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Results 501 - 550 of 1909
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Creager Melinda S - - 2011
Spider silk has been evolutionarily optimized for contextual mechanical performance over the last 400 Ma. Despite precisely balanced mechanical properties, which have yet to be reproduced, the underlying molecular architecture of major ampullate spider silk can be simplified being viewed as a versatile block copolymer. Four primary amino acid motifs: ...
Maqbool Asim - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Dietary n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) PUFA have significant implications in health and disease prevention. Marine life is rich in long-chain n-3 PUFA. Children and adults in North America are reluctant fish eaters; canned tuna is a common fish in children's diets. Although a multitude of tuna products are ...
Kim Jaai - - 2011
Bacterial population dynamics during the start-up of three lab-scale anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters, i.e., synthetic glucose wastewater, whey permeate, and liquefied sewage sludge, were assessed using a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques. The DGGE results showed that bacterial populations related to Aeromonas spp. ...
Ramachandran Hema - - 2011
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB)] terpolymer was produced using Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 via one-step cultivation process through combination of various carbon sources such as 1,4-butanediol or γ-butyrolactone with either 1-pentanol, valeric acid, or 1-propanol. Oleic acid was added to increase the biomass production. The composition of 3HV and 4HB monomers were greatly affected ...
Kuhlich Paul - - 2011
In this work, the behavior of the polycyclic musks 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB) was investigated upon disinfection by using sodium hypochlorite as disinfectant in a model disinfection basin in order to find new disinfection by-products (DBP). In the case of AHTN, the carboxylic acid 3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (AHTN-COOH) was generated ...
Silva Isa - - 2011
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of certain factors on the production of volatile phenols from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus). The studied factors were: pH, l-malic acid concentration, glucose and fructose concentrations and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. It ...
Sharma Archana - - 2011
The production of acidic α-amylase by a novel acidophilic bacterium Bacillus acidicola TSAS1 was optimized in submerged fermentation using statistical approaches. The process parameters that significantly affected α-amylase production (starch, K(2)HPO(4), inoculum size and temperature) were identified by Plackett and Burman design. The optimum levels of the significant variables as ...
Theodorou Evaggelos C - - 2011
BACKGROUND: We have shown previously that AtoSC two-component system regulates the biosynthesis of E. coli cPHB [complexed poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]. METHODS: The AtoSC involvement on fatty acids metabolism, towards cPHB synthesis was studied using cPHB determination, gene expression and fatty acid metabolic pathways inhibitors. RESULTS: Deletion of the atoDAEB operon from the ...
Martin F - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxidoreduction potential (Eh) on the biosynthesis of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria in non-fat yogurt. The study was done with yogurts fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The Eh was modified by the application of different gaseous ...
Ni Hong-Min HM Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, - - 2011
Determination of autophagic flux is essential to assess and differentiate between the induction or suppression of autophagy. Western blot analysis for free GFP fragments resulting from the degradation of GFP-LC3 within the autolysosome has been proposed as one of the autophagic flux assays. However, the exact dynamics of GFP-LC3 during ...
Hansen Allison K - - 2011
The evolution of intimate symbiosis requires the coordination of gene expression and content between the distinct partner genomes; this coordination allows the fusion of capabilities of each organism into a single integrated metabolism. In aphids, the 10 essential amino acids are scarce in the phloem sap diet and are supplied ...
Muir Ryann M - - 2011
Gallic acid (GA), a key intermediate in the synthesis of plant hydrolysable tannins, is also a primary anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective agent found in wine, tea, and cocoa. In this publication, we reveal the identity of a gene and encoded protein essential for GA synthesis. Although it has long been recognized that ...
Zhuang Yibin - - 2011
Cottoquinazoline D (3), a new alkaloid with a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid residue rarely discovered in nature, was isolated and identified together with two new quinazolinone alkaloids, cottoquinazolines B (1) and C (2), from coral-associated fungus Aspergillus versicolor LCJ-5-4. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods, X-ray single ...
Cruite Justin Thomas - - 2011
Cellular PrP is actively cycled between the cell surface and the endosomal pathway. The exact site and mechanism of conversion from PrPC to PrPSc remains unknown. We have previously used recombinant antibodies containing grafts of PrP sequence to identify three regions of PrPC (aa23-27, 98-110 and 136-158) that react with ...
Frias Janice A - - 2011
OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active ...
Kwan Jason Christopher JC Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. - - 2011
Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism of bacterial gene regulation in response to increases in population density. Perhaps most studied are QS pathways mediated by acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in Gram-negative bacteria. Production of small molecule QS signals, their accumulation within a diffusion-limited environment and their binding to a LuxR-type receptor ...
Zhang Zhi-Jun - - 2011
The enantioselective hydrolysis of mandelonitrile with whole cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing nitrilase activity was severely inhibited by the substrate at high concentrations (>300mM), which resulted in a low yield of the target product (R)-(-)-mandelic acid. To relieve the substrate inhibition and to enhance the (R)-(-)-mandelic acid productivity, ...
