Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1147
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Steffen L M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to describe the relation of serum fatty acids and desaturase activity (DA) to overweight, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents. The relations of % serum phospholipid (PL) and cholesteryl ester (CE) fatty acids and estimated DA with CVD risk factors ...
Gao Xuelu - - 2008
Organic matter of nine surface sediments from the Daya Bay was Soxhlet-extracted with a mixture of 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol and separated into five fractions: non-aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, and fatty acids and asphaltenes, and analyzed to determine their bulk and biomarker composition. Marine autogenic input appears to be ...
Martin Clayton Antunes - - 2008
The quantification of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acids in partially hydrogenated fats by gas-liquid chromatography on a CP-Select CB-FAME capillary column was optimized using equivalent chain length values of fatty acids methyl esters that could coelute in the temperature range from 155 to 200 degrees C. The most appropriate ...
Chajès Véronique - - 2008
The authors assessed the association between serum phospholipid fatty acids as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and breast cancer risk among women in the E3N Study (1989-2002), the French component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During an average of 7 years of follow-up, 363 cases of ...
Aupperle Robin L - - 2008
Depression is a common problem among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous research has shown differences between MS patients and controls in the levels of certain fatty acids, and differences in many of these same fatty acids have also been reported in psychiatric patients with major depression. The current study ...
Chi Xiaoyuan - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important components of infant and adult nutrition because they serve as structural elements of cell membranes. Fatty acid desaturases are responsible for the insertion of double bonds into pre-formed fatty acid chains in reactions that require oxygen and reducing equivalents. In this study, the genome-wide ...
Lee Eunjeong - - 2008
n-3 and Trans fatty acids are considered to be the important modifiable factors of the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lower Omega-3 fatty acids and/or higher trans fatty acids of erythrocytes (RBC) are associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. Forty-four ...
Smith Caren E - - 2008
Objective-To compare plasma fatty acid concentrations and the relationships of fatty acid concentrations to arrhythmias in Boxers versus Doberman Pinschers. Animals-38 Boxers and 13 Doberman Pinschers. Procedures-Boxers and Doberman Pinschers evaluated via Holter recording and for which a blood sample was available were included. Echocardiograms were performed in 49 of ...
Feuvray D - - 2008
Although the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is poorly understood, recent evidence implicates perturbations in cardiac energy metabolism. Whereas mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is the chief energy source for the normal postnatal mammalian heart, the relative contribution of glucose utilization pathways is significant, allowing the plasticity necessary for steady ATP production ...
Martinez Sara C SC Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave., Campus Box 8127, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2008
beta-Cells are particularly susceptible to fatty acid-induced apoptosis associated with decreased insulin receptor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling and the activation of stress kinases. We examined the mechanism of fatty acid-induced apoptosis of mouse beta-cells especially as related to the role played by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced Foxo1 activation and whether decreasing Foxo1 ...
Gotoh Naohiro - - 2008
Fatty acids are converted into energy via beta-oxidation. Although almost all natural occurring fatty acids are even-numbered, there are some odd-numbered fatty acids too. The details of the metabolism rate of odd-numbered fatty acids, however, are not clear. In the present study, we simultaneously administered a triacylglycerol containing four types ...
Methy Nicolas - - 2008
Epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent data about the role of dietary fatty acids in colorectal cancer, and few studies have addressed their role in colorectal adenoma. The aim of the study was to assess the risk of overall adenoma recurrence associated with dietary consumption of total fat, subtypes of fat, ...
McCarthy Justine - - 2008
Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge ...
Guillou Hervé - - 2008
The liver is a major site of fatty acid synthesis and degradation. Transcriptional regulation is one of several mechanisms controlling hepatic metabolism of fatty acids. Two transcription factors, namely SREBP1-c and PPARalpha, appear to be the main players controlling synthesis and degradation of fatty acids respectively. This chapter briefly presents ...
Risé Patrizia - - 2008
The aim of this study was to compare blood fatty acid profiles of two population groups: Italian and Tibetan, differing with regard to ethnic, life style and environmental aspects. Additionally the collection of two staple foods provided the opportunity to analyze typical Tibetan dishes. A new, simple, rapid, and substantially ...
Bragt M C E - - 2008
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing. This syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbances, such as abnormal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and a low-grade inflammatory state. PPARs play an important role in these metabolic processes, which makes them effective targets for treatment and prevention of the metabolic syndrome. ...
Robinson Lindsay E - - 2007
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises an array of metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Individuals with MetS are at elevated risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Central to the etiology of MetS is an interrelated triad comprising inflammation, abdominal obesity, and aberrations in fatty acid metabolism, ...
Karabulut Ihsan - - 2007
Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty ...
