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Bøe Sigurd - - 2011
A major barrier within the field of non-viral gene therapy toward therapeutic strategies, e.g., tumor therapy, has been lack of appropriate specific delivery strategies to the intended target tissues or cells. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for light-directed delivery of nucleic acids through the use of photochemical internalization ...
Schiebold Silke - - 2011
The biology of the seed is complicated by the extensive non-homogeneity (spatial gradients) in gene expression, metabolic conversions and storage product accumulation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying seed growth and storage therefore requires the development of means to obtain tissue-specific analyses. This approach also represents an important priority ...
Lin Chunchi - - 2011
The D-, L-enantiomeric pairs of common monosaccharides (xylose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, glucose, mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid) were derivatized with 2,3-naphthalenediamine to form the corresponding D-, L-aldo-NAIM derivatives. A simple and facile capillary electrophoretic method was established for sugar composition analysis by simultaneously determining the migration ...
Millington David S - - 2011
The acylcarnitine profile is a diagnostic test for inherited disorders of fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid catabolism. Patients with this type of metabolic disorder accumulate disease-specific acylcarnitines that correlate with the acyl coenzyme A compounds in the affected mitochondrial metabolic pathways. For example, propionylcarnitine accumulates in patients with both ...
Meng Yonghong - - 2011
Enzymatic biodiesel production by transesterification in solvent media has been investigated intensively, but glycerol, as a by-product, could block the immobilized enzyme and excess n-hexane, as a solution aid, would reduce the productivity of the enzyme. Esterification, a solvent-free and no-glycerol-release system for biodiesel production, has been developed, and two-step ...
Rasmussen J - - 2011
Methane (CH4), a highly potent greenhouse gas, has repeatedly been identified as a significant contributor to global warming. In this connection, ruminants, animals that produce large quantities of methane, have been singled out as an area for reduction with regard to their emissions to the atmosphere. In an analysis of ...
Tou Janet C - - 2011
Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of ...
Falk Marni J - - 2011
Stable isotopic profiling has long permitted sensitive investigations of the metabolic consequences of genetic mutations and/or pharmacologic therapies in cellular and mammalian models. Here, we describe detailed methods to perform stable isotopic profiling of intermediary metabolism and metabolic flux in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods are described for profiling whole ...
Hasunuma Tomohisa - - 2011
The development of novel yeast strains with increased tolerance toward inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates is highly desirable for the production of bio-ethanol. Weak organic acids such as acetic and formic acids are necessarily released during the pretreatment (i.e. solubilization and hydrolysis) of lignocelluloses, which negatively affect microbial growth and ethanol ...
Paroul Natália - - 2010
This study reports the maximization of geranyl oleate production by esterification of geraniol and oleic acid in a solvent-free system using a commercial lipase as catalyst. The operating conditions that maximized geranyl oleate production were determined to be 40 °C, geraniol to oleic acid molar ratio of 5:1, 150 rpm and 10 wt% ...
Schweizer Herbert P - - 2010
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) play a pivotal role in maintaining a functional cellular membrane in response to changes in environmental factors. Unlike in other gram-negative bacteria, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, UFA synthesis is governed by 2 pathways: (1) the anaerobic FabAB-mediated pathway and (2) the aerobic inducible DesA/DesB desaturase pathway. Although ...
Ruenwai Rawisara - - 2010
Due to their health benefits there is much interest in developing microbial processes for efficient production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this study we co-expressed Mucor rouxii Δ(12)- and Δ(6)-desaturase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which resulted in a yeast strain that accumulated linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid in the ...
van Erp Harrie - - 2011
Producing unusual fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants has been a long-standing goal of green chemistry. However, expression of the enzymes that catalyze the primary synthesis of these unusual FAs in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of the desired FA. For example, seed-specific expression of castor (Ricinus communis) ...
Wang Xin - - 2010
The overall goal of this work was to develop a saccharification method for the production of third generation biofuel (i.e. bioethanol) using feedstock of the invasive marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia. Under optimum conditions (120 °C and 2% sulfuric acid for 30 min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized invasive plants ...
Spichtig Véronique - - 2011
In 2007, Martin et al. developed a method for the analysis of sialic acids by HPLC following 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene (DMB) derivatisation (Martín et al., Anal Bioanal Chem 387:2943-2949, 2007). Within the article, the authors noted that lactose interfered with the analysis, giving erroneously high results when lactose-containing products were analysed. Such ...
Hochmuth Thomas - - 2010
Many marine sponges contain massive numbers of largely uncultivated, phylogenetically diverse bacteria that seem to be important contributors to the chemistry of these animals. Insights into the diversity, origin, distribution, and function of their metabolic gene communities are crucial to dissect the chemical ecology and biotechnological potential of sponge symbionts. ...
Kosa Matyas - - 2011
Heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms are capable of producing over 20% of their weight in single cell oils (SCOs) composed of triacylglycerols (TAGs). These TAGs contain fatty acids, such as palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, that are well-suited for biodiesel applications. Although some of these microbes are able to accumulate SCOs while ...
