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Wang Xin - - 2010
The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel (i.e. bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia. Under optimum conditions (120 °C and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants ...
Spichtig Véronique - - 2011
In 2007, Martin et al. developed a method for the analysis of sialic acids by HPLC following 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene (DMB) derivatisation (Martín et al., Anal Bioanal Chem 387:2943-2949, 2007). Within the article, the authors noted that lactose interfered with the analysis, giving erroneously high results when lactose-containing products were analysed. Such ...
Hochmuth Thomas - - 2010
Many marine sponges contain massive numbers of largely uncultivated, phylogenetically diverse bacteria that seem to be important contributors to the chemistry of these animals. Insights into the diversity, origin, distribution, and function of their metabolic gene communities are crucial to dissect the chemical ecology and biotechnological potential of sponge symbionts. ...
Kosa Matyas - - 2011
Heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms are capable of producing over 20% of their weight in single cell oils (SCOs) composed of triacylglycerols (TAGs). These TAGs contain fatty acids, such as palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, that are well-suited for biodiesel applications. Although some of these microbes are able to accumulate SCOs while ...
Weimer Paul J - - 2011
"Extraruminal" fermentations employing in vitro incubation of mixed ruminal bacterial consortia, are capable of converting a complex array of biomass materials to mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane, and carbon dioxide. Most of the potential energy in the biomass feedstock is retained in the VFA products, which are potential ...
Rong Jian - - 2010
The polyketide nonactin, a polyketide possessing antitumor and antibacterial activity, is produced by an unusual biosynthesis pathway in Streptomyces griseus that uses both enantiomers of the nonactin precursor, nonactic acid. Despite many studies with labeled precursors, much of the biosynthesis pathway remains unconfirmed, particularly the identity of the last achiral ...
Rajvanshi Meghna - - 2011
Corynebacterium glutamicum, a soil bacterium, is used to produce amino acids such as lysine and glutamate. C. glutamicum is often exposed to osmolality changes in its medium, and the bacterium has therefore evolved several adaptive response mechanisms to overcome them. In this study we quantify the metabolic response of C. ...
Sahni Vaibhav - - 2010
There is increasing evidence that alkali therapy can retard progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We summarize recent studies and discuss a mechanism whereby alkali therapy may neutralize acid production associated with typical Western diets, which generate acid. We emphasize the rationale for using alkali therapy early in the course ...
Boukhettala Nabile - - 2010
GCN2 and mTOR pathways are involved in the regulation of protein metabolism in response to amino acid availability in different tissues. However, regulation at intestinal level is poorly documented. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a deprivation of essential amino acids (EAA) or glutamine (Gln) ...
Liu Yanbin - - 2011
Ustilago maydis is known to produce glycolipid-type biosurfactants. Here, we show that U. maydis is able to efficiently convert biodiesel-derived crude glycerol to glycolipids. We have optimized the medium composition and environmental factors for bioconversion of crude glycerol to glycolipids. The synthetic medium (MinCG) contains 50gL(-1) crude glycerol and 20.3mgL(-1) ...
Orgován Gábor - - 2011
(1)H NMR-pH titrations of arginine, the most basic natural amino acid and citrulline, its neutral counterpart were carried out. Two other closely related auxiliary compounds were also studied. The 8 macroscopic protonation constants were determined. Combining the four datasets in a deductive method, all the 12 microconstants of arginine, the ...
Gu Jian-Qiao - - 2011
A potent new lipopeptide antibiotic, A54145E(Asn(3)Asp(9)), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces fradiae DA1489 engineered to delete genes encoding enzymes involved in hydroxylation of Asn(3) and methoxylation of Asp(9). The chemical structure predicted from the genetic changes in the biosynthetic pathway was determined by analyses of chemical transformations, ...
Hirose Yuki - - 2011
Quinomycin antibiotics, represented by echinomycin, are an important class of antitumor antibiotics. We have recently succeeded in identification of biosynthetic gene clusters of echinomycin and SW-163D, and have achieved heterologous production of echinomycin in Escherichia coli. In addition, we have engineered echinomycin non-ribosomal peptide synthetase to generate echinomycin derivatives. However, ...
Gladyshev Michail I - - 2011
One of the central paradigms of ecology is that only about 10% of organic carbon production of one trophic level is incorporated into new biomass of organisms of the next trophic level. Many of energy-yielding compounds of carbon are designated as 'essential', because they cannot be synthesized de novo by ...
Rahulan Raji - - 2011
A bioprocess was developed for the production of L: -leucine aminopeptidase under solid-state fermentation (SSF) by cultivating Streptomyces gedanensis in an inert support impregnated with a minimal medium. Response surface methodology of Box Behnken design was used to derive the optimum level of significant factors (3 ml inoculum (1.2 × 10(9) CFU/ml); 0.275% w/v ...
Smit Yvette - - 2011
Until recently, acidic products such as fruit juice and fruit based products were generally thought to be susceptible to spoilage by yeasts, mycelia fungi and lactic acid bacteria, as the low pH of these products acts as natural control measures against spoilage by most bacteria. Alicyclobacillus seem to be prevalent ...
