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Results 451 - 500 of 1108
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Keller Markus A - - 2010
Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.48) converts long-chain fatty aldehydes to the corresponding acids. Deficiency in this enzyme causes the Sjogren Larsson Syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, and mental retardation. Using a fluorescent aldehyde, pyrenedecanal, and HPLC with fluorescence detection, we developed a novel method to monitor ...
Horikawa Makoto - - 2009
Fatty acids are the major components of the phospholipid bilayer and are involved in several functions of cell membrane. We previously reported that fatty-acid metabolism is involved in the regulation of DAF-2/insulin signal in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we investigate the role of fatty-acid metabolism in stress resistance with ...
Yonezawa Tomo - - 2009
Brain-specific uncoupling proteins such as uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) and brain mitochondrial carrier protein 1 (BMCP1; also known as UCP5) were identified by computational analysis for expressed sequence tag and hybridization screening. Both were detected at the mRNA level by RT-PCR in cloned bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and lactating ...
Sofi Francesco - - 2009
Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids produced by the partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. Over the last few years, an increasing interest on these fatty acids has been shown because of their role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. To date, major scientific associations strongly recommend consuming a low ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2009
The first total syntheses of the naturally occurring acetylenic fatty acids-6-heptadecynoic acid (59% overall yield) and 6-icosynoic acid (34% overall yield)-was accomplished in four steps. Using the same synthetic sequence the naturally occurring fatty acids (6Z)-heptadecenoic acid (46% overall yield) and (6Z)-icosenoic acid (27% overall yield) were also synthesized. The ...
Lai Timothy Y Y - - 2010
PURPOSE: To evaluate the serum fatty acid changes in Chinese patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) in association with CYP4V2 mutation. METHODS: Sixteen Chinese patients with BCD confirmed with CYP4V2 mutation were recruited. Peripheral venous blood was obtained after fasting and serum fatty acid concentrations were measured and compared with ...
Kim Yookyung - - 2009
Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid method for prediction of trans-fatty acid content in ground cereal products without the need for oil extraction. NIR spectra (400-2498 nm) of ground cereal products were obtained with a dispersive NIR spectrometer and correlated to trans- and cis-fatty acid content determined ...
De Pascale Clara - - 2009
Current evidence indicates that chylomicron remnants (CMR) induce macrophage foam cell formation, an early event in atherosclerosis. Inflammation also plays a part in atherogenesis and the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated. In this study, the influence of CMR on the activity of NF-kappaB in macrophages and its ...
Milligan Graeme - - 2009
The free fatty acid receptors FFA2 and FFA3 are recently de-orphanized G protein-coupled receptors that share a group of short-chain free fatty acids as endogenous ligands. The expression of FFA2 and FFA3 by immune cells, in parts of the gastro-intestinal tract and by white adipocytes has suggested their potential as ...
Fernández-San Juan P-M - - 2009
Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%). These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally ...
Thompson Brian R BR Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, The University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 321 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2010
The trafficking of fatty acids into and out of adipocytes is regulated by a complex series of proteins and enzymes and is under control by a variety of hormonal and metabolic factors. The biochemical basis of fatty acid influx, despite its widespread appreciation, remains enigmatic with regard to the biophysical ...
Pillarisetti Sivaram - - 2009
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is responsible for the hydrolysis of several important endogenous fatty acid amides (FAAs), including anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Because specific FAAs interact with cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors, they are often referred to as 'endocannabinoids' or 'endovanilloids'. Initial interest in this area, therefore, has focused on ...
Ring Michael W - - 2009
2-Hydroxy fatty acids can be found in several different organisms, including bacteria. In this study, we have studied the biosynthesis of 2-hydroxy fatty acids in the myxobacteria Myxococcus xanthus and Stigmatella aurantiaca, resulting in the identification of a family of stereospecific fatty acid alpha-hydroxylases. Although the stereospecificities of the hydroxylases ...
White Brett - - 2009
Fatty acids can be divided into four general categories: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats. Saturated fatty acids and trans fats are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease, although these ...
Gomes Aline D - - 2010
Fatty acids have been used in marine biogeochemistry as food chain biomarkers, but in freshwater these studies are rare. In order to evaluate the fatty acid potential as biomarkers in freshwater, their profile was analyzed during vitellogenesis in two fish species, in both waterfall and reservoir environments of the Paraíba ...
Saraswathi Viswanathan V Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-0615, - - 2009
Obesity is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFAs), which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although impairment of cholesterol homeostasis is known to induce toxicity in macrophages, the consequence of altered fatty acid homeostasis is not clear. Long-chain acyl CoA synthetases (ACSLs) play ...
