Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1128
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Edelman Lucas B - - 2008
Previous studies have demonstrated that the local anesthetic bupivacaine selectively inhibits oxidative metabolism of fatty acids in isolated cardiac mitochondria. In the present investigation, we compare the development of bupivacaine cardiotoxicity during fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were excised and retrograde perfused with a ...
Kabagambe Edmond K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Different fatty acids may vary in their effect on the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We tested whether fatty acid classes measured in erythrocytes are associated with the MetS or its components. METHODS: Included were men [n = 497; mean (SD) age, 49 (16) years] and women [n = 539; age, ...
Madsen Kjeld - - 2007
We here report a series of derivatives describing the structure-activity relationship around liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 fatty acid derivative, with respect to potency as well as protraction in vivo. The spacer region between the fatty acid and the peptide is mostly important for potency, whereas the fatty acid ...
Rioux Vincent - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent findings on the biological functions of saturated fatty acids. Some of these findings suggest that saturated fatty acids may have important and specific regulatory roles in the cells. Until now these roles have largely been outweighed by the negative impact of dietary saturated ...
Carballeira N M NM Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346, San Juan 00931-3346, Puerto Rico. - - 2008
This review deals with the most recent findings on the antimalarial, antimycobacterial, and antifungal properties of fatty acids, with particular emphasis on novel marine fatty acids. The first section deals with the most recent and some background literature on what has been the latest developments with respect to fatty acids ...
Rodriguéz-Lee Mariam - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonesterified fatty acids change the expression and properties of the extracellular matrix proteoglycans of arterial and hepatic cells. We review how this may contribute to arterial disease in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Elevated nonesterified fatty acids characterize the dyslipidemia of insulin resistance and ...
Yaqoob Parveen - - 2007
Fatty acids are known to play diverse roles in immune cells. They are important as a source of energy, as structural components of cell membranes, as signaling molecules and as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids and similar mediators. Recent research has suggested that the localization and organisation of fatty ...
Xu Yan - - 2007
Fatty acids, particularly the omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids (EFAs), are considered critical nutritional sources for the developing fetus. The placenta governs the fetal supply of fatty acids via two processes: transport and metabolism. Placental fatty acid metabolism can play a critical role in guiding pregnancy and fetal outcome. ...
De Gelder Joke - - 2007
In this paper we explore the possibilities of Raman spectroscopy in order to deduce information on the fatty acid composition of bacterial cells. Therefore, representative strains of two bacterial taxa were each cultured in different conditions and in parallel analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and gaschromatographic FAME analysis. Raman spectra of ...
Maldonado Eduardo N EN Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, - - 2008
Myelin in the mammalian nervous system has a high concentration of galactolipids [galactosylceramide (GalCer) and sulfatide] with 2-hydroxy fatty acids. We recently reported that fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), encoded by the FA2H gene, is the major fatty acid 2-hydroxylase in the mouse brain. In this report, we show that FA2H ...
Kris-Etherton Penny M - - 2007
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) and Dietitians of Canada (DC) that dietary fat for the adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy and emphasize a reduction in saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids and an increase in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. ADA and ...
Lalovic Aleksandra - - 2007
Cholesterol levels have been reported to be lower in suicidal patients, and alterations in blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found in people with depression. Given that the evidence for the link between lipid metabolism and psychopathology thus far has almost exclusively hinged on alterations of these variables ...
Smith Stuart S Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Jr. Way, Oakland, California 94609, USA. - - 2007
This review chronicles the synergistic growth of the fields of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis over the last century. In both animal fatty acid synthases and modular polyketide synthases, similar catalytic elements are covalently linked in the same order in megasynthases. Whereas in fatty acid synthases the basic elements of ...
Himmetoglu Cigdem - - 2007
Presented herein is a case of diffuse fatty infiltration of amyloid goiter in a 58-year-old woman with chronic renal failure. Bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed due to symptoms of dysphagia and hoarseness. Macroscopic and microscopic examination showed that almost all thyroid follicles were replaced by fat cells. Hyalinized stroma intervening ...
Delmonte Pierluigi - - 2007
Consumption of trans fat has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. For nutrition labeling purposes, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines trans fat as the sum of all the fatty acids with at least one nonconjugated double bond in the trans configuration. The FDA regulation ...
Han Xiao-Xia - - 2007
We examined, in muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats, basal, insulin-induced, and contraction-induced fatty acid transporter translocation and fatty acid uptake, esterification, and oxidation. In lean rats, insulin and contraction induced the translocation of the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36 (43 and 41%, respectively) and plasma membrane-associated fatty acid binding ...
Yang Yingkui - - 2007
Defects in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) have been identified as a major factor in insulin resistance and defective fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Therefore, understanding of the regulation of FAT/CD36 expression and function is important for a potential therapeutic target for type II diabetes. We differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into matured ...
Schenk Simon - - 2007
Fatty acid oversupply is a key mediator of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity, primarily via accumulation of fatty acid metabolites and activation of proinflammatory pathways. Herein, we demonstrate that fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans is completely prevented the day after 1 session of endurance exercise. Because skeletal muscle ...
