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Copetti Marina V - - 2012
The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations of these metabolites can be produced according to the fermentation practices ...
Isozaki Katsuhiro - - 2012
A new type of Pt-complex-bound amino acid was synthesized by condensation of a cyclometalated Pt complex with the side-chain residue of N- and C-alkylated glutamic acid. Self-assembly of the Pt-bound lipophilic amino acid afforded a supramolecular gel in organic solvents, which comprised fibrous lamellar aggregates that supported a highly oriented ...
Hirsch Anna K H - - 2012
Polypeptide-type dynamic biopolymers (biodynamers) have been generated by polycondensation via acylhydrazone and imine formation of amino-acid-derived components that polymerize driven by self-organization. They have been characterized as globular particles, reminiscent of folded proteins, by cryo-TEM, LS, DOSY NMR, and SANS studies. The reversible polymers obtained are remarkably monodisperse and feature ...
Burnett Bruce P - - 2012
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzymes produce effectors of pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) and many other diseases. All three enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to inflammatory fatty acids, which contribute to the deterioration of cartilage. AA is derived from both ...
Cho Hyun-Seok - - 2012
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-trimethylaminobutyric acid) is involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix and the removal of potentially toxic acylcarnitine esters. Transient carnitine transport defect is a rare condition in newborns reported in 1/90,000 live births. In this paper, we describe a case of transient carnitine transport ...
Foyer Christine H - - 2012
The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key ...
Rosario Fredrick J - - 2012
Maternal adiponectin levels are inversely correlated to birth weight, suggesting that maternal adiponectin limits fetal growth. We hypothesized that full-length adiponectin (fADN) infusion in pregnant mice down-regulates placental amino acid transporters and decreases fetal growth. Starting at embryonic day (E) 14.5, fADN (0.62 ± 0.02 μg (g body weight)(−1) day(−1), ...
Galle Sandra - - 2012
The majority of gluten-free breads on the market are of poor sensory and textural quality. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) formed from sucrose during sourdough fermentation can improve the technological properties of gluten-free breads and potentially replace hydrocolloids. In this study, the influence of in situ formed EPS on dough rheology and quality ...
Májer Ferenc - - 2012
Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid (BA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a tertiary BA, cause opposing effects in vivo and in cell suspensions. Fluorescent analogues of DCA and UDCA could help investigate important questions about their cellular interactions and distribution. We have prepared a set of isomeric 3α- and ...
Torres-Rodríguez Carolina - - 2012
Purpose: To follow the chemical composition of bovine enamel during phosphoric acid-induced demineralization. Materials and Methods: Enamel samples were ground into a fine powder, selecting the 150- and 200-μm fractions in order to obtain a more homogeneous study material. They were immersed in diluted phosphoric acid (0.1%) for increasing durations ...
Chen Chun-Ko - - 2012
Nanochannel arrays were fabricated by the self-organized multi-electrolyte-step anodic aluminum oxide [AAO] method in this study. The anodization conditions used in the multi-electrolyte-step AAO method included a phosphoric acid solution as the electrolyte and an applied high voltage. There was a change in the phosphoric acid by the oxalic acid ...
Dulf Francisc V - - 2012
A systematic mapping of the phytochemical composition of different sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit subspecies is still lacking. No data relating to the fatty acid composition of main lipid fractions from the berries of ssp. carpatica (Romania) have been previously reported. The fatty acid composition of the total ...
Azizan Kamalrul Azlan - - 2012
Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) were used to study metabolites produced by <em>Lactococcus lactis</em> subsp. <em>cremoris</em> MG1363 grown at a temperature of 30 °C with and without agitation at 150 rpm, and at 37 °C without agitation. It was observed that <em>L. lactis</em> ...
Korani Mohsen - - 2012
Serum fatty acid content mainly reflects dietary fat intake. It is not known whether alterations of serum fatty acid compositions predict type 2 diabetes risk. We evaluated fatty acid contents in serum of the 76 normal and 98 diabetic adults taking part in a cross sectional study, using a gas ...
Khalkar Sharmishtha - - 2012
Condensation product of fatty acids and fatty alcohols is termed as wax esters. A series of fatty acids and fatty alcohols both saturated & unsaturated ranging from C 12 to C 22 were synthesised using p-TSA as a catalyst. Carbonyl functionality was confirmed by infrared spectrophotometer. Wax esters were used ...
