Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 1380
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Sule Olajumoke - - 2007
We questioned 62 dermatology outpatients with atopic eczema and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation regarding their use of topical preparations containing fusidic acid during the previous 6 months as well as the pattern of any such use. Recent exposure to topical fusidic acid was significantly correlated with the presence of fusidic acid-resistant ...
Eltahlawy H S - - 2007
The regulation of pheromone biosynthesis by the neuropeptide PBAN in the Z strain of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, was investigated using labeled intermediates. Injection of radiolabeled acetate showed PBAN did not influence the de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids in the gland. When deuterium-labeled myristic acid was ...
Aznar E - - 2007
Detection of Salmonella spp. isolates showing decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has become important owing to the increasing prevalence of these strains and their association with treatment failure. Nalidixic acid agar dilution, nalidixic acid disk diffusion, MicroScan automated system and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) followed by melting temperature (Tm) ...
Pfleger Brian F - - 2007
Recently, iron acquisition and, more specifically, enzymes involved in siderophore biosynthesis have become attractive targets for discovery of new antibiotics. Accordingly, targeted inhibition of the biosynthesis of petrobactin, a virulence-associated siderophore encoded by the asb locus in Bacillus anthracis, may hold promise as a potential therapy against anthrax. This study ...
Gokhale Rajesh S - - 2007
The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a treasure house of a variety of biologically active molecules with fascinating architectures. The decoding of the genetic blueprint of Mtb in recent years has provided the impetus for dissecting the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of lipidic metabolites. The focus ...
Stanley David - - 2007
Eighteen pharmaceutical inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis were tested for their effects on gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar and its susceptibility to the nucleopoly-hedrovirus LdMNPV. None of the inhibitors tested had any detrimental effects upon larval growth and development. Treatment with nine inhibitor/NPV combinations (e.g., bromophenacylbromide, clotrimazole, dexamethasone, esculetin, flufenamic acid, indomethacin, ...
Norén T - - 2007
In silico, we identified fusA (2,067 bp) in Clostridium difficile 630. Sequencing of fusA in posttherapy fusidic acid-resistant C. difficile isolates from 12 patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) identified fusA mutations, one or two nonsynonymous substitutions, or in one case a deletion of one codon associated with resistance. Five ...
Abad José-Luis - - 2007
The synthesis of two hexadeuterated palmitic acids differing in the position of the diagnostic labels, and their use to decipher the cryptoregiochemistry of a Delta13 desaturation are described. A dithiane and a triple bond functionalities were used to introduce the diagnostic (C13 or C14) and tagging (C8 and C9) labels, ...
Tangprasittipap Amornrat - - 2007
Of 23 strains of halotolerant (up to 12% w/v NaCl) photosynthetic bacteria isolated from various sources, one isolate, SH5, accumulated intracellular 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) at 0.45 microg/g dry cell wt (DCW) growing aerobically in the dark. The strain was identified as Rhodobacter sphaeroides using 16S rDNA sequencing. Biosynthesis of ALA ...
Schuhmann Tim - - 2007
The microbial macrolides bafilomycin A1, B, and concanamycin A from Streptomyces spp. are potent and specific inhibitors of V-ATPases. The question of the biosynthetic origin of the two uncommon "glycolate units" of each of the macrolide structures was addressed by feeding experiments with stereospecifically 13C-labeled precursors. Our studies clearly indicate ...
Edima Hélène Carole - - 2007
A selective medium was proposed for isolating the species Carnobacterium maltaromaticum from cheeses. This medium, named CM, was elaborated using combinations of three antibiotics (gentamicin, nalidixic acid, vancomycin) and alkaline pH value (8.8). An experimental design (Doehlert matrix) was drawn up to optimize the experimental conditions of the preparation of ...
Zerbe Philipp - - 2007
The pathway of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis was established in the 1980s by Vick and Zimmerman but, until now, the preparative biosynthesis of the jasmonic acid precursors 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and 3-oxo-2-[2'-pentenyl]-cyclopentan-1-octanoic acid (OPC-8:0) in their endogenous and biologically relevant cis(+)-configuration was only possible in small amounts and had to ...
