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Sun Xue-Bing - - 2010
Thioethers are the main flavor compounds found in Liliaceae Allium vegetables and have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases correlated with metabolic syndrome. The inhibitory effects of six thioethers on fatty acid synthase (FAS) were investigated. Dose-dependent and time-dependent inhibitions of FAS by one trisulfide and two ...
Reiser Kathrin - - 2010
Aspergillus nidulans can use a variety of fatty acids as sole carbon and energy sources via its peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathways. Prior to channelling the fatty acids into beta-oxidation, they need to be activated to their acyl-CoA derivates. Analysis of the genome sequence identified a number of possible fatty ...
Hatayama Masayoshi - - 2010
Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis in higher plants, catalyzing the stepwise decarboxylative condensation of three acetate units from malonyl-CoA with p-coumaroyl-CoA to yield 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone (THC). Reaction (at pH 7.5) of a mutant (V196M/T197A) of Antirrhinum majus CHS (AmCHS1) with p-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA yielded a significant ...
Lage Ricardo R Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela-Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña), - - 2010
The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated by neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). Recent evidence also indicates that ghrelin promotes feeding through a mechanism involving activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (FAS). ...
Endo Mitsuru - - 2010
Glutaric aciduria type 2 (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, MAD) is a multiple defect of mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenases due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF dehydrogenase. The clinical spectrum are relatively wide from the neonatal onset, severe form (MAD-S) to the late-onset, milder form (MAD-M). In the ...
Lin Xi - - 2010
To examine the regulation of hepatic acetogenesis in neonatal swine, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) activity was measured in the presence of varying palmitoyl-CoA (substrate) and malonyl-CoA (inhibitor) concentrations, and [1-(14)C]-palmitate oxidation was simultaneously measured. Accumulation rates of (14)C-labeled acetate, ketone bodies, and citric acid cycle intermediates within the acid-soluble ...
Hiltunen J Kalervo - - 2010
Recent studies have revealed that mitochondria are able to synthesize fatty acids in a malonyl-CoA/acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent manner. This pathway resembles bacterial fatty acid synthesis (FAS) type II, which uses discrete, nuclearly encoded proteins. Experimental evidence, obtained mainly through using yeast as a model system, indicates that this pathway ...
Weedon-Fekjaer M Susanne - - 2010
Placental fatty acid transport and metabolism are important for proper growth and development of the feto-placental unit. The nuclear receptors, liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXRalpha and LXRbeta), are key regulators of lipid metabolism in many tissues, but little is known about their role in fatty acid transport and ...
Teerawanichpan Prapapan - - 2010
Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate, can accumulate a large amount of medium-chain wax esters under anaerobic growth conditions. Here we report the identification and characterization of two genes involved in the biosynthesis of wax esters in E. gracilis. The first gene encodes a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (EgFAR) involved in the ...
Pang Yu - - 2010
To understand regulatory mechanisms of cotton fiber development, microarray analysis has been performed for upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Based on this, a cDNA (GhKCR3) encoding a polypeptide belonging to short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase family was isolated and cloned. It contains an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding a polypeptide of ...
Upadhyay Santosh Kumar - - 2010
We report the backbone chemical shift assignments of the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) intermediates of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of Plasmodium falciparum. The acyl-ACP intermediates butyryl (C(4)), -octanoyl (C(8)), -decanoyl (C(10)), -dodecanoyl (C(12)) and -tetradecanoyl (C(14))-ACPs display marked changes in backbone HN, C(alpha) and C(beta) chemical shifts as a ...
Sobhi Hany F - - 2010
The measurement of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities is an essential part of the investigation of patients with suspected defects in fatty acid oxidation. Multiple methods are available for the synthesis of the substrates used for measuring acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities; however, the yields are low and the products are used without purification. ...
Jiang Yanfang Y Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, - - 2010
Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein ...
