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Wilmot Carrie M - - 2009
Catalytic quinone cofactors derived from post-translational modification of amino acid residues within the enzyme polypeptide have roles in a variety of biological processes ranging from metabolism in bacteria to inflammation and connective tissue maturation in humans. In recent years, studies of the biosynthesis of one of these cofactors, tryptophan tryptophylquinone ...
Petersen Maike - - 2009
Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid ...
Lee Jeong Wook - - 2010
Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, the proteome of a metabolically engineered succinic acid-overproducing bacterium, Mannheimia succiniciproducens LPK7, was examined and compared with that of its wild type strain, MBEL55E, to elucidate the physiological and metabolic changes responsible for succinic acid overproduction and cell growth. Comparative proteomic studies ...
Sullivan Michaell - - 2009
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several mumol g(-1) fresh weight of phaselic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-l-malate]. Postharvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forage crops like alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lack both polyphenol oxidase and o-diphenols, and breakdown of their protein ...
Mitchell Ryan W - - 2009
Cardiolipin (CL) is a major phospholipid involved in energy metabolism mammalian mitochondria and fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) is a fatty acid transport protein that may regulate the intracellular level of fatty acyl-Coenzyme A's. Since fatty acids are required for oxidative phosphorylation via mitochondrial oxidation, we examined the effect of ...
Tzin Vered - - 2009
Plants can synthesize the aromatic amino acid Phe via arogenate, but it is still not known whether they also use an alternative route for Phe biosynthesis via phenylpyruvate, like many micro-organisms. To examine this possibility, we expressed a bacterial bi-functional PheA (chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana that converts ...
Yang Hao-Ru - - 2009
The role of jasmonic acid (JA) in plant wounding response has been demonstrated. However, the source of JA in wound signaling remains unclear. In the present study, pea seedlings were used as material to investigate the systemic induction of JA and the activation of lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent octadecanoid pathway upon wounding. ...
Kurth Daniel G DG Microbiology Division, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, - - 2009
Mycolic acids are essential for the survival, virulence and antibiotic resistance of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inhibitors of mycolic acid biosynthesis, such as isoniazid and ethionamide, have been used as efficient drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. However, the increase in cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has prompted a search ...
Kashima Takasumi - - 2009
The biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin (1) and its (5S)-5-hydroxylated derivative (2) were investigated by the administration of (13)C-labeled acetates to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The labeling patterns of biosynthetically (13)C-labeled 1 and 2 were determined by (13)C-NMR and INADEQUATE spectra, demonstrating the octaketide origins of 1 and 2. Taking into account the biosynthetic ...
Seshime Yasuyo - - 2009
alpha-Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole tetramic acid mycotoxin. Based on our identification of the polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthase (PKS-NRPS) hybrid gene cpaA involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis in Aspergillus fungi, we carried out heterologous expression of Aspergillus flavuscpaA under alpha-amylase promoter in Aspergillus oryzae and identified its sole product ...
Sircar Debabrata - - 2009
Biosynthesis of hydroxybenzoates even at enzymatic level is poorly understood. In this report, effect of feeding of putative biosynthetic precursors and pathway-specific enzyme inhibitors of early phenylpropanoid pathway on p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation in chitosan-elicited hairy roots of Daucus carota was studied. Three selective metabolic inhibitors of plant phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, ...
Kelly Wendy L - - 2009
Thiopeptide antibiotics are a group of highly modified peptide metabolites. The defining scaffold for the thiopeptides is a macrocycle containing a dehydropiperidine or pyridine ring, dehydrated amino acids, and multiple thiazole or oxazole rings. Some members of the thiopeptides, such as thiostrepton, also contain either a quinaldic acid or indolic ...
Lodeiro Silvia - - 2009
Details of the fungal biosynthetic pathway to helvolic acid and other fusidane antibiotics remain obscure. During product characterization of oxidosqualene cyclases in Aspergillus fumigatus, we found the long-sought cyclase that makes (17Z)-protosta-17(20),24-dien-3beta-ol, the precursor of helvolic acid. We then identified a gene cluster encoding the pathway to helvolic acid, which ...
Strijbis Karin - - 2009
Carnitine is an essential metabolite that enables intracellular transport of fatty acids and acetyl units. Here we show that the yeast Candida albicans can synthesize carnitine de novo, and we identify the 4 genes of the pathway. Null mutants of orf19.4316 (trimethyllysine dioxygenase), orf19.6306 (trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase), and orf19.7131 (butyrobetaine dioxygenase) ...
Pollmann Stephan - - 2009
Plants are suggested to produce their major growth promoting phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), via multiple redundantly operating pathways. Although great effort has been made and plenty of possible routes have been proposed based on experimental evidence, a complete pathway for IAA production has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, ...
Mustafa Natali R - - 2009
Feeding experiments using [1-(13)C]-d-glucose to Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don cell suspension cultures followed by elicitation with Pythium aphanidermatum extract were performed in order to study the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthetic pathway and that of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) as a comparison. A strongly labeled C-7 and a symmetrical partitioning of the ...