Ahn Jae-Hyung - - 2011
The production of butanol from thin stillage by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 was evaluated in the paper. At initial pH values ranging from 5.0 to 7.0 C. pasteurianum DSM 525 produced 6.2-7.2g/L of butanol utilizing glycerol in thin stillage as the main carbon source, with yields of 0.32-0.44g butanol produced/g ...
Tian Qiang - - 2011
1,2-Cyclopropaneacetylated sugars as glycosyl donors reacted with a series of glycosyl acceptors (monosaccharides, amino acids, and other alcohols) in the presence of Lewis acid to produce oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates containing 2-C-acetylmethylsugars. Galactosyl donor gave good to excellent α-selectivities with TMSOTf as a catalyst, whereas galactosyl donor offered moderate to good ...
Gaveglio Virginia L - - 2011
The aim of the present research was to analyse the pathways for phosphatidic acid metabolism in purified nuclei from cerebellar cells. Lipid phosphate phosphatase and diacylglyceride lipase activities were detected in nuclei from cerebellar cells. It was observed that DAGL activity makes up 50% of LPP activity and that PtdOH ...
Yu Jinghua - - 2011
In this work, chemiluminescence (CL) method was combined with microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) to establish a novel CL μPAD biosensor for the first time. This novel CL μPAD biosensor was based on enzyme reaction which produced H(2)O(2) while decomposing the substrate and the CL reaction between rhodanine derivative and ...
Schüffler Anja - - 2011
Feeding experiments with the ascomycete Allantophomopsis lycopodina indicated that the potent fungistatic allantofuranone is biosynthesized from phenylalanine. Further experiments with synthetic precursors gave evidence that the naturally occurring polyporic acid serves as a key intermediate in the biosynthesis. In addition to the formation of allantofuranone, its abiotic and metabolic degradation ...
Bøe Sigurd - - 2011
A major barrier within the field of non-viral gene therapy toward therapeutic strategies, e.g., tumor therapy, has been lack of appropriate specific delivery strategies to the intended target tissues or cells. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for light-directed delivery of nucleic acids through the use of photochemical internalization ...
Schiebold Silke - - 2011
The biology of the seed is complicated by the extensive non-homogeneity (spatial gradients) in gene expression, metabolic conversions and storage product accumulation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying seed growth and storage therefore requires the development of means to obtain tissue-specific analyses. This approach also represents an important priority ...
Lin Chunchi - - 2011
The D-, L-enantiomeric pairs of common monosaccharides (xylose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, glucose, mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid) were derivatized with 2,3-naphthalenediamine to form the corresponding D-, L-aldo-NAIM derivatives. A simple and facile capillary electrophoretic method was established for sugar composition analysis by simultaneously determining the migration ...
Millington David S - - 2011
The acylcarnitine profile is a diagnostic test for inherited disorders of fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Patients with this type of metabolic disorder accumulate disease-specific acylcarnitines that correlate with the acyl coenzyme A compounds in the affected mitochondrial metabolic pathways. For example, propionylcarnitine accumulates in patients with both ...
Meng Yonghong - - 2011
Enzymatic biodiesel production by transesterification in solvent media has been investigated intensively, but glycerol, as a by-product, could block the immobilized enzyme and excess n-hexane, as a solution aid, would reduce the productivity of the enzyme. Esterification, a solvent-free and no-glycerol-release system for biodiesel production, has been developed, and two-step ...
Rasmussen J - - 2011
Methane (CH4), a highly potent greenhouse gas, has repeatedly been identified as a significant contributor to global warming. In this connection, ruminants, animals that produce large quantities of methane, have been singled out as an area for reduction with regard to their emissions to the atmosphere. In an analysis of ...
Tou Janet C - - 2011
Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of ...
Falk Marni J - - 2011
Stable isotopic profiling has long permitted sensitive investigations of the metabolic consequences of genetic mutations and/or pharmacologic therapies in cellular and mammalian models. Here, we describe detailed methods to perform stable isotopic profiling of intermediary metabolism and metabolic flux in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods are described for profiling whole ...
Hasunuma Tomohisa - - 2011
The development of novel yeast strains with increased tolerance toward inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is highly desirable for the production of bio-ethanol. Weak organic acids such as acetic and formic acids are necessarily released during the pretreatment (i.e. solubilization and hydrolysis) of lignocelluloses, which negatively affect microbial growth and ethanol ...
Paroul Natália - - 2010
This study reports the maximization of geranyl oleate production by esterification of geraniol and oleic acid in a solvent-free system using a commercial lipase as catalyst. The operating conditions that maximized geranyl oleate production were determined to be 40 °C, geraniol to oleic acid molar ratio of 5:1, 150 rpm and 10 wt% ...
Schweizer Herbert P - - 2010
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) play a pivotal role in maintaining a functional cellular membrane in response to changes in environmental factors. Unlike in other gram-negative bacteria, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, UFA synthesis is governed by 2 pathways: (1) the anaerobic FabAB-mediated pathway and (2) the aerobic inducible DesA/DesB desaturase pathway. Although ...