Roudier François - - 2010
Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are essential for many aspects of plant development and necessary for the synthesis of seed storage triacylglycerols, epicuticular waxes, and sphingolipids. Identification of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase PASTICCINO3 and the 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydratase PASTICCINO2 revealed that VLCFAs are important for cell proliferation and tissue patterning. Here, we ...
Zornetzer Gregory A - - 2010
Acyl carrier proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis have been shown to exhibit a high degree of conformational flexibility, in that they are able to sequester fatty acid intermediates between 4 and 18 carbons in length. This flexibility has been observed in X-ray and NMR structures of acyl carrier proteins ...
Contento Anthony L - - 2010
Periods of carbohydrate deprivation are commonly encountered by plant cells. Plants respond to this nutrient stress by the mobilization of stored carbohydrates and the reallocation of other cellular macromolecules to degradative pathways. Previously we identified a number of metabolic genes that are upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana cells during sucrose starvation. ...
Zhang Lei - - 2010
A multiplexed cell assay has been optimized to measure the activities of fatty acyl-CoA elongase, delta-5 desaturase (Delta5D), delta-6 desaturase (Delta6D), and delta-9 desaturase (Delta9D) together using (14)C-labeled tracers in HepG2 cells, which express the human stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 isoform (SCD1) exclusively. The Delta5 and Delta9 desaturase activities are indexed by ...
Ford Judith H - - 2010
Cellular senescence is an in vivo and in vitro phenomenon, accompanied by physiological changes including cessation of division and disturbances of organelle structure and function. Review of the literature was undertaken to determine whether there is evidence that whole organism aging and cell senescence share a common initiation pathway. In ...
Liu Yang - - 2010
The inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA) on fatty acid synthase (FAS, EC 2.3.1.85) was investigated. We found that UA potently inhibited the activity of FAS with a half-inhibitory concentration value (IC(50)) of 6.0 microg/ml. The inhibition kinetic results showed that the inhibition of FAS by UA was competitive against ...
Shinohara Hisami - - 2010
MLCTs, which are randomly interesterified triacylglycerol containing medium- and long-chain fatty acids in the same glycerol molecule, showed significantly higher acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity when measured by using butyryl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA, and palmitoyl-CoA as substrates than long-chain triacylglycerol one hour after a single administration to rats. These results suggest that not only ...
Stiban Johnny - - 2010
Ceramide synthases (CerS) are integral membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum. Six mammalian CerS have been described, with each utilizing fatty acyl CoAs of relatively defined chain lengths for N-acylation of the sphingoid long chain base. In this chapter, we review the main functional features of the CerS proteins, discuss ...
Soupene Eric - - 2010
Activation of fatty acids by acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes is required for de novo lipid synthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and remodeling of biological membranes. Human long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase member 6, ASCL6, is a form present in the plasma membrane of cells. Splicing events affecting the amino-terminus and alternative motifs near the ...
Shui Guanghou - - 2010
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a key regulated intermediate and precursor for de novo biosynthesis of all glycerophospholipids. PA can be synthesized through the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by 1-acyl-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also called lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT). Recent findings have substantiated the essential roles of acyltransferases in various biological functions. ...
Rohwerder Thore - - 2010
Nowadays a growing demand for green chemicals and cleantech solutions is motivating the industry to strive for biobased building blocks. We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure ...
Tan Bo - - 2010
Using a partially purified bovine brain extract, our lab identified three novel endogenous acyl amino acids in mammalian tissues. The presence of numerous amino acids in the body and their ability to form amides with several saturated and unsaturated fatty acids indicated the potential existence of a large number of ...
Lee Chih-Kuei - - 2010
The aim of this study was to find out the optimum combination of electroporation (EP) and reverse iontophoresis (RI) on noninvasive and transdermal determination of blood uric acid level in humans. EP is the use of high-voltage electric pulse to create nano-channels on the stratum corneum, temporarily and reversibly. RI ...