Weimer Paul J - - 2011
"Extraruminal" fermentations employing in vitro incubation of mixed ruminal bacterial consortia, are capable of converting a complex array of biomass materials to mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane, and carbon dioxide. Most of the potential energy in the biomass feedstock is retained in the VFA products, which are potential ...
Rong Jian - - 2010
The polyketide nonactin, a polyketide possessing antitumor and antibacterial activity, is produced by an unusual biosynthesis pathway in Streptomyces griseus that uses both enantiomers of the nonactin precursor, nonactic acid. Despite many studies with labeled precursors, much of the biosynthesis pathway remains unconfirmed, particularly the identity of the last achiral ...
Rajvanshi Meghna - - 2011
Corynebacterium glutamicum, a soil bacterium, is used to produce amino acids such as lysine and glutamate. C. glutamicum is often exposed to osmolality changes in its medium, and the bacterium has therefore evolved several adaptive response mechanisms to overcome them. In this study we quantify the metabolic response of C. ...
Sahni Vaibhav - - 2010
There is increasing evidence that alkali therapy can retard progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We summarize recent studies and discuss a mechanism whereby alkali therapy may neutralize acid production associated with typical Western diets, which generate acid. We emphasize the rationale for using alkali therapy early in the course ...
Boukhettala Nabile - - 2010
GCN2 and mTOR pathways are involved in the regulation of protein metabolism in response to amino acid availability in different tissues. However, regulation at intestinal level is poorly documented. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a deprivation of essential amino acids (EAA) or glutamine (Gln) ...
Liu Yanbin - - 2011
Ustilago maydis is known to produce glycolipid-type biosurfactants. Here, we show that U. maydis is able to efficiently convert biodiesel-derived crude glycerol to glycolipids. We have optimized the medium composition and environmental factors for bioconversion of crude glycerol to glycolipids. The synthetic medium (MinCG) contains 50gL(-1) crude glycerol and 20.3mgL(-1) ...
Orgován Gábor - - 2011
(1)H NMR-pH titrations of arginine, the most basic natural amino acid and citrulline, its neutral counterpart were carried out. Two other closely related auxiliary compounds were also studied. The 8 macroscopic protonation constants were determined. Combining the four datasets in a deductive method, all the 12 microconstants of arginine, the ...
Gu Jian-Qiao - - 2011
A potent new lipopeptide antibiotic, A54145E(Asn(3)Asp(9)), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces fradiae DA1489 engineered to delete genes encoding enzymes involved in hydroxylation of Asn(3) and methoxylation of Asp(9). The chemical structure predicted from the genetic changes in the biosynthetic pathway was determined by analyses of chemical transformations, ...
Hirose Yuki - - 2011
Quinomycin antibiotics, represented by echinomycin, are an important class of antitumor antibiotics. We have recently succeeded in identification of biosynthetic gene clusters of echinomycin and SW-163D, and have achieved heterologous production of echinomycin in Escherichia coli. In addition, we have engineered echinomycin non-ribosomal peptide synthetase to generate echinomycin derivatives. However, ...
Gladyshev Michail I - - 2011
One of the central paradigms of ecology is that only about 10% of organic carbon production of one trophic level is incorporated into new biomass of organisms of the next trophic level. Many of energy-yielding compounds of carbon are designated as 'essential', because they cannot be synthesized de novo by ...
Rahulan Raji - - 2011
A bioprocess was developed for the production of L: -leucine aminopeptidase under solid-state fermentation (SSF) by cultivating Streptomyces gedanensis in an inert support impregnated with a minimal medium. Response surface methodology of Box Behnken design was used to derive the optimum level of significant factors (3 ml inoculum (1.2 × 10(9) CFU/ml); 0.275% w/v ...
Smit Yvette - - 2011
Until recently, acidic products such as fruit juice and fruit based products were generally thought to be susceptible to spoilage by yeasts, mycelia fungi and lactic acid bacteria, as the low pH of these products acts as natural control measures against spoilage by most bacteria. Alicyclobacillus seem to be prevalent ...
Onaka Hiroyasu - - 2011
Natural products produced by microorganisms are important starting compounds for drug discovery. Secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, have been isolated from different Streptomyces species. The production of these metabolites depends on the culture conditions. Therefore, the development of a new culture method can facilitate the discovery of new natural products. Here, ...
Jaworska Malgorzata M - - 2010
Chitin deacetylase is the only known enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of the acetamino linkage in the N-acetylglucosamine units of chitin and chitosan. This reaction can play an important role in enzymatic production of chitosan from chitin, or in enzymatic modification of chitosan, which has applications in medicine, pharmacy or plant ...
Jaworska Malgorzata M - - 2011
Chitin deacetylase is the only known enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of the acetamino linkage in the N-acetylglucosamine units of chitin and chitosan. This reaction can play an important role in enzymatic production of chitosan from chitin, or in enzymatic modification of chitosan, which has applications in medicine, pharmacy or plant ...
