) for 7 days, 7.3% in cysts that had ...
Wang M Y - - 1998
In obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with mutant leptin receptors, pancreatic islets have an approximately 50-fold increase in fat (TG), overproduce nitric oxide (NO), and lack a normal proinsulin mRNA response to fatty acids. We overexpressed the wild-type full-length "b" isoform of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in ZDF islets ...
Williams M D - - 1998
[This corrects the article on p. 2540 in vol. 62, PMID: 8779593.].
Kohlmeier L - - 1997
Study of the effects of most individual biologically active dietary fatty acids on human disease requires the use of biomarkers of long-term intake in well-designed epidemiologic studies. Several small studies of tissue taken from women undergoing surgery for breast abnormalities have compared fatty acid profiles of women with ascertained metastatic ...
Carballeira N M - - 1997
The fatty acid composition of a new strain of Vibrio alginolyticus, found in the alga Cladophora coelothrix, was studied. Among 38 different fatty acids, a new fatty acid, 9-methyl-10-hexadecenoic acid and the unusual 11-methyl-12-octadecenoic acid, were identified. Linear alkylbenzene fatty acids, such as 10-phenyldecanoic acid, 12-phenyldodecanoic acid and 14-phenyltetradecanoic acid, ...
Byers T - - 1997
The methods used in nutritional epidemiology to study the relations between fatty acids and cancer risk include ecologic studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, and intervention trials examining either intermediate markers of cancer risk or cancer incidence. Each type of study design has its particular strengths and weaknesses. The inaccuracy of ...
Yuzuriha T - - 1997
To clarify the pathogenesis of the widely known but obscure syndrome of sudden death with hepatic fatty metamorphosis observed in alcohol abusers, we have scrutinized both the clinical and pathological data of 11 subjects who died under such circumstances between 1987 and 1993. Death followed several days of uninterrupted drinking ...
Brondz I - - 1997
The aim of the present study was to analyze the fatty acid content of carious and sound human dentin. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of fatty acids of C10-C18 size in the carious dentin, whereas fatty acids of C16 size were present in minute amounts in ...
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