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Results 451 - 500 of 1053
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Ménard Sébastien L - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of the research is to study the effect of acute inhibition of intravascular lipolysis on myocardial substrate selection during hypertriglyceridemia using in vivo radiotracer analysis and positron emission tomography. PROCEDURES: We induced acute hypertriglyceridemia in vivo using an intravenous infusion of Intralipid 20% (IL) without and with ...
Kishino Tomonori - - 2008
We examined relationships between visceral fat amount and alterations in serum fatty acid composition, both of which represent critical factors in the development of metabolic syndrome. Correlations were analyzed between visceral fat thickness as measured by ultrasonography and proportions of individual fatty acids in 21 normal-weight and 24 overweight Japanese ...
Schantz Michele M - - 2008
As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM ...
Shearer Jane - - 2008
Insulin resistance is characterized by elevated rates of cardiac fatty acid utilization resulting in reduced efficiency and cardiomyopathy. One potential therapeutic approach is to limit the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids. The aims of this study were to determine whether a quantitative reduction in heart-type fatty acid binding protein ...
Horiguchi Akio - - 2008
PURPOSE: Fatty acid synthase is a key enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids. Increased fatty acid synthase expression and its association with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis have been demonstrated in various human malignant tumors. We investigated fatty acid synthase expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma ...
Blacklock Brenda J - - 2008
Fatty acid elongation was examined in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. Profiling of the total fatty acid content of D. discoideum indicated that fatty acid elongation is active. Orthologs of the fatty acid elongase ELO family were identified in the D. discoideum genome and the cDNA for one, eloA, ...
Vinikoor Lisa C - - 2008
trans-Fatty acid consumption is known to have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health, but little is known about its role in digestive tract neoplasia. To investigate the association between colorectal adenomas and trans-fatty acid consumption, the authors utilized data from a cross-sectional study of 622 individuals who underwent complete colonoscopy between ...
Steffen L M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to describe the relation of serum fatty acids and desaturase activity (DA) to overweight, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents. The relations of % serum phospholipid (PL) and cholesteryl ester (CE) fatty acids and estimated DA with CVD risk factors ...
Gao Xuelu - - 2008
Organic matter of nine surface sediments from the Daya Bay was Soxhlet-extracted with a mixture of 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol and separated into five fractions: non-aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, and fatty acids and asphaltenes, and analyzed to determine their bulk and biomarker composition. Marine autogenic input appears to be ...
Martin Clayton Antunes - - 2008
The quantification of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated trans fatty acids in partially hydrogenated fats by gas-liquid chromatography on a CP-Select CB-FAME capillary column was optimized using equivalent chain length values of fatty acids methyl esters that could coelute in the temperature range from 155 to 200 degrees C. The most appropriate ...
Chajès Véronique - - 2008
The authors assessed the association between serum phospholipid fatty acids as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and breast cancer risk among women in the E3N Study (1989-2002), the French component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During an average of 7 years of follow-up, 363 cases of ...
Aupperle Robin L - - 2008
Depression is a common problem among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous research has shown differences between MS patients and controls in the levels of certain fatty acids, and differences in many of these same fatty acids have also been reported in psychiatric patients with major depression. The current study ...
Chi Xiaoyuan - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important components of infant and adult nutrition because they serve as structural elements of cell membranes. Fatty acid desaturases are responsible for the insertion of double bonds into pre-formed fatty acid chains in reactions that require oxygen and reducing equivalents. In this study, the genome-wide ...
Lee Eunjeong - - 2008
n-3 and Trans fatty acids are considered to be the important modifiable factors of the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lower Omega-3 fatty acids and/or higher trans fatty acids of erythrocytes (RBC) are associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. Forty-four ...
Smith Caren E - - 2008
Objective-To compare plasma fatty acid concentrations and the relationships of fatty acid concentrations to arrhythmias in Boxers versus Doberman Pinschers. Animals-38 Boxers and 13 Doberman Pinschers. Procedures-Boxers and Doberman Pinschers evaluated via Holter recording and for which a blood sample was available were included. Echocardiograms were performed in 49 of ...
Feuvray D - - 2008
Although the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is poorly understood, recent evidence implicates perturbations in cardiac energy metabolism. Whereas mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is the chief energy source for the normal postnatal mammalian heart, the relative contribution of glucose utilization pathways is significant, allowing the plasticity necessary for steady ATP production ...
Martinez Sara C - - 2008
beta-Cells are particularly susceptible to fatty acid-induced apoptosis associated with decreased insulin receptor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling and the activation of stress kinases. We examined the mechanism of fatty acid-induced apoptosis of mouse beta-cells especially as related to the role played by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced Foxo1 activation and whether decreasing Foxo1 ...