Narváez-Rivas Mónica - - 2007
Changes in diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and free fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat of six Iberian hams during the dry-cured process were investigated. In addition, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and free fatty acid by solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography was developed. The different molecular species of free fatty ...
Edelman Lucas B - - 2008
Previous studies have demonstrated that the local anesthetic bupivacaine selectively inhibits oxidative metabolism of fatty acids in isolated cardiac mitochondria. In the present investigation, we compare the development of bupivacaine cardiotoxicity during fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were excised and retrograde perfused with a ...
Kabagambe Edmond K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Different fatty acids may vary in their effect on the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We tested whether fatty acid classes measured in erythrocytes are associated with the MetS or its components. METHODS: Included were men [n = 497; mean (SD) age, 49 (16) years] and women [n = 539; age, ...
Madsen Kjeld - - 2007
We here report a series of derivatives describing the structure-activity relationship around liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 fatty acid derivative, with respect to potency as well as protraction in vivo. The spacer region between the fatty acid and the peptide is mostly important for potency, whereas the fatty acid ...
Rioux Vincent - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent findings on the biological functions of saturated fatty acids. Some of these findings suggest that saturated fatty acids may have important and specific regulatory roles in the cells. Until now these roles have largely been outweighed by the negative impact of dietary saturated ...
Carballeira N M NM Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346, San Juan 00931-3346, Puerto Rico. - - 2008
This review deals with the most recent findings on the antimalarial, antimycobacterial, and antifungal properties of fatty acids, with particular emphasis on novel marine fatty acids. The first section deals with the most recent and some background literature on what has been the latest developments with respect to fatty acids ...
Rodriguéz-Lee Mariam - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonesterified fatty acids change the expression and properties of the extracellular matrix proteoglycans of arterial and hepatic cells. We review how this may contribute to arterial disease in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Elevated nonesterified fatty acids characterize the dyslipidemia of insulin resistance and ...
Yaqoob Parveen - - 2007
Fatty acids are known to play diverse roles in immune cells. They are important as a source of energy, as structural components of cell membranes, as signaling molecules and as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids and similar mediators. Recent research has suggested that the localization and organisation of fatty ...
Xu Yan - - 2007
Fatty acids, particularly the omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids (EFAs), are considered critical nutritional sources for the developing fetus. The placenta governs the fetal supply of fatty acids via two processes: transport and metabolism. Placental fatty acid metabolism can play a critical role in guiding pregnancy and fetal outcome. ...
De Gelder Joke - - 2007
In this paper we explore the possibilities of Raman spectroscopy in order to deduce information on the fatty acid composition of bacterial cells. Therefore, representative strains of two bacterial taxa were each cultured in different conditions and in parallel analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and gaschromatographic FAME analysis. Raman spectra of ...
Maldonado Eduardo N EN Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, - - 2008
Myelin in the mammalian nervous system has a high concentration of galactolipids [galactosylceramide (GalCer) and sulfatide] with 2-hydroxy fatty acids. We recently reported that fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), encoded by the FA2H gene, is the major fatty acid 2-hydroxylase in the mouse brain. In this report, we show that FA2H ...
Kris-Etherton Penny M - - 2007
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) and Dietitians of Canada (DC) that dietary fat for the adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy and emphasize a reduction in saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids and an increase in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. ADA and ...
Lalovic Aleksandra - - 2007
Cholesterol levels have been reported to be lower in suicidal patients, and alterations in blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found in people with depression. Given that the evidence for the link between lipid metabolism and psychopathology thus far has almost exclusively hinged on alterations of these variables ...
Smith Stuart S Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Jr. Way, Oakland, California 94609, USA. - - 2007
This review chronicles the synergistic growth of the fields of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis over the last century. In both animal fatty acid synthases and modular polyketide synthases, similar catalytic elements are covalently linked in the same order in megasynthases. Whereas in fatty acid synthases the basic elements of ...
Himmetoglu Cigdem - - 2007
Presented herein is a case of diffuse fatty infiltration of amyloid goiter in a 58-year-old woman with chronic renal failure. Bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed due to symptoms of dysphagia and hoarseness. Macroscopic and microscopic examination showed that almost all thyroid follicles were replaced by fat cells. Hyalinized stroma intervening ...
Delmonte Pierluigi - - 2007
Consumption of trans fat has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. For nutrition labeling purposes, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines trans fat as the sum of all the fatty acids with at least one nonconjugated double bond in the trans configuration. The FDA regulation ...
Han Xiao-Xia - - 2007
We examined, in muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats, basal, insulin-induced, and contraction-induced fatty acid transporter translocation and fatty acid uptake, esterification, and oxidation. In lean rats, insulin and contraction induced the translocation of the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36 (43 and 41%, respectively) and plasma membrane-associated fatty acid binding ...
