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Results 301 - 350 of 2230
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Liu Qian - - 2007
Production of R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) was observed when genes of beta-ketothiolase (PhbA), acetoacetyl CoA reductase (PhbB), and thioesterase II (TesB) were jointly expressed in Escherichia coli. TesB, generally regarded as a medium chain length acyl CoA thioesterase, was found, for the first time, to play an important role for transforming ...
Misra Ashish - - 2007
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) plays a central role in many metabolic processes inside the cell, and almost 4% of the total enzymes inside the cell require it as a cofactor. Here, we report self-acylation properties in ACPs from Plasmodium falciparum and Brassica napus that are essential components of type II ...
Maggio-Hall Lori A - - 2008
An acyl-CoA dehydrogenase has been identified as part of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway in the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the scdA gene prevented use of butyric acid (C(4)) and hexanoic acid (C(6)) as carbon sources and reduced cellular butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity by 7.5-fold. While the mutant strain exhibited ...
Itoh Takayuki - - 2007
Actinorhodin (ACT) produced by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an aromatic polyketide antibiotic, whose basic carbon skeleton is derived from type II polyketide synthase (PKS). Although an acyl carrier protein (ACP) serves as an anchor of nascent intermediates during chain elongation in the type II PKS complex, it generally remains unknown ...
Barker Guy C - - 2007
Natural genetic variation in fatty acid synthesis and modification pathways determine the composition of vegetable oils, which are major components of human diet and renewable products. Based on known pathways we combined diversity and genetic analysis of metabolites to infer the existence of enzymes encoded by distinct loci, and associated ...
Li Hong H Center for Metabolic Disease, Ordway Research Institute, Albany, NY 12208, - - 2007
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL; fatty acid CoA ligase: AMP forming; EC 6.2.1.3) catalyzes the formation of acyl-CoA through a process, which requires fatty acid, ATP and coenzymeA as substrates. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the principal ACSL is Faa1p (encoded by the FAA1 gene). The preferred substrates for this ...
Cai Xiaomin - - 2007
An enoyl reductase (EtENR) closely related to those of green algae and involved in Type II fatty acid synthesis was characterized and localized to the apicoplast in the coccidium Eimeria tenella. Biochemical analysis using native EtENR protein extracted from parasites confirmed its function as an enoyl reductase using NADH as ...
Paczkowski Cezary - - 2007
The regioselective acylation of cholesteryl beta-D-glucoside, at the C-6 of the glucose moiety, was achieved using microbial lipases in organic solvents. With palmitic acid as an acyl donor 81 or 63% conversions of cholesteryl glucoside to its 6'-O-palmitoyl derivative were obtained using Candida antarctica or Rhizomucor miehei enzymes, respectively. High ...
He M - - 2007
The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are a family of multimeric flavoenzymes that catalyze the alpha,beta -dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA esters in fatty acid beta -oxidation and amino acid catabolism. Genetic defects have been identified in most of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in humans. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a recently identified acyl-CoA dehydrogenase that ...
Lucchetta Luciano - - 2007
Alcohol acyltransferases (AAT) play a key role in the biosynthesis of ester aroma volatiles in fruit. Three ripening-specific recombinant AATs of cantaloupe Charentais melon fruit (Cm-AAT1, Cm-AAT3, and Cm-AAT4) are capable of synthesizing thioether esters with Cm-AAT1 being by far the most active. All proteins, as well as AAT(s) extracted ...
Koreishi Mayuko - - 2007
Penicillin V acylase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (Sm-PVA) showed high acyl-transfer activity in reactions using methyl esters of carboxylic acid (acyl donor) and amino compounds (nucleophile), to produce the corresponding amides. Moreover, Sm-PVA had broad substrate specificity, as indicated by the fact that it catalyzed the efficient synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics, ...
Hunt M C - - 2007
Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids and coenzyme A. Recent studies have demonstrated that one gene named Acot7, reported to be mainly expressed in brain and testis, is transcribed in several different isoforms by alternative usage of first exons. Strongly decreased levels of ACOT7 ...