Beguin Anne-Marie - - 2010
Incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD) is an inflammatory skin disease mainly triggered by prolonged skin contact with urine, feces but also liberal detergent use when cleansing the skin. To minimize the epidermal barrier challenge we optimized the design of adult incontinence briefs. In the fluid absorption area we interposed a special ...
Leonardi Roberta R Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of - - 2010
Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is regulated by the pantothenate kinases (PanK), of which there are four active isoforms. The PanK1 isoform is selectively expressed in liver and accounted for 40% of the total PanK activity in this organ. CoA synthesis was limited using a Pank1(-/-) knockout mouse model to determine ...
Petrie James R - - 2010
Long-chain (> or = C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) EPA and DHA (20:5(Delta5,8,11,14,17) and 22:6(Delta4,7,10,13,16,19)) have well-documented health benefits against coronary heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders. Currently, the predominant sources of these fatty acids are marine fish and algal oils, but research is being conducted to ensure that ...
Zhang S - - 2010
The objectives of this study were to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter I (PI) region of the bovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA) gene and to evaluate the extent to which they were associated with lipid-related traits. Eight novel SNPs were identified, which were AJ276223:g.2064T>A (SNP1), g.2155C>T (SNP2), g.2203G>T ...
Gazák Radek - - 2010
Two selective acylation methods for silybin esterification with long-chain fatty acids were developed, yielding a series of silybin 7-O- and 23-O-acyl-derivatives of varying acyl chain lengths. These compounds were tested for their antioxidant (inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH-scavenging) and anti-influenza virus activities. The acyl chain length is an important ...
Baruteau Julien - - 2009
Medium-chain acyl-CoA deshydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most frequent disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). We report a 3 year-old girl with enterovirus viremia who was referred after 36 hours of fasting with hypoketotic hypoglycemic coma and myolysis. Evolution was complicated by acute renal failure, increased serum levels of ...
Han Jixiang - - 2010
The stigmatic estolide is a lipid-based polyester constituting the major component of exudate in solanaceous plants. Although the exudate is believed to play important roles in the pollination process, the biosynthetic pathway of stigmatic estolide, including genes encoding the key enzymes, remains unknown. Here we report the cloning and characterization ...
Ueda Yoshihiro - - 2009
Organocatalytic regioselective acylation of mono- and disaccaharides with various functionalized acid anhydrides has been developed. Acylation of octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside with acid anhydrides derived from alpha-amino acids, cinnamic acid, and gallic acid took place at C(4)-OH with 67-94% regioselectivity in the presence of catalyst 1. Regioselective acylation of disaccharides with functionalized ...
Gu Lei - - 2010
The anaplerotic odd-medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin is used in clinical trials for the chronic dietary treatment of patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. We previously showed (Kinman RP, Kasumov T, Jobbins KA, Thomas KR, Adams JE, Brunengraber LN, Kutz G, Brewer WU, Roe CR, Brunengraber H. Am J Physiol Endocrinol ...
Mizutani Makoto - - 2009
Acyl ghrelin has a 28-amino acid sequence with O-n-octanoyl acid modification at the serine 3 position, whereas des-acyl ghrelin has no octanoyl acid modification. Although these peptides exert different physiological functions, no previous studies have shown the different localization of acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in the stomach. Here we ...
Zhu Kun - - 2009
The biophysical properties of membrane phospholipids are controlled by the composition of their constituent fatty acids and are tightly regulated in Escherichia coli. The FabR (fatty acid biosynthesis repressor) transcriptional repressor controls the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane by regulating the expression of the fabB (beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase ...
Lang T F - - 2009
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation which is usually diagnosed in infancy or through neonatal screening. In the absence of population screening, adults with undiagnosed MCADD can be expected. This review discusses 14 cases that were identified during adulthood. The mortality ...
Petrie James R - - 2010
The production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from precursor molecules linoleic acid (LA; 18:2omega6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3omega3) is catalysed by sequential desaturase and elongase reactions. We report the isolation of a front-end Delta6-desaturase gene from the microalgae Ostreococcus lucimarinus and two elongase genes, a Delta6-elongase and a Delta5-elongase, ...