Sato Masaru - - 2006
D-Alanine-D-alanine ligase (Ddl) and its mutants maintain the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, and the substrate specificity of Ddls partially affects the resistance mechanism of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Through investigation of Ddls, Ddl from Thermotoga maritima ATCC 43589 showed novel characteristics, vis. thermostability up to 90 degrees C and broad substrate specificity toward ...
Asahina Shinji - - 2006
Polysialoglycoprotein (PSGP) in salmonid fish egg is a unique glycoprotein bearing alpha2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia) on its O-linked glycans. Biosynthesis of the polySia chains is developmentally regulated and only occurs at later stage of oogenesis. Two alpha2,8-polysialyltransferases (alpha2,8-polySTs), PST (ST8Sia IV) and STX (ST8Sia II), responsible for the biosynthesis of ...
Chen Fang - - 2006
Genes encoding seven enzymes of the monolignol pathway were independently downregulated in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using antisense and/or RNA interference. In each case, total flux into lignin was reduced, with the largest effects arising from the downregulation of earlier enzymes in the pathway. The downregulation of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, ...
Porat Iris - - 2006
Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (AroAAs) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was demonstrated in M. maripaludis. Moreover, PABA ...
Keeling Christopher I - - 2006
Diterpene resin acids are a significant component of conifer oleoresin, which is a viscous mixture of terpenoids present constitutively or inducibly upon herbivore or pathogen attack and comprises one form of chemical resistance to such attacks. This review focuses on the recent discoveries in the chemistry, biosynthesis, molecular biology, regulation, ...
Prasad Bellur Chayapathy Narasimha - - 2006
Capsaicin, a pungency factor alkaloid of Capsicum fruits, is biosynthesized by enzymatic condensation of vanillylamine, a phenyl propanoid intermediate, and 8-methyl-nonenoic acid, a fatty acid derivative from the leucine/valine pathway by capsaicin synthase. Biotic elicitors, such as aqueous mycelial extracts of Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus niger, and abiotic elicitors, such ...
Norén T - - 2006
Samples from patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) that were randomized to fusidic acid (n = 59) or metronidazole (n = 55) therapy for 7 days were cultured for Clostridium difficile in feces on days 1, 8 to 13, and 35 to 40. Of the patients who were culture positive ...
Austin Michael B MB Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Jack H. Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2006
Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two approximately 3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the ...
O'Reilly Mary K - - 2006
The biosynthesis of asparagine-linked glycoproteins utilizes a dolichylpyrophosphate-linked glycosyl donor (Dol-PP-GlcNAc(2)Man(9)Glc(3)), which is assembled by the series of membrane-bound glycosyltransferases that comprise the dolichol pathway. This biosynthetic pathway is highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. While complementary genetic and bioinformatic approaches have enabled identification of most of the dolichol pathway enzymes ...
Newberger Nealie C - - 2006
This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine if terpene biosynthesis is inducible in two families of marine terpenes, pseudopterosins from the gorgonian coral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae and fuscol from Eunicea fusca. Since we have recently shown that terpene biosynthesis is not under the control of the invertebrate host, ...
Walton Jonathan D - - 2006
HC-toxin is a cyclic tetrapeptide of structure cyclo(D-Pro-L-Ala-D-Ala-L-Aeo), where Aeo stands for 2-amino-9,10-epoxi-8-oxodecanoic acid. It is a determinant of specificity and virulence in the interaction between the producing fungus, Cochliobolus carbonum, and its host, maize. HC-toxin qualifies as one of the few microbial secondary metabolites whose ecological function in nature ...
Liu Feng - - 2006
The flagellin proteins in pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori are heavily glycosylated with the nine-carbon alpha-keto acid, pseudaminic acid. The presence of this posttranslational modification is absolutely required for assembly of functional flagella. Since motility is required for colonization, pseudaminic acid biosynthesis represents a virulence factor ...
Uchida Ryuji - - 2006
Sespendole is the first reported fungal metabolite having an indolosesquiterpene core structure. The biosynthesis of sespendole was studied here by feeding experiments with [13C]acetate, [15N]anthranilic acid and [13C]tryptophan. The data suggested that a farnesyl residue derived from the mevalonate pathway and an anthranilate-derived indole-3-glycerol phosphate residue are condensed, and then ...
