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Results 451 - 500 of 1094
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Gomes Aline D - - 2010
Fatty acids have been used in marine biogeochemistry as food chain biomarkers, but in freshwater these studies are rare. In order to evaluate the fatty acid potential as biomarkers in freshwater, their profile was analyzed during vitellogenesis in two fish species, in both waterfall and reservoir environments of the Paraíba ...
Saraswathi Viswanathan - - 2009
Obesity is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFAs), which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although impairment of cholesterol homeostasis is known to induce toxicity in macrophages, the consequence of altered fatty acid homeostasis is not clear. Long-chain acyl CoA synthetases (ACSLs) play ...
Arshadi Mehrdad - - 2009
Different qualities of biofuel pellets were made from pine and spruce sawdust according to an industrial experimental design. The fatty/resin acid compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for both newly produced pellets and those after 2 and 4 weeks of storage. The aldehydes/ketones compositions were determined by high performance ...
Erridge Clett - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate inflammatory signaling in response to conserved microbial molecules. It has been proposed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) may also serve as endogenous ligands of TLR2 or TLR4, thereby promoting diseases associated with inflammation and dyslipidemia, including atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We ...
Iwamoto Eiji - - 2009
The effects of the fattening period on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of fat deposits, and muscle free amino acid (FAA) and inosinic acid (IMP) contents were evaluated in Japanese Black steers. Ten castrated, 10-month-old calves derived from the same sire were divided into five to be slaughtered at the ...
Wilke M S - - 2009
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is recommended that patients with diabetes reduce their intake of saturated fat and increase their intake of monounsaturated fat or carbohydrate. However, high-carbohydrate diets may result in higher saturated fatty acids in VLDL-triacylglycerol. This is attributed to de novo lipogenesis, although synthesis of specific fatty acids is rarely ...
Li Jianjian - - 2009
Fatty acids covalently bonded with other molecules have been implicated in many important biological processes. We describe here a rapid approach termed isotope-coded fatty acid transmethylation (iFAT) that integrates extraction, transmethylation, and isotopic labeling into a single step with the aid of ultrasonic irradiation for comparative analysis of fatty acids ...
Reich Marlis - - 2009
Here, the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolorwas explored with the aim of constructing a genome-wide inventory of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Sixty-three genes of the major pathways were annotated and validated by the detection of the corresponding transcripts. Seventy-one per cent belonged to multigene families ...
Ryan Robert P - - 2009
Burkholderia cenocepacia produces a diffusible fatty acid signal molecule, cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF), that has been implicated in interspecies and interkingdom communication. Here, we show that BDSF also acts as an intraspecies signal in B. cenocepacia to control factors contributing to virulence of this major opportunistic pathogen.
Tsukamoto Seiichi - - 2009
A variant of human tear lipocalin was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the bound fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Five major fatty acids were identified as hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid, PA), cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid), 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid) ...
Lecerf Jean-Michel - - 2009
Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated ...
Zhang Ying - - 2009
The long-term metabolic and functional effects of a dietary deprivation of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids were recently investigated in second-generation omega3-depleted rats. This study represents the first attempt to explore the direct, but not immediate, effects of omega3 fatty acids on insulin-producing cells. For this purpose, BRIN-BD11 cells were ...
Carrilho M C - - 2009
The effect of the fattening diet on the intramuscular fatty acid composition was studied on a total of 96 hybrid rabbits. Animals were slaughtered at weaning, at 1.6kg after the consumption for three weeks of various diets containing low (14.28%), medium (18.04%) and high (20.48%) fibre content, and at 2 ...
Oh So-Ra - - 2009
Hyperlipidemia and marrow fat are associated with lowering bone density in vivo, suggesting that lipid contributes to bone loss. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we investigated the effect of saturated fatty acids (SFA) on osteoclastogenesis. The level of free fatty acids and adiposity in bone marrow was significantly elevated in obese ...
Li Yonghua - - 2009
Oxygenated fatty acids such as ricinoleic acid and vernolic acid can serve in the industry as synthons for the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals and polymers traditionally produced by chemical conversion of petroleum derivatives. Oxygenated fatty acids can also be useful to synthesize specialty chemicals such as cosmetics ...
Kummerow Fred A - - 2009
Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been in the American diet since 1900. More than 50 years ago they were found to contain trans fatty acids that were different from natural fatty acids in plant oils and in animal fat. There was growing evidence that the consumption of trans fats have ...
