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Ibdah M - - 2009
The specific set of reactions that lead to the synthesis of benzoic acid in plants is still unclear, and even the subcellular compartment in which these reactions occur is unknown. Biosynthesis of both vegetative tissues and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana contain a class of defense compounds termed glucosinolates, but only ...
Kasuya Fumiyo - - 2009
Medium-chain and long-chain acyl-CoA esters are key metabolites in fatty acid metabolism. Effects of salicylic acid on the in vivo formation of acyl-CoAs in mouse liver and brain were investigated. Further, inhibition of the medium-chain and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases by salicylic acid and diclofenac was determined in mouse liver and ...
Wiczer Brian M - - 2009
Fatty acid transport proteins are integral membrane acyl-CoA synthetases implicated in adipocyte fatty acid influx and esterification. FATP-dependent production of AMP was evaluated using FATP4 proteoliposomes, and fatty acid-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin-stimulated fatty acid influx (palmitate or arachidonate) into cultured adipocytes ...
Wei Jie J Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2009
Them2 (thioesterase superfamily member 2) is a 140-amino-acid protein of unknown biological function that comprises a single hotdog fold thioesterase domain. On the basis of its putative association with mitochondria, accentuated expression in oxidative tissues and interaction with StarD2 (also known as phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein, PC-TP), a regulator of fatty acid ...
Wiczer Brian M - - 2009
Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are integral membrane acyl-CoA synthetases implicated in adipocyte fatty acid influx and esterification. Whereas some FATP1 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin, the majority of FATP1 remains within intracellular structures and bioinformatic and immunofluorescence analysis of FATP1 suggests the protein primarily resides ...
Gnoni G V - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Quercetin plays a cardiovascular protective role because of its antioxidant capacity and ability to modulate dyslipidemia. As alterations in hepatic lipid synthesis are crucial to the regulation of serum lipid levels, we investigated the quercetin effect on lipogenesis in rat liver cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of quercetin ...
Ma Long - - 2009
Pseudomonas putida KT2442 produces medium-chain-length (MCL) polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from fatty acids. When gene encoding 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase which catalyzes long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA to 3-ketoacyl-CoA, was partially or completely deleted in P. putida KTOY08, the PHA accumulated was shown to contain only two different monomer structures dominated by a monomer of the same chain ...
Ohgusu Hideko - - 2009
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone in which serine 3 is modified by n-octanoic acid through GOAT (ghrelin O-acyltransferase). However, the enzymological properties of GOAT remain to be elucidated. We analyzed the in vitro activity of GOAT using the recombinant enzyme. Unexpectedly, although the main active form of ghrelin is modified ...
Léger Mathieu - - 2009
Mycolic acids are major and specific lipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope. Their synthesis requires the condensation by Pks13 of a C(22)-C(26) fatty acid with the C(50)-C(60) meromycolic acid activated by FadD32, a fatty acyl-AMP ligase essential for mycobacterial growth. A combination of biochemical and enzymatic approaches demonstrated that FadD32 ...
Wydysh Edward A - - 2009
The incidence of obesity and other diseases associated with an increased triacylglycerol mass is growing rapidly, particularly in the United States. Glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycerolipid biosynthesis, the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate with saturated long-chain acyl-CoAs. In an effort to produce small molecule inhibitors of ...
Oba Yuichi - - 2009
We demonstrated that firefly luciferase has a catalytic function of fatty acyl-CoA synthesis [Oba, Y., Ojika, M. and Inouye, S. (2003) Firefly luciferase is a bifunctional enzyme: ATP-dependent monooxygenase and a long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase. FEBS Lett. 540, 251-254] and proposed that the evolutionary origin of beetle luciferase is ...
Lobo Sandra - - 2009
ACSL1 (acyl-CoA synthetase 1), the major acyl-CoA synthetase of adipocytes, has been proposed to function in adipocytes as mediating free fatty acid influx, esterification, and storage as triglyceride. To test this hypothesis, ACSL1 was stably silenced (knockdown (kd)) in 3T3-L1 cells, differentiated into adipocytes, and evaluated for changes in lipid ...