Wang Li - - 2012
Many active components of herbal products are small organic anions, and organic anion transporters were previously demonstrated to be a potential site of drug-drug interactions. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effects of six hydrophilic components of the herbal medicine Danshen, lithospermic acid, protocatechuic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid ...
Nowicka-Stążka Patrycja - - 2012
 Atherosclerosis together with its cardiovascular consequences is the most common and significant cause of death, particularly in highly developed countries. The process of atherogenesis begins as soon as in childhood and depends on classical risk factors. Atherosclerosis also results from a chronic inflammatory-immune process which takes place in the vascular ...
De Vreese Rob - - 2012
The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis ...
Mahmood Tahir - - 2012
Selected soluble sugars and organic acids were analyzed in strawberry, sweet cherry, and mulberry fruits at different ripening stages by HPLC. The amounts of fructose, glucose and sucrose were found to be: strawberry (1.79-2.86, 1.79-2.25 and 0.01-0.25 g/100 g FW), sweet cherry (0.76-2.35, 0.22-3.39 and 0.03-0.13 g/100 g) and mulberry ...
Umezawa Takahiro - - 2012
The swimbladder volume is regulated by O(2) transfer between the luminal space and the blood In the swimbladder, lactic acid generation by anaerobic glycolysis in the gas gland epithelial cells and its recycling through the rete mirabile bundles of countercurrent capillaries are essential for local blood acidification and oxygen liberation ...
Hayat Shamsul - - 2012
Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, ...
Xu Xiaojun - - 2012
The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic ...
Angelini Sandra - - 2012
In bacteria, Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) is the central cofactor for fatty acid biosynthesis. It carries the acyl chain in elongation and must therefore interact successively with all the enzymes of this pathway. Yet, ACP also interacts with proteins of diverse unrelated function. Among them, the interaction with SpoT has ...
Bouwman Aniek C - - 2012
In this study we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for bovine milk fatty acids from summer milk samples. This study replicates a previous study where we performed a GWAS for bovine milk fatty acids based on winter milk samples from the same population. Fatty acids from summer and winter ...
Giannì Maria Lorella - - 2012
Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty ...
Vrabl Pamela - - 2012
Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic ...
Elle Ida Coordt - - 2012
The nematode C. elegans has during the past decade proven to be a valuable model organism to identify and examine molecular mechanisms regulating lipid storage and metabolism. While the primary approach has been to identify genes and pathways conferring alterations in lipid accumulation, only a few recent studies have recognized ...
Wollam Joshua J Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Huffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of - - 2012
Endogenous small molecule metabolites that regulate animal longevity are emerging as a novel means to influence health and life span. In C. elegans, bile acid-like steroids called the dafachronic acids (DAs) regulate developmental timing and longevity through the conserved nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, a homolog of mammalian sterol-regulated receptors LXR ...
Salmen Saleh H - - 2012
This study aimed to evaluate amino acids content and the electrophoretic profile of camel milk casein from different camel breeds. Milk from three different camel breeds (Majaheim, Wadah and Safrah) as well as cow milk were used in this study. Results showed that ash and moisture contents were significantly higher ...
Guedes R L M - - 2011
Besides being building blocks for proteins, amino acids are also key metabolic intermediates in living cells. Surprisingly a variety of organisms are incapable of synthesizing some of them, thus named Essential Amino Acids (EAAs). How certain ancestral organisms successfully competed for survival after losing key genes involved in amino acids ...
Hosseini Sh - - 2011
The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand) County around Shahrood City in Semnan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and ...
Nguyen Long Nam - - 2011
Fatty acid biosynthesis plays a significant role in the growth and survival of diverse organisms. In yeasts, the de novo fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway produces and regulates essential fatty acid species such as saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (UFA) fatty acids that are required for generation and maintenance of cell ...
Marino F - - 2011
A tumour diagnosed as multicentric infiltrative lipoma affecting a single farmed seabass is described. The fish had 3 masses on the lateral side of its back, deforming the skin surface. The masses showed a tendency to invade the underlying musculature. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of differentiated adipocytes. Biochemically, the neoplastic ...
Chugh Bhawna B Department of Food Sci. & Technology, CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar, 125004 India ; GB Pant university of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, US nagar, Uttarakhand - - 2014
Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions ...