Fan X - - 2009
This study was conducted to investigate possible formation of trans fatty acids due to irradiation of ground beef and frankfurters. Ground beef and frankfurter samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, and 5 kGy at 4 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 7 d (ground beef) ...
Sinanoglou Vassilia J - - 2009
Pork meat samples were inoculated with high or low levels (10(6) or 10(3) CFU/g) of Salmonella Enteritidis, vacuum packaged, exposed to gamma radiation (1.0, 2.5, and 4.7 kGy), and stored for 1 month at 4 +/- 1 degrees C. In highly contaminated samples, the target strain was completely eliminated only ...
Perez Israel - - 2009
Levels of testosterone and estradiol influence the incidence of cardiovascular diseases: generally, estrogens in females are protective before menopause; coronaropathies, hypertension, and dyslipidemias in normal men are more frequent at comparable ages. We investigated the modulation by castration of in vitro vasoreactivity, serum lipid content, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) ...
Flores M - - 2009
The use of frozen/thawed raw material in the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been studied to determine its effect on the sensory quality of the final product. The proteolysis and lipolysis processes were measured by the proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities and free amino acids and free fatty acids. ...
Liavonchanka Alena - - 2009
The catalytic mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase (PAI) is explored by kinetic, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic studies. The PAI-catalyzed double bond isomerization takes place by selective removal of the pro-R hydrogen from C-11 followed by suprafacial transfer of this hydrogen to C-9 as shown by conversion of C-9-deuterated ...
Nagano Minoru - - 2009
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a widely conserved cytoprotective protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. We identified Arabidopsis cytochrome b(5) (AtCb5) as an interactor of Arabidopsis BI-1 (AtBI-1) by screening the Arabidopsis cDNA library with the split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid (suY2H) system. Cb5 is an electron transfer protein localized mainly in ...
Flowers Matthew T - - 2009
Obesity is currently a worldwide epidemic and public health burden that increases the risk for developing insulin resistance and several chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The multifactorial causes of obesity include several genetic, dietary and lifestyle variables that together result in an imbalance ...
Rohrbach S - - 2009
Type and quantity of ingested dietary fat contribute to the onset and progression of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity or arteriosclerosis. Attention is increasingly focussing on effective therapies for these diseases as well as functional foods that impede the development of insulin resistance and obesity. Studies provided evidence showing ...
Asgary Seddigheh - - 2009
Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. ...
Tsuji Hiroshi - - 2009
Sodium monofluoroacetate (SMFA; also known as compound 1080) is a highly toxic chemical; therefore, accidental exposure and intentional misuse are of great concern. SMFA intoxication is reportedly caused by the inhibition of aconitase. However, the pathogenesis underlying SMFA intoxication is not clear. This study was conducted to elucidate the acute ...
Calder Philip C - - 2009
Fatty acids may influence immune function through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are associated with changes in fatty acid composition of immune cell membranes. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation and immunity. Increased membrane content of n-3 fatty acids results in a changed pattern of ...
Yamada Mai - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We examined cross-sectional associations of total, hydrogenated, and natural trans fatty acid intake with selected metabolic risk factors in young Japanese women. METHODS: Subjects were 1136 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Associations between trans fatty acid ...
Wang Yuanyuan - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Fatty acids have been implicated in osteoarthritis (OA), yet the mechanism by which fatty acids affect knee structure and consequently the risk of knee OA has not been fully elucidated. Higher intakes of fatty acids have been shown to be associated with the risk of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2009
Taste is a chemical sense that aids in the detection of nutrients and guides food choice. A limited number of primary qualities comprise taste. Accumulating evidence has raised a question about whether fat should be among them. Most evidence indicates triacylglycerol is not an effective taste stimulus, though it clearly ...
Gupta Ruby - - 2009
Fatty acid measurements especially trans fatty acid has gained interest in recent times. Among the various available biomarkers, adipose tissue is considered to be the best for the long term dietary intake but the invasive nature of tissue aspiration reduces its utility. Phlebotomy is a much less invasive method of ...
Cronan John E JE Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, - - 2009
This review presents the most thoroughly studied bacterial fatty acid synthetic pathway, that of Escherichia coli and then discusses the exceptions to the E. coli pathway present in other bacteria. The known interrelationships between the fatty acid and polyketide synthetic pathways are also assessed, mainly in the Streptomyces group of ...
Stoddart Leigh A - - 2008
Identification of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by free fatty acids has led to considerable interest in their pharmacology and function because of the wide range of normal physiology and disease states in which fatty acids have been implicated. Free fatty acid receptor (FFA) 1 is activated by medium- ...