Mañas-Fernández A - - 2009
Boraginaceae species, such as those from the genus Echium, contain high levels of the Delta(6)-desaturated gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6) and octadecatetraenoic (18:4n-3) acids. These are unusual fatty acids among the plant kingdom that are gaining interest due to their benefits to human health. The potential utility of acyltransferases aimed at an increase ...
Jerga Agoston - - 2009
Long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins (acyl-ACP) are established biochemical regulators of bacterial type II fatty acid synthases due to their ability to feedback-inhibit the early steps in the biosynthetic pathway. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the expression of the fatty acid synthase (fab) genes is controlled by a helix-turn-helix transcriptional repressor called FabT. ...
Lü Shiyou - - 2009
Plant cuticle is an extracellular lipid-based matrix of cutin and waxes, which covers aerial organs and protects them from many forms of environmental stress. We report here the characterization of CER8/LACS1, one of nine Arabidopsis long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases thought to activate acyl chains. Mutations in LACS1 reduced the amount of ...
Perez Daniel R - - 2009
Acyl carrier proteins participate in the synthesis of fatty acids. Here we report the NMR resonances assignment of the acyl carrier protein domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase which corresponds to the fragment 138A-302L in the primary structure. The assignment will allow performing NMR studies with the aim ...
Zeman Miroslav - - 2009
The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cell membranes and body tissues is altered in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depressive disorder (DD). Within the cell, fatty acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs) activate PUFAs by esterifying with CoA. The FACL4 isoform prefers PUFAs (arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid) as substrates, ...
Shimamura Ken - - 2009
Elongase of very-long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) 6 is a rate-limiting enzyme that is responsible for the elongation of long-chain fatty acids such as palmitoic acid (C16). Elovl6 is abundantly expressed in liver and adipose tissue, and the expression levels in these tissues are up-regulated in obese animals. Furthermore, Elovl6-deficient mice ...
Reina-Pinto José J - - 2009
Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are important functional components of various lipid classes, including cuticular lipids in the higher plant epidermis and lipid-derived second messengers. Here, we report the characterization of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that epidermally express FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1), the seed-specific beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) catalyzing the first rate-limiting ...
Nlandu Mputu M - - 2009
In plant, unusual fatty acids are produced by a limited number of species. The industrial benefits of these unusual structures have led several groups to study their production in transgenic plants. Their research results led to very modest accumulation in seeds which was largely due to a limited knowledge of ...
Ren Lu-Jing - - 2009
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production in Schizochytrium sp. HX-308 was evaluated by detecting enzymatic activities of ATP:citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) at different fermentation stages. According to the analysis, a regulation strategy was proposed which reinforced acetyl-CoA and NADPH supply at a specific ...
Ruenwai Rawisara - - 2009
Malonyl-CoA is an essential precursor for fatty acid biosynthesis that is generated from the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA. In this work, a gene coding for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was isolated from an oleaginous fungus, Mucor rouxii. According to the amino acid sequence homology and the conserved structural organization of the biotin ...
Choi Mun Hwan - - 2009
Medium-chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (MCL-PHAs) formed in Pseudomonas spp. have a rather broad distribution of monomer-units whose precursors are supplied via beta-oxidation degradation of MCL fatty acids fed as the carbon source and/or via PhaG enzyme catalyzing the acyl-group transfer from 3-hydroxyacyl-ACPs derived from acetyl-CoA to coenzyme A. It was found that ...
Metz James G - - 2009
In marine bacteria and some thraustochytrids (marine stramenopiles) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are produced de novo by PUFA synthases. These large, multi-domain enzymes carry out the multitude of individual reactions required for conversion of malonyl-CoA to the final LC-PUFA products. ...