Cahoon Edgar B - - 2007
Oilseeds provide a unique platform for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace non-sustainable petroleum and oceanic sources of specialty chemicals and aquaculture feed. However, recent efforts to engineer the seeds of crop and model plant species to produce new types of fatty acids, including hydroxy and conjugated ...
Lee Soo Hee - - 2007
Most cells use either a type I or type II synthase to make fatty acids. Trypanosoma brucei, the sleeping sickness parasite, provides the first example of a third mechanism for this process. Trypanosomes use microsomal elongases to synthesize fatty acids de novo, whereas other cells use elongases to make long-chain ...
Zhang Wenliang - - 2007
Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is a major pathogen responsible for dermatophytosis. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antifungal therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antifungal agents for the treatment of disease caused by T. rubrum. We synthesized a potent fungal fatty acid synthase inhibitor, ...
Sun Cynthia Q - - 2007
Free fatty acids and monoglycerides released from milkfat by partial pregastric lipase-catalysed hydrolysis are bactericidal towards Helicobacter pylori. Two milkfat preparations were investigated: a normal bovine milkfat, and a fractionated milkfat preparation, termed ModFat, enriched in triglycerides containing short- and medium-chain fatty acids. The released products were tested for bactericidal ...
Bandyopadhyay Prasun - - 2007
Niosomal hybrid mixtures are prepared with bilayer stabilizer cholesterol from non-ionic surfactants span 20 (HLB value 8.6), span 60 (HLB 4.7) and span 85 (HLB 1.8) in presence of dicetyl phosphate (DCP) where fatty acids or fatty alcohols (C14, C16 and C18) are used as carrier. Hybrid mixtures upon hydration ...
He Ka - - 2007
While coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke share some major risk factors, limited epidemiologic data on dietary fats and vascular disease risk indicate that ischemic stroke is affected differently by these fatty acids than is CHD. The established associations between types of fat and CHD do not appear to ...
Eschen-Lippold Lennart - - 2007
Oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesized via the lipoxygenase pathway play a role in plant responses to pathogen attack. In solanaceous plants, the preferential stimulation of the 9-lipoxygenase pathway in response to pathogen infection leads to the formation of the divinyl ether-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids colneleic and colnelenic acid, as well ...
Liu Xin - - 2007
Previous studies have examined the role of higher trans-fatty acid consumption on prostate cancer risk, but the results remain unclear. Any potential association may be modified by variants in genes involved with immune and inflammatory responses. To investigate this, we undertook a case-control study (N = 1012) of the association ...
Zhang Shuo - - 2007
A new gene encoding a delta12 fatty acid desaturase-related protein was cloned from a multicellular basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus TD#822-2. The 1326 bp full-length gene, designated as Cop-odeA, codes for a putative protein of 442 amino acids with a MW of 49224. The Cop-odeA yeast transformant accumulated four new fatty acids ...
Shirasawa Seiichi - - 2007
A rapid analytical method for trans-fatty acid determination using a single capillary column was developed, and an isothermal condition for separating cis/trans-isomers with 30- to 60-m columns depending on the contents of the trans-fatty acids was established. Under the established conditions, analysis of trans-fatty acids was completed in 20 min ...
Livore Verónica I - - 2007
Leishmania major synthesizes polyunsaturated fatty acids by using Delta6, Delta5 and Delta4 front-end desaturases, which have recently been characterized [Tripodi KE, Buttigliero LV, Altabe SG & Uttaro AD (2006) FEBS J273, 271-280], and two predicted elongases specific for C18 Delta6 and C20 Delta5 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Trypanosoma brucei and ...
Walther Martin - - 2007
Technetium-labeled fatty acids intended for myocardial metabolism imaging and the respective rhenium model complexes were synthesized according to the "4 + 1" mixed-ligand approach and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The non-radioactive rhenium model complexes were characterized by NMR, IR, and EA, and the geometrical impact of the chelate ...
Napier Johnathan A - - 2007
The ability to genetically engineer plants has facilitated the generation of oilseeds synthesizing non-native fatty acids. Two particular classes of fatty acids are considered in this review. First, so-called industrial fatty acids, which usually contain functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, or acetylenic bonds, and second, very long chain polyunsaturated ...
Karupaiah Tilakavati - - 2007
Most studies on lipid lowering diets have focused on the total content of saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. However, the distribution of these fatty acids on the triacylglycerol (TAG) molecule and the molecular TAG species generated by this stereospecificity are characteristic for various native dietary TAGs. Fat randomization or ...
Aras Omer - - 2007
Long-chain free fatty acids and glucose account for the vast majority of ATP production in the heart. An alteration of fatty acid oxidation is considered to be a sensitive marker of ischemia and myocardial damage. Recently, several radiolabeled fatty acid analogs have been introduced to assess myocardial cellular function. The ...