Swaminath Gayathri - - 2008
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to various physiological ligands such as photons, ions, and small molecules that include amines, fatty acids, and amino acids to peptides, proteins and steroids. Therefore, this family of proteins represents an attractive target for biopharmaceutical research. The physiological role of fatty acids and other lipid molecules ...
Oura Takahiro - - 2008
Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid desaturases are key enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are important constituents of membrane glycerolipids and also precursors to signaling molecules in many organisms. In this study, we determined the substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid ...
Wakil Salih J - - 2009
Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid ...
Duttaroy Asim K - - 2009
Essential fatty acids and their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives (20C) such as docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids are critical for proper fetal growth and development. Dietary intake as well as metabolism of these fatty acids, and their subsequent transfer from the mother to the fetus are therefore important requisites ...
Herranz Beatriz - - 2008
'Milano-type' salami from 13 European and American countries were analysed to establish their nutritional value in relation to fat and fatty acid composition. The fat content, fatty acid profile, ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ratio of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (h/H) and the contribution to the daily intake recommended for ...
Bu So Young - - 2008
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have made headlines because of the federal government's recent regulatory steps to reduce dietary intake of these potentially dangerous compounds. This review will focus on the chemistry of TFAs, their dietary sources, their association with various chronic diseases, and the possible mechanisms explaining their biological effects.
Lu Xuefeng - - 2008
Whereas microbial fermentation processes for producing ethanol and related alcohol biofuels are well established, biodiesel (methyl esters of fatty acids) is exclusively derived from plant oils. Slow cycle times for engineering oilseed metabolism and the excessive accumulation of glycerol as a byproduct are two major drawbacks of deriving biodiesel from ...
Ménard Sébastien L - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of the research is to study the effect of acute inhibition of intravascular lipolysis on myocardial substrate selection during hypertriglyceridemia using in vivo radiotracer analysis and positron emission tomography. PROCEDURES: We induced acute hypertriglyceridemia in vivo using an intravenous infusion of Intralipid 20% (IL) without and with ...
Kishino Tomonori - - 2008
We examined relationships between visceral fat amount and alterations in serum fatty acid composition, both of which represent critical factors in the development of metabolic syndrome. Correlations were analyzed between visceral fat thickness as measured by ultrasonography and proportions of individual fatty acids in 21 normal-weight and 24 overweight Japanese ...
Schantz Michele M - - 2008
As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM ...
Shearer Jane - - 2008
Insulin resistance is characterized by elevated rates of cardiac fatty acid utilization resulting in reduced efficiency and cardiomyopathy. One potential therapeutic approach is to limit the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids. The aims of this study were to determine whether a quantitative reduction in heart-type fatty acid binding protein ...
Horiguchi Akio - - 2008
PURPOSE: Fatty acid synthase is a key enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. Increased fatty acid synthase expression and its association with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis have been demonstrated in various human malignant tumors. We investigated fatty acid synthase expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma ...
Blacklock Brenda J - - 2008
Fatty acid elongation was examined in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Profiling of the total fatty acid content of D. discoideum indicated that fatty acid elongation is active. Orthologs of the fatty acid elongase ELO family were identified in the D. discoideum genome and the cDNA for one, eloA, ...
Vinikoor Lisa C - - 2008
trans-Fatty acid consumption is known to have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health, but little is known about its role in digestive tract neoplasia. To investigate the association between colorectal adenomas and trans-fatty acid consumption, the authors utilized data from a cross-sectional study of 622 individuals who underwent complete colonoscopy between ...
Steffen L M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to describe the relation of serum fatty acids and desaturase activity (DA) to overweight, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents. The relations of % serum phospholipid (PL) and cholesteryl ester (CE) fatty acids and estimated DA with CVD risk factors ...
Gao Xuelu - - 2008
Organic matter of nine surface sediments from the Daya Bay was Soxhlet-extracted with a mixture of 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol and separated into five fractions: non-aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, and fatty acids and asphaltenes, and analyzed to determine their bulk and biomarker composition. Marine autogenic input appears to be ...
Martin Clayton Antunes - - 2008
The quantification of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acids in partially hydrogenated fats by gas-liquid chromatography on a CP-Select CB-FAME capillary column was optimized using equivalent chain length values of fatty acids methyl esters that could coelute in the temperature range from 155 to 200 degrees C. The most appropriate ...
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