Onaka Hiroyasu - - 2011
Natural products produced by microorganisms are important starting compounds for drug discovery. Secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, have been isolated from different Streptomyces species. The production of these metabolites depends on the culture conditions. Therefore, the development of a new culture method can facilitate the discovery of new natural products. Here, ...
Jaworska Malgorzata M - - 2010
Chitin deacetylase is the only known enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of the acetamino linkage in the N-acetylglucosamine units of chitin and chitosan. This reaction can play an important role in enzymatic production of chitosan from chitin, or in enzymatic modification of chitosan, which has applications in medicine, pharmacy or plant ...
Jaworska Malgorzata M - - 2011
Chitin deacetylase is the only known enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of the acetamino linkage in the N-acetylglucosamine units of chitin and chitosan. This reaction can play an important role in enzymatic production of chitosan from chitin, or in enzymatic modification of chitosan, which has applications in medicine, pharmacy or plant ...
Floss Heinz G - - 2011
The aminoshikimate pathway of formation of 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), the precursor of ansamycin and other antibiotics is reviewed. In this biosynthesis, genes for kanosamine formation have been recruited from other genomes, to provide a nitrogenous precursor. Kanosamine is then phosphorylated and converted by common cellular enzymes into 1-deoxy-1- imino-erythrose 4-phosphate, ...
Miao Lili - - 2010
An astaxanthin-overproducing (∼1000 μg g(-1) ) strain of Phaffia rhodozyma, termed MK19, was established through 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine and Co60 mutagenesis from wild-type JCM9042 (merely 35-67 μg g(-1) ). The total fatty acid content of MK19 was much lower than that of the wild type. Possible causes of the astaxanthin increase were studied at the gene ...
Nebbioso Antonio - - 2010
A model heterogeneous mixture of a hydrophilic tripeptide (phenylalanine-glycine-glycine, PGG) and hydrophobic organic acids ((12)C- and (13)C-octanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid) was subjected to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The objective was to verify the previously noted inconsistencies in ESI-MS of complex environmental samples such as humic materials from either ...
Lee Jin-Woo - - 2011
Chromium halides were introduced for the sustainable production of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from raw acorn biomass using an acidic ionic liquid. The free sugars (glucose and maltose) released by the acidic hydrolysis of the biomass were confirmed by the FT-IR absorption bands around 995-1014cm(-1) and HPLC. FESEM analysis showed that the ...
Zhu Lixin - - 2010
Fatty liver is a prerequisite for the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The homeostasis of hepatic lipid is determined by the dynamic balance of multiple pathways introducing lipids into or removing lipids from hepatocytes. We aim to study the different contributions of major lipid pathways to fat deposition in NASH ...
Salim Yoga Sugama - - 2011
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-38 mol%-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-38mol%-3HV)] was produced by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 in the presence of oleic acid and 1-pentanol. Due to enormous production of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in the oil palm plantation and high production cost of P(3HB-co-3HV), oil palm EFB fibers were used for biocomposites preparation. In this study, maleic ...
Li Tingting - - 2011
Rapid identification of unknown microorganisms of clinical and agricultural importance is not only critical for accurate diagnosis of infections but also essential for appropriate and prompt treatment. We describe here a rapid method for microorganisms typing based on quantitative analysis of fatty acids by iFAT approach (Isotope-coded Fatty Acid Transmethylation). ...
Fang Zhiyuan - - 2010
A lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor based on copper-dependent DNA-cleaving DNAzyme and gold nanoparticles has been developed for the visual detection of copper ions (Cu(2+)) in an aqueous solution with a detection limit of 10 nM.
Bartels-Rausch Thorsten - - 2011
Reduction of divalent mercury and subsequent emission to the atmosphere has been identified as loss process from surface snow, but its mechanism and importance are still unclear. The amount of mercury that stays in the snow pack until spring is of significance, because during snow melt it may be released ...
Ruas Alexandre - - 2010
This work is aimed at a description of the thermodynamic properties of highly concentrated aqueous solutions of nitric acid salts at 25 °C within the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory. The predictive capability of this model was examined. First, Raman spectroscopy was used to study the proportion of associated ...
Dántola M Laura - - 2010
Folic acid, or pteroyl-l-glutamic acid (PteGlu), is a precursor of coenzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleotides and amino acids. PteGlu is composed of three moieties: a 6-methylpterin (Mep) residue, a p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) residue, and a glutamic acid (Glu) residue. Accumulated evidence indicates that photolysis of PteGlu leads to ...
Li Yungui - - 2010
To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark ...
Li Yungui - - 2010
To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark ...
Huber Stefan A - - 2011
Size-exclusion chromatography in combination with organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD) is an established method to separate the pool of NOM into major fractions of different sizes and chemical functions and to quantify these on the basis of organic carbon. One specific approach, also known as LC-OCD-OND, is based on the Gräntzel ...