Kuklev Dmitry V DV Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2006
Three fatty acids were synthesized from commercially available alpha-linolenic, stearidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids by C2-elongation using a four step preparative technique. The parent fatty acid methyl esters were reduced to alcohols with LiAlH(4), converted to bromides by treatment with triphenylphosphine dibromide, coupled with a lithiated C2-elongation block--2,4,4-trimethyl-2-oxazoline--to form the corresponding ...
van der Vusse Ger J - - 2006
This review highlights the changes in fatty acid homeostasis in the postischemic heart. The impact of restoration of flow (reperfusion) after an ischemic episode on both structural fatty acids (ie, incorporated in phospholipids, the building blocks of cellular membranes) and fatty acids, serving as energy donors by mitochondrial oxidation, are ...
Heather Lisa C LC Cardiac Metabolism Research Group, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Sherrington Building, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PT, - - 2006
Cardiac fatty acid uptake occurs predominantly via sarcolemmal transporter proteins; fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) and fatty acid transporter proteins (FATP) 1 and 6. We hypothesised that levels of the fatty acid transporters would be reduced in the chronically infarcted rat heart, in parallel ...
Tehlivets Oksana - - 2007
Fatty acids are essential compounds in the cell. Since the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not feed typically on fatty acids, cellular function and growth relies on endogenous synthesis. Since all cellular organelles are involved in--or dependent on--fatty acid synthesis, multiple levels of control may exist to ensure proper fatty acid ...
Menendez Javier A - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review documents our rapidly changing perspectives on the function of fatty acid synthase-catalyzed endogenous fatty acid biogenesis in cancer biology. RECENT FINDINGS: Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase gene expression and fatty acid synthase biosynthetic activity are molecular events accompanying the pathogenesis and natural history of cancer ...
Durgan David J - - 2006
Cells/organs must respond both rapidly and appropriately to increased fatty acid availability; failure to do so is associated with the development of skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin resistance, pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, and myocardial contractile dysfunction. Here we tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic circadian clock within the cardiomyocytes of the ...
Mi-Ichi F - - 2006
Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria. Utilization of fatty acids in serum is thought to be necessary for survival of this parasite in erythrocytes, and thus characterization of the parasite fatty acid metabolism is important in developing a new strategy for controlling malaria. Here, we examined which ...
Mashek Douglas G - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of fatty acid metabolism as a major determinant in fatty acid uptake. In particular, we emphasize how the activation, intracellular transport and downstream metabolism of fatty acids influence their uptake into cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examining fatty ...
Cahoon Edgar B - - 2006
Expression of Delta(12)-oleic acid desaturase-related fatty acid conjugases from Calendula officinalis, Momordica charantia, and Vernicia fordii in seeds of soybean (Glycine max) or an Arabidopsis thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant was accompanied by the accumulation of the conjugated fatty acids calendic acid or alpha-eleostearic acid to amounts as high as 20% of ...
Bernal Claudio A - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to examine whether the level of dietary cis fatty acid (cFA), or the isomers (trans or cis) and/or the saturation of the fatty acids at high dietary fat levels altered the intracellular glucose metabolites and certain regulatory enzyme activities in the skeletal muscle ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2006
We investigated the role of fatty acid availability on AMPK signalling and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Incubating L6 skeletal muscle myotubes with palmitate (a saturated fatty acid) or linoleate (a polyunsaturated fatty acid) increased AMPK activity by 56 and 38%, respectively, compared with untreated cells. Consistent with these ...
Elhottová Dana - - 2006
Viable microorganisms were found in Miocene lacustrine clays of the cypris formation excavated from 200-m below the surface as spoil during open-cast brown coal mining (Sokolov Brown Coal Basin, North-Western Bohemia, Czech Republic). Both saprotrophic microfungi of the genera Penicillium, Verticillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus as well as heterotrophic bacteria were ...
Karsi Nadia - - 2006
Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates have been modified by alkanethiol and fatty acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The SAMs were grown by dipping the cleaned surface into either a pure alkanethiol or a fatty acid dissolved in various solvents. They were characterized through contact angle, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and infrared absorption-reflection ...
Dawyndt Peter - - 2006
This study examines how the discriminatory power of an automated bacterial whole-cell fatty acid identification system can be significantly enhanced by exploring the vast amounts of information accumulated during 15 years of routine gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid content of aerobic bacteria. Construction of a global peak occurrence ...
Li Guoqing - - 2006
Extraction, fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses guided by bioassays have shown that n-alkanes and free fatty acids in leaf epicuticular wax of the Japanese knotweed Fallopia (Reynoutria) japonica stimulate oviposition in the Far-Eastern knotweed borer, Ostrinia latipennis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). n-Alkanes made up 48.1% of the total amount of epicuticular ...
Lu Chaofu - - 2006
It is desirable to produce high homogeneity of novel fatty acids in oilseeds through genetic engineering to meet the increasing demands of the oleo-chemical industry. However, expression of key enzymes for biosynthesis of industrial fatty acids usually results in low levels of desired fatty acids in transgenic oilseeds. The abundance ...
Yang Wei-Li - - 2006
Suberin, a cell specific, wall-associated biopolymer, is formed during normal plant growth and development as well as in response to stress conditions such as wounding. It is characterized by the deposition of both a poly(phenolic) domain (SPPD) in the cell wall and a poly(aliphatic) domain (SPAD) thought to be deposited ...
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