Wu Xia - - 2011
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are important for human health. Alternative resources of n-3 PUAFs created by transgenic domestic animals would be an economic approach. In this study, we generated a mfat-1 transgenic cattle expressed a Caenorhabditis elegans gene, mfat-1, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Fatty acids analysis ...
Yang Xue - - 2011
Organic matter in sewage sludge can be converted into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as renewable carbon sources. This work for the first time demonstrates that β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) molecules enhance sludge hydrolysis for production of VFAs. With 0.2gβ-CDg(-1) dried solids (DSs), the increment rate for VFAs peaked at 4200gg(-1)DSsg(-1) β-CD, with ...
Kimura Fumiko - - 2011
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are considered critical for the development of infants and are commonly supplemented in infant formulae. In this study, two common sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, fish oil (FO) and DHA-rich microalgal oil (DMO), were fed to rat pups ...
McCue Marshall D - - 2011
Abstract All animals route assimilated nutrients to their tissues where they are used to support growth or are oxidized for energy. These nutrients are probably not allocated homogeneously among the various tissue and are more likely to be preferentially routed toward some tissues and away from others. Here we introduce ...
Upadhyay Aparna - - 2011
Effect of active molluscicidal components of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP) activity in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. In vivo and in vitro exposure of saponin (active component of S. mukorossi pericarp) and tannic acid (active ...
Dill Allison L - - 2011
There has been a recent surge in applications of mass spectrometry (MS) to tissue analysis, particularly lipid-based tissue imaging using ambient ionization techniques. This recent growth highlights the need to examine the effects of sample handling, storage conditions, and experimental protocols on the quality of the data obtained. Variables such ...
Rustichelli Cecilia - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The essential fatty acids can be helpful in the prevention of several pathologies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the major n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in tissues of rats fed with flaxseed oil and with a dietetic oil in order to evaluate how their chronic supplementation ...
Montgomery Magdalene K - - 2011
Both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) vary with body size in mammals and birds and it has been suggested that these are mediated through size-related variation in membrane fatty acid composition. Whereas the physical properties of membrane fatty acids affect the activity of membrane proteins and, ...
Jones Derek - - 2011
This article discusses the role of injectable soft-tissue fillers in the aging face, and their clinical and chemical behavior. Temporary and permanent fillers are discussed, namely hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-l-lactic acid, liquid silicone, and polymethylmethacrylate. Techniques and outcomes are presented.
Sun P - - 2011
Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) may be degraded into cyanuric acid and some other compounds by rumen microorganisms. This study was conducted to assess the transfer of melamine and cyanuric acid in to milk and tissues by dairy cows fed different doses of melamine. Forty mid-lactation dairy cows (157±43 d in milk, 20.8±1.4kg ...
Crinnion Walter J - - 2011
Intravenous sodium calcium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and oral 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) have both been used to reduce the burden of lead in humans. Each of these agents enhances the mobilization of lead from different areas of the body - EDTA from the trabecular bone and DMSA from ...
Bourassa P P Département de Chimie-Biologie, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières (Québec), Canada G9A - - 2011
The interaction of folic acid with human serum (HSA) and bovine serum albumins (BSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various folic acid contents was investigated. FTIR, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modelling were used to analyse folic acid binding sites, the binding constant ...
Matmaroh Kanokwan K Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, - - 2011
Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) were extracted from scale of spotted golden goatfish (Parupeneus heptacanthus) with the yields of 0.46% and 1.20% (based on dry weight basis), respectively. Both ASC and PSC were characterised as type I collagen, containing α1 and α2 chains. β and γ ...
Lim Jin Ik - - 2011
A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based resin is commonly used as a cryoembedding medium for the histological analysis of frozen tissue sections. However, it is not easy to obtain sufficient numbers of satisfactory reproducible sections owing to the differences between the mechanical properties of the medium and embedded tissue and ...
Waraho Thaddao T Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United - - 2011
Free fatty acids are strong prooxidants in both bulk and emulsified oils. Addition of oleic acid to an oil-in-water emulsions increased lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal formation at free fatty acid concentrations as low as 0.1% of the lipid. The prooxidant effect of free fatty acids was dependent on fatty acid ...
Song Hu - - 2011
The principal way to improve the outcome of gastric cancer (GC) is to predict carcinogenesis and metastasis at an early stage. The aims of the present study were to test the hypothesis that distinct metabolic profiles are reflected in GC tissues and to further explore potential biomarkers for GC diagnosis. ...
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