Arshadi Mehrdad - - 2009
Different qualities of biofuel pellets were made from pine and spruce sawdust according to an industrial experimental design. The fatty/resin acid compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for both newly produced pellets and those after 2 and 4 weeks of storage. The aldehydes/ketones compositions were determined by high performance ...
Erridge Clett - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate inflammatory signaling in response to conserved microbial molecules. It has been proposed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) may also serve as endogenous ligands of TLR2 or TLR4, thereby promoting diseases associated with inflammation and dyslipidemia, including atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We ...
Iwamoto Eiji - - 2009
The effects of the fattening period on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of fat deposits, and muscle free amino acid (FAA) and inosinic acid (IMP) contents were evaluated in Japanese Black steers. Ten castrated, 10-month-old calves derived from the same sire were divided into five to be slaughtered at the ...
Wilke M S - - 2009
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is recommended that patients with diabetes reduce their intake of saturated fat and increase their intake of monounsaturated fat or carbohydrate. However, high-carbohydrate diets may result in higher saturated fatty acids in VLDL-triacylglycerol. This is attributed to de novo lipogenesis, although synthesis of specific fatty acids is rarely ...
Li Jianjian - - 2009
Fatty acids covalently bonded with other molecules have been implicated in many important biological processes. We describe here a rapid approach termed isotope-coded fatty acid transmethylation (iFAT) that integrates extraction, transmethylation, and isotopic labeling into a single step with the aid of ultrasonic irradiation for comparative analysis of fatty acids ...
Reich Marlis - - 2009
Here, the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolorwas explored with the aim of constructing a genome-wide inventory of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Sixty-three genes of the major pathways were annotated and validated by the detection of the corresponding transcripts. Seventy-one per cent belonged to multigene families ...
Ryan Robert P - - 2009
Burkholderia cenocepacia produces a diffusible fatty acid signal molecule, cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF), that has been implicated in interspecies and interkingdom communication. Here, we show that BDSF also acts as an intraspecies signal in B. cenocepacia to control factors contributing to virulence of this major opportunistic pathogen.
Tsukamoto Seiichi - - 2009
A variant of human tear lipocalin was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the bound fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Five major fatty acids were identified as hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid, PA), cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid), 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid) ...
Lecerf Jean-Michel - - 2009
Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated ...
Zhang Ying - - 2009
The long-term metabolic and functional effects of a dietary deprivation of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids were recently investigated in second-generation omega3-depleted rats. This study represents the first attempt to explore the direct, but not immediate, effects of omega3 fatty acids on insulin-producing cells. For this purpose, BRIN-BD11 cells were ...
Carrilho M C - - 2009
The effect of the fattening diet on the intramuscular fatty acid composition was studied on a total of 96 hybrid rabbits. Animals were slaughtered at weaning, at 1.6kg after the consumption for three weeks of various diets containing low (14.28%), medium (18.04%) and high (20.48%) fibre content, and at 2 ...
Oh So-Ra - - 2009
Hyperlipidemia and marrow fat are associated with lowering bone density in vivo, suggesting that lipid contributes to bone loss. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we investigated the effect of saturated fatty acids (SFA) on osteoclastogenesis. The level of free fatty acids and adiposity in bone marrow was significantly elevated in obese ...
Li Yonghua - - 2009
Oxygenated fatty acids such as ricinoleic acid and vernolic acid can serve in the industry as synthons for the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals and polymers traditionally produced by chemical conversion of petroleum derivatives. Oxygenated fatty acids can also be useful to synthesize specialty chemicals such as cosmetics ...
Kummerow Fred A - - 2009
Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been in the American diet since 1900. More than 50 years ago they were found to contain trans fatty acids that were different from natural fatty acids in plant oils and in animal fat. There was growing evidence that the consumption of trans fats have ...
Fan X - - 2009
This study was conducted to investigate possible formation of trans fatty acids due to irradiation of ground beef and frankfurters. Ground beef and frankfurter samples were irradiated at doses of 0, 1, and 5 kGy at 4 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 7 d (ground beef) ...
Sinanoglou Vassilia J - - 2009
Pork meat samples were inoculated with high or low levels (10(6) or 10(3) CFU/g) of Salmonella Enteritidis, vacuum packaged, exposed to gamma radiation (1.0, 2.5, and 4.7 kGy), and stored for 1 month at 4 +/- 1 degrees C. In highly contaminated samples, the target strain was completely eliminated only ...