Liu Gang - - 2007
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) catalyzes the committed step in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated, long-chain fatty acids. Studies with SCD1 knockout mice have established that these animals are lean and protected from leptin deficiency-induced and diet-induced obesity, with greater whole body insulin sensitivity than wild-type animals. In ...
Jia Zhenzhen - - 2007
Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) is a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially activates very long chain fatty acid substrates, such as C24:0, to their CoA derivatives. To gain better insight into the physiological functions of FATP4, we established dermal fibroblast cell lines from FATP4-deficient wrinkle-free mice and wild type ...
Li Yonghua - - 2007
The interface between plants and the environment is provided for aerial organs by epicuticular waxes that have been extensively studied. By contrast, little is known about the nature, biosynthesis, and role of waxes at the root-rhizosphere interface. Waxes isolated by rapid immersion of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots in organic solvents ...
Sharma Shilpi - - 2007
The emergence of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to the commonly used antimalarials warrants the development of new antimalarial agents. The discovery of type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) in Plasmodium distinct from the FAS in its human host (type I FAS) opened up new avenues for the development of ...
Gande Roland R Institute for Biotechnology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich, - - 2007
The suborder Corynebacterianeae comprises bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, and these bacteria contain in addition to the linear fatty acids, unique alpha-branched beta-hydroxy fatty acids, called mycolic acids. Whereas acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity is required to provide malonyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis, a new type of carboxylase ...
Chemler Joseph A - - 2007
Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites often used as nutraceutical supplements, but a growing number of unnatural flavonoids are being investigated as therapeutic agents. Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing recombinant flavonoid enzymes, including 4-coumaroyl:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), and flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase (FHT), produced novel flavanones and dihydroflavonols ...
Houjou Toshiaki - - 2007
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a major lipidation in posttranslational modification. GPI anchor precursors are biosynthesized from endogenous phosphatidylinositols (PIs) and attached to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Endogenous PIs are characterized by domination of diacyl species and the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chain, such as 18:0-20:4, at the sn-2 ...
Wei Yuren - - 2007
Lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues leads to cell dysfunction and apoptosis, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Recent evidence suggests that lipotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis. The present study examined (1) the dose-response and time course characteristics of fatty acid-mediated ER stress and ...
Fukuoka Tokuma - - 2007
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts. They show not only the excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. antarctica and P. rugulosa, some new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophobic than the previously reported di-acylated MELs) ...
Liu Yichin - - 2007
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) enzymes exist as two isoforms, ACC1 and ACC2, which play critical roles in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation. Though each isoform differs in tissue and subcellular localization, both catalyze the biotin- and ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-coenzyme A to generate malonyl-coenzyme A, a key metabolite in the ...
Puglianiello Antonella - - 2007
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes in later life. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown. Recent data suggest that some of the molecular defects underlying type 2 diabetes reside in the CNS. The enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) regulates long-chain fatty acid ...
Knights Kathleen M - - 2007
Despite being the first conjugation reaction demonstrated in humans, amino acid conjugation as a route of metabolism of xenobiotic carboxylic acids is not well characterised. This is principally due to the small number and limited structural diversity of xenobiotic substrates for amino acid conjugation. Unlike CYP and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase, ...
Funa Nobutaka - - 2007
Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for aromatic polyketide synthesis in plants and bacteria. Genome analysis of filamentous fungi has predicted the presence of fungal type III PKSs, although none have thus far been functionally characterized. In the genome of Neurospora crassa, a single open reading frame, NCU04801.1, annotated ...
Tucci Sara - - 2007
An NADH-dependent trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (EC1.1.1.36) from the Gram negative spirochete Treponema denticola was identified, expressed and biochemically characterized. The recombinant protein is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 44 kDa with a specific activity of 43+/-4.8 U/mg (micromol mg(-1)min(-1)) and K(m) value of 2.7 microM for crotonoyl-CoA. This ...
Jha Jyoti K - - 2007
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a central cofactor for de novo fatty acid synthesis, acyl chain modification and chain-length termination during lipid biosynthesis in living organisms. Although the structural and functional organization of the ACPs in bacteria and plant are highly conserved, the individual ACP is engaged in the generation ...