Giri Anupam - - 2010
Development of aroma-active compounds during fermentation in the preparation of fermented fish-meat paste product (fish miso) from horse mackerel meat was quantitatively determined and characterized by olfactometric and organoleptic assessments. The critical ripening time was estimated by quantitative and/or qualitative analyses of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and ...
Wu Yunhai - - 2011
The use of cheap, high-efficiency, and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative way for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This paper investigated the use of waste brewery's yeast for the removal of acid orange 7 from aqueous solution. The optimum removal of acid orange 7 was found ...
Sun Huiyu - - 2010
The sorption properties of tetracycline were compared between a coal humic acid (CHA) and a soil humic acid (SHA) under various solution chemistry conditions. Structural characteristics of the two humic acids were quantified in detail by elemental analysis, solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), acid-base titration, and Zeta potential measurement. ...
Lee Eun Hee - - 2010
The physical stability of metastable form I of flufenamic acid (FFA) increased by using mefenamic acid (MFA) as an inclusion compound. We studied the extent of this effect and explained the mechanism by investigating the effect of the presence of MFA on nucleation and crystal growth of the mixed crystals ...
Kharlamova Anastasia - - 2010
The exposure of electrospray droplets to acid vapors can significantly affect protein charge state distributions (CSDs) derived from unbuffered solutions. Such experiments have been conducted by leaking acidic vapors into the counter-current nitrogen drying gas of an electrospray interface. On the basis of changes in protein CSDs, protein folding and ...
Yamashita Kyoko - - 2010
The irreversible removal of acetaldehyde from indoor air via a chemical reaction with amino acids was investigated. To compare effectiveness, five types of amino acid (glycine, l-lysine, l-methionine, l-cysteine, and l-cystine) were used as the reactants. First, acetaldehyde-laden air was introduced into aqueous solutions of each amino acid and the ...
Wang G S - - 2011
Aqueous dilute acid pretreatments of corncob were conducted using cylindrical pressure vessels in an oil bath. Pretreatments were conducted in a temperature range of 160-190 °C with acid-solution-to-solid-corncob ratio of 2. The acid concentration (v/v) in the pretreatment solution was varied from 0% to 0.7%, depending on temperature. This gives acid ...
Aher Suyog - - 2010
Ultrasound assisted solution cocrystallization (USSC) has been studied using a non-congruently soluble pair of caffeine and maleic acid in methanol. USSC was compared with solvent cooling and slurry sonication using different molar ratios of caffeine:maleic acid (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:3.5) in solution/slurry. Products were characterized by PXRD and ...
MichaƂowski Tadeusz - - 2010
The paper provides a new formulation and analytical proposals based on the isohydric solutions concept. It is particularly stated that a mixture formed, according to titrimetric mode, from a weak acid (HX, C(0)mol/L) and a strong acid (HB, Cmol/L) solutions, assumes constant pH, independently on the volumes of the solutions ...
Rissanen Antti Juhani - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether sample preservation can affect the yield of nucleic acid extracts from environmental samples. Storage of microbial samples was studied using three sediment types of varying carbon contents (10-57% carbon of dry weight). Four different storage solutions were tested at three temperatures. ...
Iglesias Ana - - 2010
Adsorption of cationic pesticides in soils is generally attributed to mineral clays and organic matter components. However, iron oxides may also contribute to such adsorption or affect it by associating with other components. Using goethite and humic acid as models for iron oxides and organic matter respectively, we studied the ...
Maurer Felix - - 2010
Previous studies on proton and metal binding to humic substances have not considered a potential influence of reduction and oxidation of functional groups. Therefore, we investigated how proton binding of a purified soil humic acid was affected by reduction. Reduction of the humic acid was carried out using an electrochemical ...
Swapna H C - - 2010
Lipid extracts from meat, head and viscera of Indian fresh water fishes, viz., catla, rohu, mrigal, common carp and tilapia were analyzed for lipid class distribution and fatty acid profile. The yield of meat ranged from 66.0-79.5% and total lipid content in meat was 0.8-3.8%. The total lipid content was ...
Rajkumar V - - 2010
Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F ...
Vetvicka Vaclav - - 2010
Humic acids are compounds resulting from decomposition of organic matter. Despite their common presence, our knowledge of their biological effects is limited, and current findings are controversial. We decided to evaluate the immunological effects of two different types of humic acids, differing in source and biochemical characteristics. Using both components ...
Xu Jianqing - - 2010
Self-consistent iterative multistate empirical valence bond (SCI-MS-EVB) simulations for four different concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) concentrations (0.43, 0.85, 1.68, and 3.26 M) were conducted to study the structure and dynamic properties of the aqueous multiple excess proton systems. The present, more extensive simulations, confirm that the hydrated excess protons have ...
Xiong Xiong - - 2010
Wood sawdust and maize straw were selected to co-compost sewage sludge to investigate the effects of organic bulking agents on the formation and molecular transformation of humic substances. The results showed that composting process increased humic acids (HA) while decreased fulvic acids (FA), and the wood sawdust and maize straw ...
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