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Sun P - - 2011
Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) may be degraded into cyanuric acid and some other compounds by rumen microorganisms. This study was conducted to assess the transfer of melamine and cyanuric acid in to milk and tissues by dairy cows fed different doses of melamine. Forty mid-lactation dairy cows (157±43 d in milk, 20.8±1.4kg ...
Crinnion Walter J - - 2011
Intravenous sodium calcium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and oral 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) have both been used to reduce the burden of lead in humans. Each of these agents enhances the mobilization of lead from different areas of the body - EDTA from the trabecular bone and DMSA from ...
Lim Jin Ik - - 2011
A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based resin is commonly used as a cryoembedding medium for the histological analysis of frozen tissue sections. However, it is not easy to obtain sufficient numbers of satisfactory reproducible sections owing to the differences between the mechanical properties of the medium and embedded tissue and ...
Song Hu - - 2011
The principal way to improve the outcome of gastric cancer (GC) is to predict carcinogenesis and metastasis at an early stage. The aims of the present study were to test the hypothesis that distinct metabolic profiles are reflected in GC tissues and to further explore potential biomarkers for GC diagnosis. ...
Schneider Jens - - 2011
In Bacteria, the pathways of polyamine biosynthesis start with the amino acids L: -lysine, L: -ornithine, L: -arginine, or L: -aspartic acid. Some of these polyamines are of special interest due to their use in the production of engineering plastics (e.g., polyamides) or as curing agents in polymer applications. At ...
van Meel Eline - - 2011
Osteoclasts are specialized cells that secrete lysosomal acid hydrolases at the site of bone resorption, a process critical for skeletal formation and remodeling. However, the cellular mechanism underlying this secretion and the organization of the endo-lysosomal system of osteoclasts have remained unclear. We report that osteoclasts differentiated in vitro from ...
Petrie James R - - 2011
We describe a transgenic microalgal Δ9-elongase pathway transformed in both Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana seed resulting in the production of arachidonic acid (ARA). This pathway is noteworthy for both the production of ARA in seed tissue and the low levels of intermediate C20 fatty acids that accumulate. We also ...
Beck John J - - 2011
Aflatoxigenic aspergilli inflict major economic damage to the tree nut industry of California, with the highest negative impact to almonds. Aspergilli and fungi in general are known to emit volatiles in varying quantity and composition dependent upon their growth media. The goal of the study was to determine the volatile ...
Li Shanshan - - 2011
In the present work, Bacillus subtilis was engineered as the cell factory for isobutanol production due to its high tolerance to isobutanol. Initially, an efficient heterologous Ehrlich pathway controlled by the promoter P(43) was introduced into B. subtilis for the isobutanol biosynthesis. Further, investigation of acetolactate synthase of B. subtilis, ...
Gomi Nichina - - 2011
We examined the degradation of amaranth, a representative azo dye, by Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1. The degradation products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), visible absorbance, and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ESI-TOF-MS). At the primary culture stage (3 days), the probable reaction intermediates were 1-aminonaphthalene-2,3,6-triol, 4-(hydroxyamino) naphthalene-1-ol, and ...
Rogalski Marcelo - - 2011
The ability to manipulate plant fatty acid biosynthesis by using new biotechnological approaches has allowed the production of transgenic plants with unusual fatty acid profile and increased oil content. This review focuses on the production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) and the increase in oil content in ...
Sharma Akhilesh K - - 2011
The transition state models in two mechanistically distinct pathways, involving (i) an enamine carboxylic acid (path-A, 4) and (ii) an enamine carboxylate (path-B, 8), in the proline-catalyzed asymmetric α-amination have been examined using DFT methods. The path-A predicts the correct product stereochemistry under base-free conditions while path-B accounts for reversal ...
Qu Yi - - 2011
Biodegradation pathways of synthetic nitroaromatic compounds and anilines are well documented, but little is known about those of nitroanilines. We previously reported that the initial step in 5-nitroanthranilic acid (5NAA) degradation by Bradyrhizobium sp. strain JS329 is a hydrolytic deamination to form 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5NSA), followed by ring fission catalyzed ...