Gotoh Naohiro - - 2008
Fatty acids are converted into energy via beta-oxidation. Although almost all natural occurring fatty acids are even-numbered, there are some odd-numbered fatty acids too. The details of the metabolism rate of odd-numbered fatty acids, however, are not clear. In the present study, we simultaneously administered a triacylglycerol containing four types ...
Methy Nicolas - - 2008
Epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent data about the role of dietary fatty acids in colorectal cancer, and few studies have addressed their role in colorectal adenoma. The aim of the study was to assess the risk of overall adenoma recurrence associated with dietary consumption of total fat, subtypes of fat, ...
McCarthy Justine - - 2008
Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge ...
Guillou Hervé - - 2008
The liver is a major site of fatty acid synthesis and degradation. Transcriptional regulation is one of several mechanisms controlling hepatic metabolism of fatty acids. Two transcription factors, namely SREBP1-c and PPARalpha, appear to be the main players controlling synthesis and degradation of fatty acids respectively. This chapter briefly presents ...
Risé Patrizia - - 2008
The aim of this study was to compare blood fatty acid profiles of two population groups: Italian and Tibetan, differing with regard to ethnic, life style and environmental aspects. Additionally the collection of two staple foods provided the opportunity to analyze typical Tibetan dishes. A new, simple, rapid, and substantially ...
Bragt M C E - - 2008
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing. This syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbances, such as abnormal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and a low-grade inflammatory state. PPARs play an important role in these metabolic processes, which makes them effective targets for treatment and prevention of the metabolic syndrome. ...
Robinson Lindsay E - - 2007
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises an array of metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Individuals with MetS are at elevated risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Central to the etiology of MetS is an interrelated triad comprising inflammation, abdominal obesity, and aberrations in fatty acid metabolism, ...
Karabulut Ihsan - - 2007
Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty ...
Narváez-Rivas Mónica - - 2007
Changes in diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and free fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat of six Iberian hams during the dry-cured process were investigated. In addition, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and free fatty acid by solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography was developed. The different molecular species of free fatty ...
Edelman Lucas B - - 2008
Previous studies have demonstrated that the local anesthetic bupivacaine selectively inhibits oxidative metabolism of fatty acids in isolated cardiac mitochondria. In the present investigation, we compare the development of bupivacaine cardiotoxicity during fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were excised and retrograde perfused with a ...
Kabagambe Edmond K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Different fatty acids may vary in their effect on the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We tested whether fatty acid classes measured in erythrocytes are associated with the MetS or its components. METHODS: Included were men [n = 497; mean (SD) age, 49 (16) years] and women [n = 539; age, ...
Madsen Kjeld - - 2007
We here report a series of derivatives describing the structure-activity relationship around liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 fatty acid derivative, with respect to potency as well as protraction in vivo. The spacer region between the fatty acid and the peptide is mostly important for potency, whereas the fatty acid ...
Rioux Vincent - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent findings on the biological functions of saturated fatty acids. Some of these findings suggest that saturated fatty acids may have important and specific regulatory roles in the cells. Until now these roles have largely been outweighed by the negative impact of dietary saturated ...
Carballeira N M - - 2008
This review deals with the most recent findings on the antimalarial, antimycobacterial, and antifungal properties of fatty acids, with particular emphasis on novel marine fatty acids. The first section deals with the most recent and some background literature on what has been the latest developments with respect to fatty acids ...
Rodriguéz-Lee Mariam - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonesterified fatty acids change the expression and properties of the extracellular matrix proteoglycans of arterial and hepatic cells. We review how this may contribute to arterial disease in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Elevated nonesterified fatty acids characterize the dyslipidemia of insulin resistance and ...
Yaqoob Parveen - - 2007
Fatty acids are known to play diverse roles in immune cells. They are important as a source of energy, as structural components of cell membranes, as signaling molecules and as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids and similar mediators. Recent research has suggested that the localization and organisation of fatty ...
Xu Yan - - 2007
Fatty acids, particularly the omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids (EFAs), are considered critical nutritional sources for the developing fetus. The placenta governs the fetal supply of fatty acids via two processes: transport and metabolism. Placental fatty acid metabolism can play a critical role in guiding pregnancy and fetal outcome. ...
De Gelder Joke - - 2007
In this paper we explore the possibilities of Raman spectroscopy in order to deduce information on the fatty acid composition of bacterial cells. Therefore, representative strains of two bacterial taxa were each cultured in different conditions and in parallel analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and gaschromatographic FAME analysis. Raman spectra of ...