Yang Yingkui - - 2007
Defects in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) have been identified as a major factor in insulin resistance and defective fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Therefore, understanding of the regulation of FAT/CD36 expression and function is important for a potential therapeutic target for type II diabetes. We differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into matured ...
Schenk Simon - - 2007
Fatty acid oversupply is a key mediator of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity, primarily via accumulation of fatty acid metabolites and activation of proinflammatory pathways. Herein, we demonstrate that fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans is completely prevented the day after 1 session of endurance exercise. Because skeletal muscle ...
Cahoon Edgar B - - 2007
Oilseeds provide a unique platform for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace non-sustainable petroleum and oceanic sources of specialty chemicals and aquaculture feed. However, recent efforts to engineer the seeds of crop and model plant species to produce new types of fatty acids, including hydroxy and conjugated ...
Lee Soo Hee - - 2007
Most cells use either a type I or type II synthase to make fatty acids. Trypanosoma brucei, the sleeping sickness parasite, provides the first example of a third mechanism for this process. Trypanosomes use microsomal elongases to synthesize fatty acids de novo, whereas other cells use elongases to make long-chain ...
Zhang Wenliang - - 2007
Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is a major pathogen responsible for dermatophytosis. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antifungal therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antifungal agents for the treatment of disease caused by T. rubrum. We synthesized a potent fungal fatty acid synthase inhibitor, ...
Sun Cynthia Q - - 2007
Free fatty acids and monoglycerides released from milkfat by partial pregastric lipase-catalysed hydrolysis are bactericidal towards Helicobacter pylori. Two milkfat preparations were investigated: a normal bovine milkfat, and a fractionated milkfat preparation, termed ModFat, enriched in triglycerides containing short- and medium-chain fatty acids. The released products were tested for bactericidal ...
Bandyopadhyay Prasun - - 2007
Niosomal hybrid mixtures are prepared with bilayer stabilizer cholesterol from non-ionic surfactants span 20 (HLB value 8.6), span 60 (HLB 4.7) and span 85 (HLB 1.8) in presence of dicetyl phosphate (DCP) where fatty acids or fatty alcohols (C14, C16 and C18) are used as carrier. Hybrid mixtures upon hydration ...
He Ka - - 2007
While coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke share some major risk factors, limited epidemiologic data on dietary fats and vascular disease risk indicate that ischemic stroke is affected differently by these fatty acids than is CHD. The established associations between types of fat and CHD do not appear to ...
Eschen-Lippold Lennart - - 2007
Oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesized via the lipoxygenase pathway play a role in plant responses to pathogen attack. In solanaceous plants, the preferential stimulation of the 9-lipoxygenase pathway in response to pathogen infection leads to the formation of the divinyl ether-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids colneleic and colnelenic acid, as well ...
Liu Xin - - 2007
Previous studies have examined the role of higher trans-fatty acid consumption on prostate cancer risk, but the results remain unclear. Any potential association may be modified by variants in genes involved with immune and inflammatory responses. To investigate this, we undertook a case-control study (N = 1012) of the association ...
Zhang Shuo - - 2007
A new gene encoding a delta12 fatty acid desaturase-related protein was cloned from a multicellular basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus TD#822-2. The 1326 bp full-length gene, designated as Cop-odeA, codes for a putative protein of 442 amino acids with a MW of 49224. The Cop-odeA yeast transformant accumulated four new fatty acids ...
Shirasawa Seiichi - - 2007
A rapid analytical method for trans-fatty acid determination using a single capillary column was developed, and an isothermal condition for separating cis/trans-isomers with 30- to 60-m columns depending on the contents of the trans-fatty acids was established. Under the established conditions, analysis of trans-fatty acids was completed in 20 min ...
Livore Verónica I - - 2007
Leishmania major synthesizes polyunsaturated fatty acids by using Delta6, Delta5 and Delta4 front-end desaturases, which have recently been characterized [Tripodi KE, Buttigliero LV, Altabe SG & Uttaro AD (2006) FEBS J273, 271-280], and two predicted elongases specific for C18 Delta6 and C20 Delta5 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Trypanosoma brucei and ...
Walther Martin - - 2007
Technetium-labeled fatty acids intended for myocardial metabolism imaging and the respective rhenium model complexes were synthesized according to the "4 + 1" mixed-ligand approach and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The non-radioactive rhenium model complexes were characterized by NMR, IR, and EA, and the geometrical impact of the chelate ...
Napier Johnathan A - - 2007
The ability to genetically engineer plants has facilitated the generation of oilseeds synthesizing non-native fatty acids. Two particular classes of fatty acids are considered in this review. First, so-called industrial fatty acids, which usually contain functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, or acetylenic bonds, and second, very long chain polyunsaturated ...
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