Yudistira Harry - - 2011
Synthetic cystic fibrosis sputum medium (SCFM) is rich in amino acids and supports robust growth of Burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Previous work demonstrated that B. cenocepacia phenylacetic acid (PA) catabolic genes are up-regulated during growth in SCFM and are required for full virulence in a ...
Yin Sudong - - 2011
The effects of alkalinity on alkaline hydrothermal conversion (alkaline-HTC) of cellulose to bio-oil were investigated in this study. The results showed that the initial alkalinity greatly influenced the reaction pathways. Under initial strong alkaline conditions with final pH greater than 7, alkaline-HTC only followed the alkaline pathway. However, under initial ...
Sun Huanli - - 2011
Currently, biomedical engineering is rapidly expanding, especially in the areas of drug delivery, gene transfer, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. A prerequisite for further development is the design and synthesis of novel multi-functional biomaterials that are biocompatible and/or biologically active, are biodegradable with a controlled degradation rate, and have tunable ...
Parthasarathy Anutthaman - - 2011
Expression of six genes from two glutamate fermenting clostridia converted Escherichia coli into a producer of glutaconate from 2-oxoglutarate of the general metabolism (Djurdjevic, I. et al. 2010, Appl. Environ. Microbiol.77, 320-322). The present work examines whether this pathway can also be used to reduce 2-oxoadipate to (R)-2-hydroxyadipic acid and ...
Shi Yeu-Ching - - 2011
Monascus-fermented products have been used in food, medicine, and industry dating back over a thousand years in Asian countries. Monascus-fermented products contained several bioactive metabolites such as pigments, polyketide monacolins, dimerumic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Scientific reports showed that Monascus-fermented products proved to be effective for the management of blood ...
Tarazona-Díaz Martha Patricia - - 2011
The fresh-cut industry produces thousands of tons of waste in non-edible portions that present an environmental and management problem. These by-products could be reused, in particular, to obtain bioactive compounds. In this study, five different fresh-cut watermelon cultivars were assessed for their flesh and by-product bioactive contents. The amount of ...
Zia-Ur-Rehman - - 2011
G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) is a protein family that is found only in the Eukaryotes. They are used for the interfacing of cell to the outside world and are involved in many physiological processes. Their role in drug development is evident. Hence, the prediction of GPCRs is very much demanding. ...
De Vuyst Luc - - 2011
Inulin-type fructans are not digested and reach the human colon intact, where they are selectively fermented by the colon microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria. As a result, they are converted, directly or indirectly, to short-chain fatty acids and other organic acids, as well as gases, and lead to both bifidogenic and ...
Won S G - - 2011
In this study, a series of tests were conducted in a 6L anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) to investigate the effect of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate on biohydrogen production at 28°C. Sucrose was used as the main substrate to mimic carbohydrate-rich wastewater and inoculum was ...
Boettler Ute - - 2011
Recently, the coffee constituents 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CGA) and N-methylpyridinium (NMP) were identified as inducers of the Nrf2/antioxidant-response element (ARE) detoxifying pathway under cell-culture condition. To study the impact of CGA and NMP on the Nrf2-activating properties of a complex coffee beverage, two different model coffees were generated by variation of ...
Olutoye M A - - 2011
The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a substitute to petroleum diesel was investigated in this study from crude jatropha oil (CJO), a non-edible, low-cost alternative feedstock, using aluminium modified heterogeneous basic oxide (Mg-Zn) catalyst. The transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters yielded 94% in 6h with ...
Thitiprasert Sitanan - - 2011
Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was ...
Yang Hong - - 2011
Abstract When cultured hepatocytes are exposed to challenging environments such as plasma, they frequently suffer a decline in liver-specific functions. Media supplements are sought to reduce or eliminate this effect. A rational design approach for amino acid supplementation in hepatocyte culture has been developed in our prior work, and designed ...