Li Lei O LO Department of Nutrition, CB#7461, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, - - 2010
Although the underlying causes of insulin resistance have not been completely delineated, in most analyses, a recurring theme is dysfunctional metabolism of fatty acids. Because the conversion of fatty acids to activated acyl-CoAs is the first and essential step in the metabolism of long-chain fatty acid metabolism, interest has grown ...
Singh Atul K AK Microbiology Group, School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4120, - - 2009
Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, adjust membrane fluidity by shortening the fatty acid chain length and increasing the proportional production of anteiso fatty acids at lower growth temperatures. The first condensation reaction in fatty acid biosynthesis is carried out by beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH), which determines the type ...
Montero-Moran Gabriela G Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, - - 2010
Mutations in human CGI-58/ABHD5 cause Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS), characterized by excessive storage of triacylglycerol in tissues. CGI-58 is an alpha/beta-hydrolase fold enzyme expressed in all vertebrates. The carboxyl terminus includes a highly conserved consensus sequence (HXXXXD) for acyltransferase activity. Mouse CGI-58 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein ...
Gnoni Gabriele V - - 2009
The citrate carrier (CiC), a nuclear-encoded protein located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family. CiC plays an important role in hepatic lipogenesis, which is responsible for the efflux of acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria to the cytosol in the form of citrate, the primer ...
Deng Shuang - - 2009
We investigated the interrelations between C(4) ketogenesis (production of beta-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate), C(5) ketogenesis (production of beta-hydroxypentanoate + beta-ketopentanoate), and anaplerosis in isolated rat livers perfused with (13)C-labeled octanoate, heptanoate, or propionate. Mass isotopomer analysis of C(4) and C(5) ketone bodies and of related acyl-CoA esters reveal that C(4) and ...
Liu Yuan Y Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0204, - - 2009
A new series of coenzyme A-tethered polyketide synthase extender units were discovered in relation to the biosynthesis of the salinosporamide family of anticancer agents from the marine bacterium Salinispora tropica. In vivo and in vitro experiments revealed that the crotonyl-CoA reductase/carboxylase SalG has broad substrate tolerance toward 2-alkenyl-CoAs that give ...
Li Lei O LO Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2009
In mammals, a family of five acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), each the product of a separate gene, activates long chain fatty acids to form acyl-CoAs. Because the ACSL isoforms have overlapping preferences for fatty acid chain length and saturation and are expressed in many of the same tissues, the individual function ...
Chorin A C - - 2009
AIMS: The hypothetical dithiolopyrrolone biosynthetic pathway includes a final step of pyrrothine nucleus acylation. The presence of an enzymatic activity catalysing this reaction was investigated in Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137. To understand the effect exerted by organic acids on the level of dithiolopyrrolone production, their influence on enzymatic expression was ...
Rivière Loïc - - 2009
Acetyl-CoA produced in mitochondria from carbohydrate or amino acid catabolism needs to reach the cytosol to initiate de novo synthesis of fatty acids. All eukaryotes analyzed so far use a citrate/malate shuttle to transfer acetyl group equivalents from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol. Here we investigate how this acetyl ...
Lorenzen Wolfram - - 2009
It was recently shown that Myxococcus xanthus harbors an alternative and reversible biosynthetic pathway to isovaleryl coenzyme A (CoA) branching from 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. Analyses of various mutants in these pathways for fatty acid profiles and fruiting body formation revealed for the first time the importance of isoprenoids for myxobacterial development.
Kitazawa Hidefumi - - 2009
We established a convenient assay method for measuring elongation of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs) using a Unifilter-96 GF/C plate. The Unifilter GF/C plate preferentially interacts with hydrophobic end products of ELOVLs (i.e., long chain fatty acid), with minimal malonyl-CoA (C2 unit donor for fatty acid elongation) interaction. This ...
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