Han L S - - 2007
We have initiated clinical selective screening for inborn errors of metabolism in China by analysing amino acids and acylcarnitines in a dried blood filter-paper samples using tandem mass spectrometry. Samples from a total of 3070 children suspected of inborn errors of metabolism were collected through a study network which covered ...
Carrasco María P - - 2007
We have analyzed the effects of ethanol in vitro on the remodeling of neutral lipids and phospholipids in mitochondria and microsomes isolated from chick brain. We used three different fatty acyl-CoAs of similar chain lengths but different degrees of unsaturation. Our results demonstrate the existence of active mechanisms for acyl-CoA ...
Matich Adam - - 2007
The biosynthesis of volatile esters by Red Delicious apples was investigated by incubating fruit tissue with deuterated flavor precursors at various times after controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and measuring deuterium incorporation into branched-chain ester volatiles. 2-Methylbutyl acetate was the only volatile not significantly reduced by CA storage. Conversion of 2-methylbutanol ...
Oliveira J S - - 2007
Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria are neglected diseases, which continue to be major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, killing together around 5 million people each year. Mycolic acids, the hallmark of mycobacteria, are high-molecular-weight alpha-alkyl, beta-hydroxy fatty acids. Biochemical and genetic experimental data have shown that the product of the ...
Eltahlawy H - - 2007
The control of pheromone biosynthesis by the neuropeptide PBAN was investigated in the moth Heliothis virescens. When decapitated females were injected with [2-(14)C] acetate, females co-injected with PBAN produced significantly greater quantities of radiolabeled fatty acids in their pheromone gland than females co-injected with saline. This indicates that PBAN controls ...
López Miguel M Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. - - 2007
The hypothalamus is a specialized area in the brain that integrates the control of energy homeostasis. More than 70 years ago, it was proposed that the central nervous system sensed circulating levels of metabolites such as glucose, lipids and amino acids and modified feeding according to the levels of those ...
Zhang Yong-Mei YM Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, - - 2007
Coenzyme A (CoA) is the major acyl group carrier in intermediary metabolism. Hopantenate (HoPan), a competitive inhibitor of the pantothenate kinases, was used to chemically antagonize CoA biosynthesis. HoPan dramatically reduced liver CoA and mice developed severe hypoglycemia. Insulin was reduced, glucagon and corticosterone were elevated, and fasting accelerated hypoglycemia. ...
Mitamura Kuniko - - 2007
The formation of thioester-linked glutathione (GSH) conjugates of bile acids (BAs) is presumed to occur via trans-acylation reactions between GSH and reactive acyl-linked metabolites of BAs. The present study examines the chemical reactivity of cholyl-adenylate and cholyl-CoA thioester, acyl-linked metabolites of cholic acid (CA), with GSH to form CA-GSH conjugate ...
Cheon Hwan-Sung - - 2007
An experimentally simple, but highly reproducible and reliable method has been developed to follow the complexation event of fatty acid (FA) and FA-CoA with polysaccharides. This method was based on the recent discovery of the unique blue-shifted UV absorption associated with the aggregation of tetraenoic fatty acids (TE-FAs) in aqueous ...
Graham Ian A - - 2007
The health-beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), derived mainly from fish oil, coupled with the growing requirement for an alternative and sustainable source of these compounds, has led to efforts to engineer oilseed crops for their production. LC-PUFA synthesis has been achieved using combinations of heterologous endomembrane desaturases ...
Oglesbee Devin - - 2007
PURPOSE: Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is a defect in valine metabolism and was first reported in a child with cardiomyopathy, anemia, and secondary carnitine deficiency. We identified 13 isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient patients through newborn screening due to an elevation of C4-acylcarnitine in dried blood spots. Because C4-acylcarnitine represents both isobutyryl- and butyrylcarnitine, ...