Tietel Zipora - - 2011
Mandarin sensory acceptability deteriorates rapidly after harvest. To gain a better understanding of the molecular processes that occur in 'Mor' mandarin flesh and contribute to flavor deterioration during storage, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis using the Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. Out of 30,171 probe sets representing citrus transcripts on the ...
Kurayama Ryota - - 2011
Molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways leading to cellular proliferation and lesion formation in the crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) remain elusive. In the present study we have explored a potential role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway and amino acid transporter (LAT) in the pathogenesis of CGN. ...
Raghuwanshi Shailendra - - 2011
An indigenously isolated strain of Bacillus sphaericus was found to produce 1.21IU/ml of tannase under unoptimized conditions. Optimizing the process one variable at a time resulted in the production of 7.6IU/ml of tannase in 48h in the presence of 1.5% tannic acid. A 9.26-fold increase in tannase production was achieved ...
Rau Jan Erik - - 2011
A simple and practicable method for in-gel detection of bacterial produced L-amino acid oxidases (L-AAOs) after non-denaturing SDS-PAGE based on the visualisation of occurring hydrogen peroxide production is described. Advantages of this screening method for L-AAOs are the determination of their numbers and approximate molecular weights additionally in one approach.
Bowen Sean - - 2011
Carbon-13 NMR has traditionally been a method of choice for the determination of metabolic pathways. Through fractional labeling, (13) C spectra allow the identification of fragments incorporated as a unit into a biosynthesized molecule. The low sensitivity of (13) C spectroscopy is an impediment to such studies, especially if compounded ...
Li Jian - - 2011
An industrial fermentation system using lignocellulosic hydrolysate, waste yeast hydrolysate, and mixed alkali to achieve high-yield, economical succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes was developed. Lignocellulosic hydrolysate and waste yeast hydrolysate were used efficiently as carbon sources and nitrogen source instead of the expensive glucose and yeast extract. Moreover, as ...
Geatches Dawn L - - 2011
Because of the importance of mineral catalyzed decarboxylation reactions in both crude oil formation and, increasingly, biofuel production, we present a model study into the decarboxylation of the shortest fatty acid, propionic acid C(2)H(5)COOH, into an alkane and CO(2) catalyzed by a pyrophillite-like, phyllosilicate clay. To identify the decarboxylation pathway, ...
Higashide Wendy - - 2011
Producing biofuels directly from cellulose, known as consolidated bioprocessing, is believed to reduce costs substantially compared to a process in which cellulose degradation and fermentation to fuel are accomplished in separate steps. Here we present a metabolic engineering example for the development of a Clostridium cellulolyticum strain for isobutanol synthesis ...
Yu Ai-Qun - - 2011
On the molecular and biochemical levels, the effects of different carbon sources on biomass production, fatty acid biosynthesis, and gene expression of three desaturases were investigated in Mortierella alpina ATCC 16266, at a stationary phase, which is an important filamentous fungus capable of producing various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The ...
Zhang Dalong - - 2011
To further enhance repeated batch reactions with immobilized N-carbamoyl-D: -amino acid amidohydrolase (DCase), which can be used for the industrial production of D: -amino acids, the stability of high soluble mutant DCase-M3 from Ralstonia pickettii CGMCC1596 was improved by step-wise evolution. In our previous report, six thermostability-related sites were identified ...
Nadler André - - 2011
PpoA is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of unsaturated C18 fatty acids. The products of this reaction are termed psi factors and have been shown to play a crucial role in conferring a balance between sexual and asexual spore development as well as production of secondary metabolites in ...
Coelho Luciana Fontes - - 2011
Sugar concentration from sugarcane juice and yeast autolysate increased lactic acid production more than the other agro-industrial substrates tested. The concentrations of these two components were further optimized using the Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. A second-order polynomial regression model estimated that a maximal lactic acid production of 66.11 g/L ...