Maldonado Eduardo N - - 2008
Myelin in the mammalian nervous system has a high concentration of galactolipids [galactosylceramide (GalCer) and sulfatide] with 2-hydroxy fatty acids. We recently reported that fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H), encoded by the FA2H gene, is the major fatty acid 2-hydroxylase in the mouse brain. In this report, we show that FA2H ...
Kris-Etherton Penny M - - 2007
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) and Dietitians of Canada (DC) that dietary fat for the adult population should provide 20% to 35% of energy and emphasize a reduction in saturated fatty acids and trans-fatty acids and an increase in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. ADA and ...
Lalovic Aleksandra - - 2007
Cholesterol levels have been reported to be lower in suicidal patients, and alterations in blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found in people with depression. Given that the evidence for the link between lipid metabolism and psychopathology thus far has almost exclusively hinged on alterations of these variables ...
Smith Stuart - - 2007
This review chronicles the synergistic growth of the fields of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis over the last century. In both animal fatty acid synthases and modular polyketide synthases, similar catalytic elements are covalently linked in the same order in megasynthases. Whereas in fatty acid synthases the basic elements of ...
Himmetoglu Cigdem - - 2007
Presented herein is a case of diffuse fatty infiltration of amyloid goiter in a 58-year-old woman with chronic renal failure. Bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed due to symptoms of dysphagia and hoarseness. Macroscopic and microscopic examination showed that almost all thyroid follicles were replaced by fat cells. Hyalinized stroma intervening ...
Delmonte Pierluigi - - 2007
Consumption of trans fat has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. For nutrition labeling purposes, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines trans fat as the sum of all the fatty acids with at least one nonconjugated double bond in the trans configuration. The FDA regulation ...
Han Xiao-Xia - - 2007
We examined, in muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats, basal, insulin-induced, and contraction-induced fatty acid transporter translocation and fatty acid uptake, esterification, and oxidation. In lean rats, insulin and contraction induced the translocation of the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36 (43 and 41%, respectively) and plasma membrane-associated fatty acid binding ...
Yang Yingkui - - 2007
Defects in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) have been identified as a major factor in insulin resistance and defective fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Therefore, understanding of the regulation of FAT/CD36 expression and function is important for a potential therapeutic target for type II diabetes. We differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into matured ...
Schenk Simon - - 2007
Fatty acid oversupply is a key mediator of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity, primarily via accumulation of fatty acid metabolites and activation of proinflammatory pathways. Herein, we demonstrate that fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans is completely prevented the day after 1 session of endurance exercise. Because skeletal muscle ...
Cahoon Edgar B - - 2007
Oilseeds provide a unique platform for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace non-sustainable petroleum and oceanic sources of specialty chemicals and aquaculture feed. However, recent efforts to engineer the seeds of crop and model plant species to produce new types of fatty acids, including hydroxy and conjugated ...
Lee Soo Hee - - 2007
Most cells use either a type I or type II synthase to make fatty acids. Trypanosoma brucei, the sleeping sickness parasite, provides the first example of a third mechanism for this process. Trypanosomes use microsomal elongases to synthesize fatty acids de novo, whereas other cells use elongases to make long-chain ...
Zhang Wenliang - - 2007
Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is a major pathogen responsible for dermatophytosis. Because of potential relapse of disease with current antifungal therapy protocols, there is a need for additional and/or alternative antifungal agents for the treatment of disease caused by T. rubrum. We synthesized a potent fungal fatty acid synthase inhibitor, ...
Sun Cynthia Q - - 2007
Free fatty acids and monoglycerides released from milkfat by partial pregastric lipase-catalysed hydrolysis are bactericidal towards Helicobacter pylori. Two milkfat preparations were investigated: a normal bovine milkfat, and a fractionated milkfat preparation, termed ModFat, enriched in triglycerides containing short- and medium-chain fatty acids. The released products were tested for bactericidal ...
Bandyopadhyay Prasun - - 2007
Niosomal hybrid mixtures are prepared with bilayer stabilizer cholesterol from non-ionic surfactants span 20 (HLB value 8.6), span 60 (HLB 4.7) and span 85 (HLB 1.8) in presence of dicetyl phosphate (DCP) where fatty acids or fatty alcohols (C14, C16 and C18) are used as carrier. Hybrid mixtures upon hydration ...
He Ka - - 2007
While coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke share some major risk factors, limited epidemiologic data on dietary fats and vascular disease risk indicate that ischemic stroke is affected differently by these fatty acids than is CHD. The established associations between types of fat and CHD do not appear to ...
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