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Results 551 - 600 of 1175
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Flores M - - 2009
The use of frozen/thawed raw material in the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been studied to determine its effect on the sensory quality of the final product. The proteolysis and lipolysis processes were measured by the proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities and free amino acids and free fatty acids. ...
Liavonchanka Alena - - 2009
The catalytic mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase (PAI) is explored by kinetic, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic studies. The PAI-catalyzed double bond isomerization takes place by selective removal of the pro-R hydrogen from C-11 followed by suprafacial transfer of this hydrogen to C-9 as shown by conversion of C-9-deuterated ...
Nagano Minoru - - 2009
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a widely conserved cytoprotective protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. We identified Arabidopsis cytochrome b(5) (AtCb5) as an interactor of Arabidopsis BI-1 (AtBI-1) by screening the Arabidopsis cDNA library with the split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid (suY2H) system. Cb5 is an electron transfer protein localized mainly in ...
Flowers Matthew T MT Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. - - 2009
Obesity is currently a worldwide epidemic and public health burden that increases the risk for developing insulin resistance and several chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The multifactorial causes of obesity include several genetic, dietary and lifestyle variables that together result in an imbalance ...
Rohrbach S - - 2009
Type and quantity of ingested dietary fat contribute to the onset and progression of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity or arteriosclerosis. Attention is increasingly focussing on effective therapies for these diseases as well as functional foods that impede the development of insulin resistance and obesity. Studies provided evidence showing ...
Asgary Seddigheh - - 2009
Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. ...
Tsuji Hiroshi - - 2009
Sodium monofluoroacetate (SMFA; also known as compound 1080) is a highly toxic chemical; therefore, accidental exposure and intentional misuse are of great concern. SMFA intoxication is reportedly caused by the inhibition of aconitase. However, the pathogenesis underlying SMFA intoxication is not clear. This study was conducted to elucidate the acute ...
Calder Philip C - - 2009
Fatty acids may influence immune function through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are associated with changes in fatty acid composition of immune cell membranes. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation and immunity. Increased membrane content of n-3 fatty acids results in a changed pattern of ...
Yamada Mai - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We examined cross-sectional associations of total, hydrogenated, and natural trans fatty acid intake with selected metabolic risk factors in young Japanese women. METHODS: Subjects were 1136 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Associations between trans fatty acid ...
Wang Yuanyuan - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Fatty acids have been implicated in osteoarthritis (OA), yet the mechanism by which fatty acids affect knee structure and consequently the risk of knee OA has not been fully elucidated. Higher intakes of fatty acids have been shown to be associated with the risk of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) ...
Gupta Ruby - - 2009
Fatty acid measurements especially trans fatty acid has gained interest in recent times. Among the various available biomarkers, adipose tissue is considered to be the best for the long term dietary intake but the invasive nature of tissue aspiration reduces its utility. Phlebotomy is a much less invasive method of ...
Cronan John E JE Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, - - 2009
This review presents the most thoroughly studied bacterial fatty acid synthetic pathway, that of Escherichia coli and then discusses the exceptions to the E. coli pathway present in other bacteria. The known interrelationships between the fatty acid and polyketide synthetic pathways are also assessed, mainly in the Streptomyces group of ...
Mattes Richard D RD Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana, USA. - - 2009
Taste is a chemical sense that aids in the detection of nutrients and guides food choice. A limited number of primary qualities comprise taste. Accumulating evidence has raised a question about whether fat should be among them. Most evidence indicates triacylglycerol is not an effective taste stimulus, though it clearly ...
Stoddart Leigh A - - 2008
Identification of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by free fatty acids has led to considerable interest in their pharmacology and function because of the wide range of normal physiology and disease states in which fatty acids have been implicated. Free fatty acid receptor (FFA) 1 is activated by medium- ...
Swaminath Gayathri - - 2008
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to various physiological ligands such as photons, ions, and small molecules that include amines, fatty acids, and amino acids to peptides, proteins and steroids. Therefore, this family of proteins represents an attractive target for biopharmaceutical research. The physiological role of fatty acids and other lipid molecules ...
Oura Takahiro - - 2008
Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid desaturases are key enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are important constituents of membrane glycerolipids and also precursors to signaling molecules in many organisms. In this study, we determined the substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid ...
Wakil Salih J - - 2009
Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid ...