Ruenwai Rawisara - - 2010
Due to their health benefits there is much interest in developing microbial processes for efficient production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study we co-expressed Mucor rouxii Δ(12)- and Δ(6)-desaturase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which resulted in a yeast strain that accumulated linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid in the ...
van Erp Harrie - - 2011
Producing unusual fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants has been a long-standing goal of green chemistry. However, expression of the enzymes that catalyze the primary synthesis of these unusual FAs in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of the desired FA. For example, seed-specific expression of castor (Ricinus communis) ...
Wang Xin - - 2010
The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel (i.e. bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia. Under optimum conditions (120 °C and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants ...
Spichtig Véronique - - 2011
In 2007, Martin et al. developed a method for the analysis of sialic acids by HPLC following 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene (DMB) derivatisation (Martín et al., Anal Bioanal Chem 387:2943-2949, 2007). Within the article, the authors noted that lactose interfered with the analysis, giving erroneously high results when lactose-containing products were analysed. Such ...
Hochmuth Thomas - - 2010
Many marine sponges contain massive numbers of largely uncultivated, phylogenetically diverse bacteria that seem to be important contributors to the chemistry of these animals. Insights into the diversity, origin, distribution, and function of their metabolic gene communities are crucial to dissect the chemical ecology and biotechnological potential of sponge symbionts. ...
Kosa Matyas - - 2011
Heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms are capable of producing over 20% of their weight in single cell oils (SCOs) composed of triacylglycerols (TAGs). These TAGs contain fatty acids, such as palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, that are well-suited for biodiesel applications. Although some of these microbes are able to accumulate SCOs while ...
Weimer Paul J - - 2011
"Extraruminal" fermentations employing in vitro incubation of mixed ruminal bacterial consortia, are capable of converting a complex array of biomass materials to mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane, and carbon dioxide. Most of the potential energy in the biomass feedstock is retained in the VFA products, which are potential ...
Rong Jian - - 2010
The polyketide nonactin, a polyketide possessing antitumor and antibacterial activity, is produced by an unusual biosynthesis pathway in Streptomyces griseus that uses both enantiomers of the nonactin precursor, nonactic acid. Despite many studies with labeled precursors, much of the biosynthesis pathway remains unconfirmed, particularly the identity of the last achiral ...
Rajvanshi Meghna - - 2011
Corynebacterium glutamicum, a soil bacterium, is used to produce amino acids such as lysine and glutamate. C. glutamicum is often exposed to osmolality changes in its medium, and the bacterium has therefore evolved several adaptive response mechanisms to overcome them. In this study we quantify the metabolic response of C. ...
Sahni Vaibhav - - 2010
There is increasing evidence that alkali therapy can retard progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We summarize recent studies and discuss a mechanism whereby alkali therapy may neutralize acid production associated with typical Western diets, which generate acid. We emphasize the rationale for using alkali therapy early in the course ...
Boukhettala Nabile - - 2010
GCN2 and mTOR pathways are involved in the regulation of protein metabolism in response to amino acid availability in different tissues. However, regulation at intestinal level is poorly documented. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a deprivation of essential amino acids (EAA) or glutamine (Gln) ...
Liu Yanbin - - 2011
Ustilago maydis is known to produce glycolipid-type biosurfactants. Here, we show that U. maydis is able to efficiently convert biodiesel-derived crude glycerol to glycolipids. We have optimized the medium composition and environmental factors for bioconversion of crude glycerol to glycolipids. The synthetic medium (MinCG) contains 50gL(-1) crude glycerol and 20.3mgL(-1) ...
Orgován Gábor - - 2011
(1)H NMR-pH titrations of arginine, the most basic natural amino acid and citrulline, its neutral counterpart were carried out. Two other closely related auxiliary compounds were also studied. The 8 macroscopic protonation constants were determined. Combining the four datasets in a deductive method, all the 12 microconstants of arginine, the ...
Gu Jian-Qiao - - 2011
A potent new lipopeptide antibiotic, A54145E(Asn(3)Asp(9)), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces fradiae DA1489 engineered to delete genes encoding enzymes involved in hydroxylation of Asn(3) and methoxylation of Asp(9). The chemical structure predicted from the genetic changes in the biosynthetic pathway was determined by analyses of chemical transformations, ...
Hirose Yuki - - 2011
Quinomycin antibiotics, represented by echinomycin, are an important class of antitumor antibiotics. We have recently succeeded in identification of biosynthetic gene clusters of echinomycin and SW-163D, and have achieved heterologous production of echinomycin in Escherichia coli. In addition, we have engineered echinomycin non-ribosomal peptide synthetase to generate echinomycin derivatives. However, ...
Gladyshev Michail I - - 2011
One of the central paradigms of ecology is that only about 10% of organic carbon production of one trophic level is incorporated into new biomass of organisms of the next trophic level. Many of energy-yielding compounds of carbon are designated as 'essential', because they cannot be synthesized de novo by ...
Rahulan Raji - - 2011
A bioprocess was developed for the production of L: -leucine aminopeptidase under solid-state fermentation (SSF) by cultivating Streptomyces gedanensis in an inert support impregnated with a minimal medium. Response surface methodology of Box Behnken design was used to derive the optimum level of significant factors (3 ml inoculum (1.2 × 10(9) CFU/ml); 0.275% w/v ...
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