Christensen Caspar Elo - - 2007
Two distinct ways of organizing fatty acid biosynthesis exist: the multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) of mammals, fungi, and lower eukaryotes with activities residing on one or two polypeptides; and the dissociated type II FAS of prokaryotes, plastids, and mitochondria with individual activities encoded by discrete genes. The ...
Askari Bardia B Department of Pathology, 1959 NE Pacific St., University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195-7470, - - 2007
Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent that has recently been shown to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. In addition to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, rosiglitazone can affect other targets, such as directly inhibiting recombinant long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-4 activity. Because it is unknown if ACSL4 is expressed in vascular cells involved ...
Hindawy A - - 2007
Fatty Acid Oxidation disorders represent an expanding group of inborn errors of metabolism. Clinical manifestations include episodic encephalopathy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye like episodes, hepatic, muscular, cardiac affection and sudden death. Analysis of urinary organic acids and plasma fatty acids of 44 clinically suspected patients by Gas Chromatography Mass spectrometry revealed ...
Suzuki Takashi - - 2007
To establish a strategy to generate N-acylated proteins modified with fatty acids having a specific chain length, tGelsolin-streptag, an epitope-tagged model protein having an N-myristoylation motif, was synthesized using an insect cell-free protein synthesis system in the presence of acyl-CoA with various fatty acid chain lengths. It was found that ...
Ringseis Robert - - 2007
Alcoholic fatty liver results from an impaired fatty acid catabolism due to blockade of PPARalpha and increased lipogenesis due to activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. Because both oxidized fats (OF) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated in rats to activate hepatic PPARalpha, we tested the hypothesis ...
Matsuoka Hiroshi - - 2007
The organization and function of the Bacillus subtilis YsiA regulon involved in fatty acid degradation were investigated. Northern and primer extension analyses indicated that this regulon comprises five operons, i.e. lcfA-ysiA-B-etfB-A, ykuF-G, yhfL, yusM-L-K-J, and ywjF-acdA-rpoE. YusJ and AcdA, YsiB and YusL, and YusK presumably encode acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, 3-hydroxyl-CoA dehydrogenase/enoyl-CoA ...
Ciapaite Jolita - - 2007
Free fatty acids may create a state of continuous and progressive damaging to the vascular wall manifested by endothelial dysfunction. In this study we determine the mechanisms by which fatty acids palmitate (C16:0) and oleate (C18:1) affect intracellular long chain acyl-CoA (LCAC) content, energy metabolism, cell survival and proliferation and ...
Pan Zhiqiang - - 2007
Sorgoleone, produced in root hair cells of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is likely responsible for much of the allelopathic properties of sorghum root exudates against broadleaf and grass weeds. Previous studies suggest that the biosynthetic pathway of this compound initiates with the synthesis of an unusual 16:3 fatty acid possessing a ...
Stephens Jennifer L - - 2007
Whereas other organisms utilize type I or type II synthases to make fatty acids, trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei are unique in their use of a microsomal elongase pathway (ELO) for de novo fatty acid synthesis (FAS). Because of the unusual lipid metabolism of the trypanosome, it was important ...
Sacco Emmanuelle - - 2007
The (R)-specific 3-hydroxyacyl dehydratases/trans-enoyl hydratases are key proteins in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. In mycobacteria, such enzymes remain unknown, although they are involved in the biosynthesis of major and essential lipids like mycolic acids. First bioinformatic analyses allowed to identify a single candidate protein, namely Rv3389c, that belongs to ...
Fritzler Jason M - - 2007
The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum possesses a unique 1500-kDa polyketide synthase (CpPKS1) comprised of 29 enzymes for synthesising a yet undetermined polyketide. This study focuses on the biochemical characterization of the 845-amino acid loading unit containing acyl-[ACP] ligase (AL) and acyl carrier protein (ACP). The CpPKS1-AL domain has a substrate preference ...
Qin Yong-Mei - - 2007
3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase catalyses the initial condensation reaction during fatty acid elongation using malonyl-CoA and long-chain acyl-CoA as substrates. Previously, it was reported that several genes encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fibre development. In this study, GhCER6 cDNA that contains an open reading frame of ...
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