Perez Israel - - 2009
Levels of testosterone and estradiol influence the incidence of cardiovascular diseases: generally, estrogens in females are protective before menopause; coronaropathies, hypertension, and dyslipidemias in normal men are more frequent at comparable ages. We investigated the modulation by castration of in vitro vasoreactivity, serum lipid content, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) ...
Flores M - - 2009
The use of frozen/thawed raw material in the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been studied to determine its effect on the sensory quality of the final product. The proteolysis and lipolysis processes were measured by the proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities and free amino acids and free fatty acids. ...
Liavonchanka Alena - - 2009
The catalytic mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase (PAI) is explored by kinetic, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic studies. The PAI-catalyzed double bond isomerization takes place by selective removal of the pro-R hydrogen from C-11 followed by suprafacial transfer of this hydrogen to C-9 as shown by conversion of C-9-deuterated ...
Nagano Minoru - - 2009
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a widely conserved cytoprotective protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. We identified Arabidopsis cytochrome b(5) (AtCb5) as an interactor of Arabidopsis BI-1 (AtBI-1) by screening the Arabidopsis cDNA library with the split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid (suY2H) system. Cb5 is an electron transfer protein localized mainly in ...
Flowers Matthew T MT Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. - - 2009
Obesity is currently a worldwide epidemic and public health burden that increases the risk for developing insulin resistance and several chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The multifactorial causes of obesity include several genetic, dietary and lifestyle variables that together result in an imbalance ...
Rohrbach S - - 2009
Type and quantity of ingested dietary fat contribute to the onset and progression of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity or arteriosclerosis. Attention is increasingly focussing on effective therapies for these diseases as well as functional foods that impede the development of insulin resistance and obesity. Studies provided evidence showing ...
Asgary Seddigheh - - 2009
Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. ...
Tsuji Hiroshi - - 2009
Sodium monofluoroacetate (SMFA; also known as compound 1080) is a highly toxic chemical; therefore, accidental exposure and intentional misuse are of great concern. SMFA intoxication is reportedly caused by the inhibition of aconitase. However, the pathogenesis underlying SMFA intoxication is not clear. This study was conducted to elucidate the acute ...
Calder Philip C - - 2009
Fatty acids may influence immune function through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are associated with changes in fatty acid composition of immune cell membranes. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation and immunity. Increased membrane content of n-3 fatty acids results in a changed pattern of ...
Yamada Mai - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We examined cross-sectional associations of total, hydrogenated, and natural trans fatty acid intake with selected metabolic risk factors in young Japanese women. METHODS: Subjects were 1136 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Associations between trans fatty acid ...
Wang Yuanyuan - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Fatty acids have been implicated in osteoarthritis (OA), yet the mechanism by which fatty acids affect knee structure and consequently the risk of knee OA has not been fully elucidated. Higher intakes of fatty acids have been shown to be associated with the risk of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) ...
Gupta Ruby - - 2009
Fatty acid measurements especially trans fatty acid has gained interest in recent times. Among the various available biomarkers, adipose tissue is considered to be the best for the long term dietary intake but the invasive nature of tissue aspiration reduces its utility. Phlebotomy is a much less invasive method of ...
Cronan John E JE Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, - - 2009
This review presents the most thoroughly studied bacterial fatty acid synthetic pathway, that of Escherichia coli and then discusses the exceptions to the E. coli pathway present in other bacteria. The known interrelationships between the fatty acid and polyketide synthetic pathways are also assessed, mainly in the Streptomyces group of ...
Mattes Richard D RD Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana, USA. - - 2009
Taste is a chemical sense that aids in the detection of nutrients and guides food choice. A limited number of primary qualities comprise taste. Accumulating evidence has raised a question about whether fat should be among them. Most evidence indicates triacylglycerol is not an effective taste stimulus, though it clearly ...
Stoddart Leigh A - - 2008
Identification of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by free fatty acids has led to considerable interest in their pharmacology and function because of the wide range of normal physiology and disease states in which fatty acids have been implicated. Free fatty acid receptor (FFA) 1 is activated by medium- ...
Swaminath Gayathri - - 2008
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to various physiological ligands such as photons, ions, and small molecules that include amines, fatty acids, and amino acids to peptides, proteins and steroids. Therefore, this family of proteins represents an attractive target for biopharmaceutical research. The physiological role of fatty acids and other lipid molecules ...
Oura Takahiro - - 2008
Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid desaturases are key enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are important constituents of membrane glycerolipids and also precursors to signaling molecules in many organisms. In this study, we determined the substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the Delta12 and omega3 fatty acid ...
Wakil Salih J - - 2009
Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid ...
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