Duttaroy Asim K - - 2009
Essential fatty acids and their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives (20C) such as docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids are critical for proper fetal growth and development. Dietary intake as well as metabolism of these fatty acids, and their subsequent transfer from the mother to the fetus are therefore important requisites ...
Herranz Beatriz - - 2008
'Milano-type' salami from 13 European and American countries were analysed to establish their nutritional value in relation to fat and fatty acid composition. The fat content, fatty acid profile, ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ratio of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (h/H) and the contribution to the daily intake recommended for ...
Bu So Young - - 2008
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have made headlines because of the federal government's recent regulatory steps to reduce dietary intake of these potentially dangerous compounds. This review will focus on the chemistry of TFAs, their dietary sources, their association with various chronic diseases, and the possible mechanisms explaining their biological effects.
Lu Xuefeng - - 2008
Whereas microbial fermentation processes for producing ethanol and related alcohol biofuels are well established, biodiesel (methyl esters of fatty acids) is exclusively derived from plant oils. Slow cycle times for engineering oilseed metabolism and the excessive accumulation of glycerol as a byproduct are two major drawbacks of deriving biodiesel from ...
Ménard Sébastien L - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of the research is to study the effect of acute inhibition of intravascular lipolysis on myocardial substrate selection during hypertriglyceridemia using in vivo radiotracer analysis and positron emission tomography. PROCEDURES: We induced acute hypertriglyceridemia in vivo using an intravenous infusion of Intralipid 20% (IL) without and with ...
Kishino Tomonori - - 2008
We examined relationships between visceral fat amount and alterations in serum fatty acid composition, both of which represent critical factors in the development of metabolic syndrome. Correlations were analyzed between visceral fat thickness as measured by ultrasonography and proportions of individual fatty acids in 21 normal-weight and 24 overweight Japanese ...
Schantz Michele M - - 2008
As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM ...
Shearer Jane - - 2008
Insulin resistance is characterized by elevated rates of cardiac fatty acid utilization resulting in reduced efficiency and cardiomyopathy. One potential therapeutic approach is to limit the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids. The aims of this study were to determine whether a quantitative reduction in heart-type fatty acid binding protein ...
Horiguchi Akio - - 2008
PURPOSE: Fatty acid synthase is a key enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. Increased fatty acid synthase expression and its association with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis have been demonstrated in various human malignant tumors. We investigated fatty acid synthase expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma ...
Blacklock Brenda J - - 2008
Fatty acid elongation was examined in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Profiling of the total fatty acid content of D. discoideum indicated that fatty acid elongation is active. Orthologs of the fatty acid elongase ELO family were identified in the D. discoideum genome and the cDNA for one, eloA, ...
Vinikoor Lisa C LC Department of Epidemiology, Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7555, USA. - - 2008
trans-Fatty acid consumption is known to have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health, but little is known about its role in digestive tract neoplasia. To investigate the association between colorectal adenomas and trans-fatty acid consumption, the authors utilized data from a cross-sectional study of 622 individuals who underwent complete colonoscopy between ...
Steffen L M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to describe the relation of serum fatty acids and desaturase activity (DA) to overweight, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents. The relations of % serum phospholipid (PL) and cholesteryl ester (CE) fatty acids and estimated DA with CVD risk factors ...
Gao Xuelu - - 2008
Organic matter of nine surface sediments from the Daya Bay was Soxhlet-extracted with a mixture of 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol and separated into five fractions: non-aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, and fatty acids and asphaltenes, and analyzed to determine their bulk and biomarker composition. Marine autogenic input appears to be ...
Martin Clayton Antunes - - 2008
The quantification of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acids in partially hydrogenated fats by gas-liquid chromatography on a CP-Select CB-FAME capillary column was optimized using equivalent chain length values of fatty acids methyl esters that could coelute in the temperature range from 155 to 200 degrees C. The most appropriate ...
Chajès Véronique - - 2008
The authors assessed the association between serum phospholipid fatty acids as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and breast cancer risk among women in the E3N Study (1989-2002), the French component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During an average of 7 years of follow-up, 363 cases of ...
Aupperle Robin L - - 2008
Depression is a common problem among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous research has shown differences between MS patients and controls in the levels of certain fatty acids, and differences in many of these same fatty acids have also been reported in psychiatric patients with major depression. The current study ...