Wei Xiang - - 2009
The present work focused on the kinetics of the inhibitory effects of the leaf extract of Siberian Crabapple, named Shan jingzi in China, on chicken liver fatty acid synthase. The results showed that this extract had much stronger inhibitory ability on fatty acid synthase than that from green teas described ...
Koetsier Martijn J - - 2009
Enzymatic activation of PAA (phenylacetic acid) to phenylacetyl-CoA is an important step in the biosynthesis of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin G by the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. CoA esters of PAA and POA (phenoxyacetic acid) act as acyl donors in the exchange of the aminoadipyl side chain of isopenicillin N to ...
Gurvitz Aner - - 2009
Mycobacterium tuberculosis mtFabD is an essential malonyl-CoA:AcpM transacylase and is important for vital protein-protein interactions within type 2 fatty acid synthase FASII. mtFabD contacts KasA, KasB, FabH, InhA, and possibly also HadAB, HadBC, and FabG1/MabA. Disruption of mtFabD's interactions during FASII has been proposed for drug development. Here, the gene ...
Lee Eun-Gyeong - - 2009
The amplification of gltA gene encoding citrate synthase of TCA cycle was required for the efficient conversion of acetyl-CoA, generated during vanillin production from ferulic acid, to CoA, which is essential for vanillin production. Vanillin of 1.98 g/L was produced from the E. coli DH5alpha (pTAHEF-gltA) with gltA amplification in ...
Singh Ranji - - 2009
Although the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is essential in almost all aerobic organisms, its precise modulation and integration in global cellular metabolism is not fully understood. Here, we report on an alternative TCA cycle uniquely aimed at generating ATP and oxalate, two metabolites critical for the survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens. ...
Comino Cinzia - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The leaves of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) have significant pharmaceutical properties, which mainly result from their high content of polyphenolic compounds such as monocaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQ), and a range of flavonoid compounds. RESULTS: Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) encoding genes have been isolated from both ...
Ramos-Vega Ana Laura - - 2009
Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are small acidic proteins that carry growing acyl chains during fatty acid or polyketide synthesis. In rhizobia, there are four different and well-characterized ACPs: AcpP, NodF, AcpXL and RkpF. The genome sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 reveals two additional ORFs that possibly encode additional ACPs. One ...
Gratraud Paul - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum parasitization of erythrocytes causes a substantial increase in the levels of intracellular fatty acids, notably oleic acid. How parasites acquire this monounsaturated fatty acid has remained enigmatic. Here, we report on the biochemical and enzymatic characterization of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Metabolic labeling ...
Kidwai Mazaahir - - 2009
The N-acylation of ethanolamine (2) with various fatty acids 1a-d and esters of fatty acids 1e-h using Candida antarctica B lipase (Novozym((R)) 435) are described and optimum conditions for selective N-acylation rather than O-acylation are also discussed. Microwave assisted solution phase, solid supported and conventional methods were investigated and results ...
Song Wen-Qiang - - 2009
Very long chain fatty acids are important components of plant lipids, suberins, and cuticular waxes. Trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (ECR) catalyses the fourth reaction of fatty acid elongation, which is NADPH dependent. In the present study, the expression of two cotton ECR (GhECR) genes revealed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis was up-regulated during ...
Chen Zhijun - - 2009
It has been recently recognized that mammalian mitochondria contain most, if not all, of the components of fatty acid synthesis type II (FAS II). Among the components identified is 2-enoyl thioester reductase/mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase (Etr1/Mecr), which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of trans-2-enoyl thioesters, generating saturated acyl-groups. Although the FAS type ...
Wu Bai-Nan BN Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, - - 2009
Fatty acid synthesis in bacteria is catalyzed by a set of individual enzymes known as the type II fatty acid synthase. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. In this study, we determined the solution structures of three different forms of ACP, apo-ACP, ACP, and ...
Jump Donald B DB Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, - - 2009
Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation ...