Humphrey Tania V - - 2006
The sweet steviol glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. are derived from the diterpene steviol which is produced from a branch of the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic pathway. An understanding of the spatial organisation of the two pathways including subcellular compartmentation provides important insight for the metabolic ...
Pollmann S - - 2006
Recent progress in understanding the biosynthesis of the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Arabidopsis thaliana is reviewed. The current situation is characterized by considerable progress in identifying, at the molecular level and in functional terms, individual reactions of several possible pathways. It is still too early to piece together a ...
Kriechbaumer V - - 2006
For the biosynthesis of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a number of tryptophan-dependent and -independent pathways have been discussed. Maize is an appropriate model system to analyze IAA biosynthesis particularly because high quantities of IAA conjugates are stored in the endosperm. This allowed precursor feeding experiments in a kernel culture ...
Ohashi Takao - - 2006
UDP-galacturonic acid, the activated form of galacturonic acid (GalUA), is synthesized both de novo and by salvage pathways. The UDP-GalUA pyrophosphorylase gene involved in the salvage pathway has not been identified. Here we show that UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Pisum sativum with a broad specificity has UDP-GalUA pyrophosphorylase activity. The enzyme ...
Li Rongfeng - - 2006
Clavulanic acid is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor used to combat resistance to penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. There is a demand for high-yielding fermentation strains for industrial production of this valuable product. Clavulanic acid biosynthesis is initiated by the condensation of L-arginine and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). To overcome the limited G3P pool ...
Riber Ditte - - 2006
Novel photoaffinity labeled fusidic acid analogues were obtained by a synthetic sequence employing a Wittig reaction between a fusidic acid aldehyde and benzyl bromides in the key step. Three commonly used photoreactive groups, benzophenone, trifluoromethyldiazirine, and aryl azide, were used. The photoaffinity labeled fusidic acid analogues demonstrated a potent antibacterial ...
Narasimha Prasad Bellur Chayapathy - - 2006
Capsaicin is a bioactive molecule synthesized by enzymatic (putative capsaicin synthase) condensation of vanillylamine, a phenyl propanoid intermediate with 8-methyl-nonenoic acid, a fatty acid derivative from leucine/valine pathway. Analysis of levels of 8-methyl-nonenoic acid and phenyl propanoid intermediates in high, medium, and low pungent Capsicum genotypes revealed that the 8-methyl-nonenoic ...
Diniz Simone Cardoso - - 2006
Elementary mode analysis was applied to simulate conditions for cyanophycin (CGP) biosynthesis and to optimize its production in bacteria. The conclusions from these simulations were confirmed by experiments with recombinant strains of the wild types and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-negative mutants of Ralstonia eutropha and Pseudomonas putida expressing CGP synthetase genes (cphA) ...
Varecza Z - - 2006
NADPH is involved in many basically important anabolic processes. For a long time, pentose phosphate pathway (PPS) was regarded as the most important source of NADPH in fungi. Here we present evidence of a metabolic switch to an alternative NADPH-producing pathway in ageing Penicillium chrysogenum cultures, which involves NADP+ -specific ...
Morbidoni Hector R - - 2006
2-Hexadecynoic acid and 2-octadecynoic acid have cidal activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. At subinhibitory concentrations, M. smegmatis rapidly transformed [1-(14)C]-2-hexadecynoic acid into endogenous fatty acids and elongated them into mycolic acids. Toxic concentrations of 2-hexadecynoic acid resulted in accumulation of 3-ketohexadecanoic acid, which blocked fatty acid biosynthesis, ...
Xiong You-Cai - - 2006
Interrelationship among abscisic acid (ABA) content, accumulation of free polyamines and biosynthesis of beta-N-oxalyl-l-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP) was studied in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seedlings under drought stress induced by 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Increase of ABA content occurred prior to that of ODAP and polyamine contents, and was found ...
Nishizawa Tomoyasu - - 2006
Rebeccamycin is a member of the family of indolocarbazole antibiotics with broad spectrum antitumor activity. The indolocarbazole framework is derived from two molecules of tryptophan, but very little is known about the enzymes involved in rebeccamycin biosynthesis. Here, we show that RebD is responsible for all catalytic steps forming the ...