Chi Xiaoyuan - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important components of infant and adult nutrition because they serve as structural elements of cell membranes. Fatty acid desaturases are responsible for the insertion of double bonds into pre-formed fatty acid chains in reactions that require oxygen and reducing equivalents. In this study, the genome-wide ...
Lee Eunjeong - - 2008
n-3 and Trans fatty acids are considered to be the important modifiable factors of the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lower Omega-3 fatty acids and/or higher trans fatty acids of erythrocytes (RBC) are associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. Forty-four ...
Smith Caren E - - 2008
Objective-To compare plasma fatty acid concentrations and the relationships of fatty acid concentrations to arrhythmias in Boxers versus Doberman Pinschers. Animals-38 Boxers and 13 Doberman Pinschers. Procedures-Boxers and Doberman Pinschers evaluated via Holter recording and for which a blood sample was available were included. Echocardiograms were performed in 49 of ...
Feuvray D - - 2008
Although the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is poorly understood, recent evidence implicates perturbations in cardiac energy metabolism. Whereas mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is the chief energy source for the normal postnatal mammalian heart, the relative contribution of glucose utilization pathways is significant, allowing the plasticity necessary for steady ATP production ...
Martinez Sara C SC Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave., Campus Box 8127, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2008
beta-Cells are particularly susceptible to fatty acid-induced apoptosis associated with decreased insulin receptor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling and the activation of stress kinases. We examined the mechanism of fatty acid-induced apoptosis of mouse beta-cells especially as related to the role played by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced Foxo1 activation and whether decreasing Foxo1 ...
Gotoh Naohiro - - 2008
Fatty acids are converted into energy via beta-oxidation. Although almost all natural occurring fatty acids are even-numbered, there are some odd-numbered fatty acids too. The details of the metabolism rate of odd-numbered fatty acids, however, are not clear. In the present study, we simultaneously administered a triacylglycerol containing four types ...
Methy Nicolas - - 2008
Epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent data about the role of dietary fatty acids in colorectal cancer, and few studies have addressed their role in colorectal adenoma. The aim of the study was to assess the risk of overall adenoma recurrence associated with dietary consumption of total fat, subtypes of fat, ...
McCarthy Justine - - 2008
Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge ...
Guillou Hervé - - 2008
The liver is a major site of fatty acid synthesis and degradation. Transcriptional regulation is one of several mechanisms controlling hepatic metabolism of fatty acids. Two transcription factors, namely SREBP1-c and PPARalpha, appear to be the main players controlling synthesis and degradation of fatty acids respectively. This chapter briefly presents ...
Risé Patrizia - - 2008
The aim of this study was to compare blood fatty acid profiles of two population groups: Italian and Tibetan, differing with regard to ethnic, life style and environmental aspects. Additionally the collection of two staple foods provided the opportunity to analyze typical Tibetan dishes. A new, simple, rapid, and substantially ...
Bragt M C E - - 2008
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing. This syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbances, such as abnormal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and a low-grade inflammatory state. PPARs play an important role in these metabolic processes, which makes them effective targets for treatment and prevention of the metabolic syndrome. ...
Robinson Lindsay E - - 2007
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises an array of metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Individuals with MetS are at elevated risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Central to the etiology of MetS is an interrelated triad comprising inflammation, abdominal obesity, and aberrations in fatty acid metabolism, ...
Karabulut Ihsan - - 2007
Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty ...
Narváez-Rivas Mónica - - 2007
Changes in diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and free fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat of six Iberian hams during the dry-cured process were investigated. In addition, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and free fatty acid by solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography was developed. The different molecular species of free fatty ...
Edelman Lucas B - - 2008
Previous studies have demonstrated that the local anesthetic bupivacaine selectively inhibits oxidative metabolism of fatty acids in isolated cardiac mitochondria. In the present investigation, we compare the development of bupivacaine cardiotoxicity during fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were excised and retrograde perfused with a ...
Kabagambe Edmond K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Different fatty acids may vary in their effect on the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We tested whether fatty acid classes measured in erythrocytes are associated with the MetS or its components. METHODS: Included were men [n = 497; mean (SD) age, 49 (16) years] and women [n = 539; age, ...
Madsen Kjeld - - 2007
We here report a series of derivatives describing the structure-activity relationship around liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 fatty acid derivative, with respect to potency as well as protraction in vivo. The spacer region between the fatty acid and the peptide is mostly important for potency, whereas the fatty acid ...
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