Singh Vijai - - 2009
Fatty acid synthesis is essential for cell growth and viability. The 3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II (KAS II) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyses initiation of the fatty acid synthesis pathway by condensation of acyl CoA and mycolic acid during the elongation phase. KAS II is a key regulator of bacterial fatty ...
Colizzi Francesco - - 2008
The Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) is a key element in the biosynthesis of fatty acids being responsible for the acyl group shuttling and delivery within a series of related enzymes. The molecular mechanism of the delivery process is poorly known, and its characterization is essential for in-depth understanding the biosynthetic ...
Kamisoyama Hiroshi - - 2008
Licorice flavonoid oil (LFO), which contains hydrophobic flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza glabra LINNE, is a new ingredient for functional foods. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity action of LFO in diet-induced obese rats. The addition of 2% LFO in a high-fat diet significantly decreased the weight of abdominal adipose tissue ...
Yatscoff Michael A - - 2008
After birth dramatic decreases in cardiac malonyl CoA levels result in the rapid maturation of fatty acid oxidation. We have previously demonstrated that the decrease in malonyl CoA is due to increased activity of malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), and decreased activity of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), enzymes which degrade and ...
Cheng Bing - - 2010
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like substance which plays a crucial role in the respiratory chain ranging from bacteria to humans and in the radical scavenging in human body. In this study, the full-length hmgR gene (encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase) was cloned and overexpressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using the ...
Bruland Nadine - - 2009
The thioether 3,3-thiodipropionic acid can be used as precursor substrate for biotechnological synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-containing polythioesters. Therefore, the hitherto unknown catabolism of this compound was elucidated to engineer novel and improved polythioester biosynthesis pathways in the future. Bacteria capable of using 3,3-thiodipropionic acid as the sole source of carbon ...
Ham Bryan M - - 2008
Apparent decomposition threshold energies for the fragmentation pathways of lithiated acylglycerols were experimentally determined by collisional activation in a quadrupole-hexapole-quadrupole (QhQ) mass spectrometer. A previously developed 'derived effective reaction path length' approach for predicting bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of simple dissociations of electrostatic complexes such as alkali metal adducts (Li+), ...
Morash Andrea J - - 2009
Dietary fatty acid composition, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, can affect both genetic and non-genetic regulatory mechanisms of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I, the main regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We aimed to determine how these regulatory mechanisms were affected by changes in the fatty acid composition of the diet ...
Zhang Yong-Mei - - 2009
This review covers the main transcriptional mechanisms that control membrane phospholipid synthesis in bacteria. The fatty acid components are the most energetically expensive modules to produce; thus, the regulation of fatty acid production is very tightly controlled to match the growth rate of cells. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria have evolved ...
Carper Michael J MJ Mass Spectrometry Resource, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. - - 2008
Among the phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2s) are the group VI Ca (2+)-independent PLA 2s (iPLA 2s), and expression of multiple transcripts of iPLA 2 in skeletal muscle has been reported. In the present study, phospholipase activity and sequential ATP and calmodulin affinity column chromatography analyses reveal that skeletal muscle ...
Rani Arti - - 2009
Tea is an important crop known for its beverage and antioxidant polyphenols -- catechins and its derivatives. Catechins are synthesized through flavonoid (FL) pathway and stored in the vacuole. A metabolic flux for the operation of FL pathway is maintained through the supply of 4-coumaroyl-CoA of phenylpropanoid pathway. 4-Coumaroyl-CoA is ...
Slocombe Stephen P - - 2008
Acyl sugars containing branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are exuded by glandular trichomes of many species in Solanaceae, having an important defensive role against insects. From isotope-feeding studies, two modes of BCFA elongation have been proposed: (1) fatty acid synthase-mediated two-carbon elongation in the high acyl sugar-producing tomato species Solanum pennellii ...
Shindou Hideo - - 2009
Cells of all organisms are enclosed by a plasma membrane containing bipolar lipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Cellular membranes contain several classes of glycerophospholipids, which have numerous structural and functional roles in cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are usually located at the sn-2 position, but not ...
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