Scholte Andrew A - - 2006
A series of six deuterium-labelled analogs of isopententyl diphosphate (IPP) was prepared to investigate the detailed stereochemical course of addition of C5 units during rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum. These analogs were incorporated into the cis-polyisoprene chain by rubber transferase in rubber particles, and the stereochemistry was ...
d'Ippolito Giuliana - - 2006
Intermediates of the aldehyde biosynthesis in Thalassiosira rotula are investigated. Use of labeled precursors and cell preparations proves production of 2E,4Z-octadienal from 6Z,9Z,12Z-hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3 omega-4) through the lipoxygenase-dependent intermediate (9S)-9-hydroperoxyhexadeca-6,10,12-trienoic acid. On the contrary, synthesis of 2E,4Z,7Z-decatrienal involves mainly EPA (C20:5 omega-3) by a 11R-lipoxygenase, as suggested by identification ...
Osterlund A - - 2006
We previously described the epidemic spread of a fusidic acid resistant clone of Staphylococcus aureus among children with bullous impetigo throughout Sweden 1. In this follow-up study we present data showing that Swedish clinicians in 2002 drastically reduced prescriptions of fusidic acid ointments, probably in response to the epidemic. Furthermore, ...
Chemler Joseph A - - 2006
Industrial biotechnology employs the controlled use of microorganisms for the production of synthetic chemicals or simple biomass that can further be used in a diverse array of applications that span the pharmaceutical, chemical and nutraceutical industries. Recent advances in metagenomics and in the incorporation of entire biosynthetic pathways into Saccharomyces ...
Butt Tariq - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To validate the screening of low-level fluoroquinolone resistance in typhoid salmonellae by using nalidixic acid (30 mg) disk providing an acceptable zone of inhibition. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from July 2002 to June 2003. ...
Yasim A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of intra-peritoneal vancomycin and teicoplanin with anti-biotic treated Dacron grafts (vancomycin, teicoplanin, 10 or 40% fusidic acid-soaked grafts) in preventing vascular graft infections in a rat model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The graft infections were ...
Howden Benjamin P - - 2006
Fusidic acid has activity against a range of pathogens but has mainly been used to treat staphylococcal infections. Fusidic acid monotherapy, especially topical preparations, has been strongly associated with the emergence of fusidic acid resistance among both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. Key resistance determinants include mutations ...
Wirtz Markus - - 2005
This review will assess new features reported for the molecular and biochemical aspects of cysteine and methionine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana with regards to early published data from other taxa including crop plants and bacteria (Escherichia coli as a model). By contrast to bacteria and fungi, plant cells present a ...
Arulanantham Haren - - 2006
(3R,5R)-Clavulanic acid, a clinically used inhibitor of serine beta-lactamases, is produced by fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus. The early steps in clavulanic acid biosynthesis leading to the bicyclic beta-lactam intermediate (3S,5S)-clavaminic acid have been defined. However, the mechanism by which (3S,5S)-clavaminic acid is converted to the penultimate intermediate (3R,5R)-clavaldehyde is unclear. ...
Lee Taek Soon - - 2005
Aklanonic acid, an anthraquinone natural product, is a common advanced intermediate in the biosynthesis of several antitumor polyketide antibiotics, including doxorubicin and aclacinomycin A. Intensive semisynthetic and biosynthetic efforts have been directed toward developing improved analogues of these clinically important compounds. The primer unit of such polyfunctional aromatic polyketides is ...
Kong Fanjiang - - 2006
In the current study, we investigated the influences of theobroxide on stem elongation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Our results showed that stem elongation and flower formation were inhibited by spraying spinach plants with theobroxide under inductive, long day conditions (16 h light/8 h dark), while application of exogenous applied GA3 ...
Matsuda Kazuhiko - - 2005
The biosynthetic pathway to natural pyrethrins in Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium seedlings was studied using [1-13C]d-glucose as a precursor, with pyrethrin I isolated using HPLC from a leaf extract. The 13C NMR spectrum of pyrethrin I from the precursor-administered seedlings indicated that the acid moiety was biosynthesized from d-glucose via 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate, ...
Menendez Javier A - - 2005
Fatty acid synthase (FAS)-catalyzed de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, an anabolic energy-storage pathway largely considered of minor importance in humans, actively contributes to the cancer phenotype by virtue of its ability to specifically regulate the expression and activity of Her-2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene. First, a positive correlation between high levels of ...
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