Hajduch Martin - - 2011
Proteomics is increasingly being used to understand enzyme expression and regulatory mechanisms involved in the accumulation of storage reserves in crops with sequenced genomes. During the past six years, considerable progress has been made to characterize proteomes of both mature and developing seeds, particularly oilseeds - plants which accumulate principally ...
Zhou Zhenming - - 2011
The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and compare the effects of select antimethanogen compounds on methane production, feed digestion and fermentation, and populations of ruminal bacteria and methanogens using in vitro cultures. Seven compounds, including 2-bromoethanesulphonate (BES), propynoic acid (PA), nitroethane (NE), ethyl trans-2-butenoate (ETB), 2-nitroethanol (2NEOH), ...
Leo Gabriella - - 2011
Proteomic strategies are herein proved to be a complementary approach to the well established amino acid composition analysis for the characterization of the aging and deterioration phenomena occurring to proteinaceous materials in works-of-art. Amino acid analyses on several samples demonstrated that proteins in the frescoes from the Camposanto Monumentale in ...
Fónagy Adrien - - 2011
Most female moths produce species-specific sex pheromone blends in the modified epidermal pheromone gland (PG) cells generally located between the 8-9(th) abdominal segments. The biosynthesis is often regulated by Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) either in or prior to de novo fatty acid synthesis or at the formation of oxygenated ...
Choorit Wanna - - 2011
Kinetic parameters for growth and extracellular 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) production of Rhodopseudomonas palustris KG31 under light and dark conditions in a medium containing volatile fatty acids (VFA) as the carbon sources were estimated using a Gompertz model. The lag phase for growth and the maximum specific growth rate under microaerobic-light ...
Hove-Jensen Bjarne - - 2011
In Escherichia coli , internalization and catabolism of organophosphonicacids are governed by the 14-cistron phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP operon. The phnP gene product was previously shown to encode a phosphodiesterase with unusual specificity toward ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates. Furthermore, phnP displays shared synteny with phnN across bacterial phn operons. Here the role of PhnP ...
Gurram Mahender - - 2011
An enantiospecific and stereoselective total synthesis of the natural product (+)-crispine A has been demonstrated employing a Pictet-Spengler bis-cyclization reaction between commercially available (R)-(-)-methyl 2-amino-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)propanoate and 4-chloro-1,1-dimethoxybutane to preferentially provide the cis tricyclic adduct. Decarboxylation by a convenient two-step protocol provided the enantiopure natural product in three steps with an ...
Warui Douglas M - - 2011
The second of two reactions in a recently discovered pathway through which saturated fatty acids are converted to alkanes (and unsaturated fatty acids to alkenes) in cyanobacteria entails scission of the C1-C2 bond of a fatty aldehyde intermediate by the enzyme aldehyde decarbonylase (AD), a ferritin-like protein with a dinuclear ...
Creager Melinda S - - 2011
Spider silk has been evolutionarily optimized for contextual mechanical performance over the last 400 Ma. Despite precisely balanced mechanical properties, which have yet to be reproduced, the underlying molecular architecture of major ampullate spider silk can be simplified being viewed as a versatile block copolymer. Four primary amino acid motifs: ...
Maqbool Asim - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Dietary n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) PUFA have significant implications in health and disease prevention. Marine life is rich in long-chain n-3 PUFA. Children and adults in North America are reluctant fish eaters; canned tuna is a common fish in children's diets. Although a multitude of tuna products are ...
Kim Jaai - - 2011
Bacterial population dynamics during the start-up of three lab-scale anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters, i.e., synthetic glucose wastewater, whey permeate, and liquefied sewage sludge, were assessed using a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques. The DGGE results showed that bacterial populations related to Aeromonas spp. ...
Ramachandran Hema - - 2011
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB)] terpolymer was produced using Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 via one-step cultivation process through combination of various carbon sources such as 1,4-butanediol or γ-butyrolactone with either 1-pentanol, valeric acid, or 1-propanol. Oleic acid was added to increase the biomass production. The composition of 3HV and 4HB monomers were greatly affected ...
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