Floss Heinz G - - 2011
The aminoshikimate pathway of formation of 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), the precursor of ansamycin and other antibiotics is reviewed. In this biosynthesis, genes for kanosamine formation have been recruited from other genomes, to provide a nitrogenous precursor. Kanosamine is then phosphorylated and converted by common cellular enzymes into 1-deoxy-1- imino-erythrose 4-phosphate, ...
Miao Lili - - 2010
An astaxanthin-overproducing (∼1000 μg g(-1) ) strain of Phaffia rhodozyma, termed MK19, was established through 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine and Co60 mutagenesis from wild-type JCM9042 (merely 35-67 μg g(-1) ). The total fatty acid content of MK19 was much lower than that of the wild type. Possible causes of the astaxanthin increase were studied at the gene ...
Nebbioso Antonio - - 2010
A model heterogeneous mixture of a hydrophilic tripeptide (phenylalanine-glycine-glycine, PGG) and hydrophobic organic acids ((12)C- and (13)C-octanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid) was subjected to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The objective was to verify the previously noted inconsistencies in ESI-MS of complex environmental samples such as humic materials from either ...
Lee Jin-Woo - - 2011
Chromium halides were introduced for the sustainable production of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from raw acorn biomass using an acidic ionic liquid. The free sugars (glucose and maltose) released by the acidic hydrolysis of the biomass were confirmed by the FT-IR absorption bands around 995-1014cm(-1) and HPLC. FESEM analysis showed that the ...
Zhu Lixin - - 2010
Fatty liver is a prerequisite for the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The homeostasis of hepatic lipid is determined by the dynamic balance of multiple pathways introducing lipids into or removing lipids from hepatocytes. We aim to study the different contributions of major lipid pathways to fat deposition in NASH ...
Salim Yoga Sugama - - 2011
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-38 mol%-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-38mol%-3HV)] was produced by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 in the presence of oleic acid and 1-pentanol. Due to enormous production of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in the oil palm plantation and high production cost of P(3HB-co-3HV), oil palm EFB fibers were used for biocomposites preparation. In this study, maleic ...
Li Tingting - - 2011
Rapid identification of unknown microorganisms of clinical and agricultural importance is not only critical for accurate diagnosis of infections but also essential for appropriate and prompt treatment. We describe here a rapid method for microorganisms typing based on quantitative analysis of fatty acids by iFAT approach (Isotope-coded Fatty Acid Transmethylation). ...
Fang Zhiyuan - - 2010
A lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor based on copper-dependent DNA-cleaving DNAzyme and gold nanoparticles has been developed for the visual detection of copper ions (Cu(2+)) in an aqueous solution with a detection limit of 10 nM.
Bartels-Rausch Thorsten - - 2011
Reduction of divalent mercury and subsequent emission to the atmosphere has been identified as loss process from surface snow, but its mechanism and importance are still unclear. The amount of mercury that stays in the snow pack until spring is of significance, because during snow melt it may be released ...
Ruas Alexandre - - 2010
This work is aimed at a description of the thermodynamic properties of highly concentrated aqueous solutions of nitric acid salts at 25 °C within the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory. The predictive capability of this model was examined. First, Raman spectroscopy was used to study the proportion of associated ...
Dántola M Laura - - 2010
Folic acid, or pteroyl-l-glutamic acid (PteGlu), is a precursor of coenzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleotides and amino acids. PteGlu is composed of three moieties: a 6-methylpterin (Mep) residue, a p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) residue, and a glutamic acid (Glu) residue. Accumulated evidence indicates that photolysis of PteGlu leads to ...
Li Yungui - - 2010
To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark ...
Li Yungui - - 2010
To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark ...
Huber Stefan A - - 2011
Size-exclusion chromatography in combination with organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD) is an established method to separate the pool of NOM into major fractions of different sizes and chemical functions and to quantify these on the basis of organic carbon. One specific approach, also known as LC-OCD-OND, is based on the Gräntzel ...
Giri Anupam - - 2010
Development of aroma-active compounds during fermentation in the preparation of fermented fish-meat paste product (fish miso) from horse mackerel meat was quantitatively determined and characterized by olfactometric and organoleptic assessments. The critical ripening time was estimated by quantitative and/or qualitative analyses of volatile compounds, peptides, amino acids, product color, and ...
Wu Yunhai - - 2011
The use of cheap, high-efficiency, and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative way for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This paper investigated the use of waste brewery's yeast for the removal of acid orange 7 from aqueous solution. The optimum removal of acid orange 7 was found ...
Sun Huiyu - - 2010
The sorption properties of tetracycline were compared between a coal humic acid (CHA) and a soil humic acid (SHA) under various solution chemistry conditions. Structural characteristics of the two humic acids were quantified in detail by elemental analysis, solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), acid-base titration, and Zeta potential measurement. ...
Lee Eun Hee - - 2010
The physical stability of metastable form I of flufenamic acid (FFA) increased by using mefenamic acid (MFA) as an inclusion compound. We studied the extent of this effect and explained the mechanism by investigating the effect of the presence of MFA on nucleation and crystal growth of the mixed crystals ...
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