Boutigny Anne-Laure - - 2009
The effect of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid in wheat bran, was studied in vitro on type B trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium. It was demonstrated that ferulic acid is an efficient inhibitor of mycotoxin production by all strains of Fusarium tested, including different chemotypes and species. To analyse ...
Chamberland Stephen - - 2009
Beyond the identification of 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA) and D-glucosamine as biosynthetic precursors to mitomycin C (5) and FR900482 (6), little is known about the pathway Nature uses to prepare these antitumor antibiotics. To gain some insight into their biosynthesis, amino acids 1 and 2 as well as C-2 N-acetylated derivatives ...
Zhao Guang-Rong - - 2009
Streptolydigin, a secondary metabolite produced by Streptomyces lydicus, is a potent inhibitor of bacterial RNA polymerases. It has been suggested that streptolydigin biosynthesis is associated with polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). Thus, there is great interest in understanding the role of fatty acid biosynthesis in the biosynthesis ...
Krauth Christine - - 2009
As glycosyltransferases found in nature often show distinct substrate specificity, glycosyltransferase engineering is an important research field. In this work, we were able to introduce an activity into a glycosyltransferase involved in natural product (landomycin E) biosynthesis. This was achieved by recognizing hot spot amino acids in glycosyltransferases which are ...
Su Dan - - 2009
Selenocysteine (Sec) is the 21st genetically encoded amino acid found in organisms from all three domains of life. Sec biosynthesis is unique in that it always proceeds from an aminoacyl-tRNA precursor. Even though Sec biosynthesis in bacteria was established almost two decades ago, only recently the pathway was elucidated in ...
Tang Kuo-Hsiang - - 2009
The Roseobacter clade of aerobic marine proteobacteria, which compose 10-25% of the total marine bacterial community, has been reported to fix CO(2), although it has not been determined what pathway is involved. In this study, we report the first metabolic studies on carbohydrate utilization, CO(2) assimilation, and amino acid biosynthesis ...
Thompson Sian A - - 2009
α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) deficiency is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism which has recently been described in three adult cases. We have identified a further patient with clinical features of a relapsing encephalopathy, seizures and cognitive decline over a 40 year period. Biochemical studies revealed grossly elevated plasma pristanic ...
Jeong Haesang - - 2009
[This corrects the article on p. 6924 in vol. 8.].
Choi Jang-Gi - - 2009
Methyl gallate is a major component of Galla Rhois, as carvacrol is of oregano essential oils. Both have shown good antibacterial activity against intestinal bacteria. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of nalidixic acid in combination with methyl gallate and carvacrol against nalidixic acid resistant bacteria. The combined effect of ...
Kusche Brian R - - 2009
Nonactin, produced by Streptomyces griseus ETH A7796, is a macrotetrolide assembled from nonactic acid. It is an effective inhibitor of drug efflux in multidrug resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells at sub-toxic concentrations and has been shown to possess both antibacterial and antitumor activity. As total synthesis is impractical for the generation ...
Baud Sébastien - - 2009
As a Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis thaliana constitutes an excellent model system to investigate oil biosynthesis in seeds. Extensive tools for the genetic and molecular dissection of this model species are now available. Together with analytical procedures adapted to its tiny seeds, these tools have allowed major advances in isolating and characterising ...
Bayoumi Soad A L - - 2008
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important starch-rich crop, but the storage roots only have a short shelf-life due to post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), which includes the over-production and polymerisation of hydroxycoumarins. Key aspects of coumarin secondary-metabolite biosynthesis remain unresolved. Here we exploit the accumulation of hydroxycoumarins to test alternative ...
Horinouchi Sueharu - - 2008
One of the approaches of combinatorial biosynthesis is combining genes from different organisms and designing a new set of gene clusters to produce bioactive compounds, leading to diversification of both chemical and natural product libraries. This makes efficient use of the potential of the host organisms, especially when microorganisms are ...
Gallimore Andrew R - - 2009
The biosynthetic pathways to polyketide-derived polycyclic ethers, in bacteria, plants and marine organisms, have, until now, tended to be considered separately. The purpose of this article is to provide an integrated review of the common mechanistic aspects of polyether biosynthesis from these diverse sources. In particular, the focus will be ...
Enríquez Rocío - - 2009
Recently the CLSI recommended a disk diffusion method and breakpoints for meningococci which include breakpoints derived for nalidixic acid which serve as surrogate markers for gyrase A mutations associated with diminished fluoroquinolone susceptibility. This study presents the application of this methodology to a panel of 57 meningococcal strains isolated in ...
Nakayama Jiro - - 2009
Quorum sensing is a cell-density-dependent regulatory system in gram-positive bacteria and is often regulated by cyclic peptides called "quormones," which function as extracellular communication signals. With an aim to discover an antipathogenic agent targeting quorum sensing in gram-positive bacteria, we screened 153 samples of fungal butanol extracts with the guidance ...
Bayoumi Soad A L - - 2008
Two to three days after harvesting, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots suffer from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) when secondary metabolites are accumulated. Amongst these are hydroxycoumarins (e.g. scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin) which play roles in plant defence and have pharmacological activities. Some steps in the biosynthesis of these molecules ...
Eberle David - - 2009
The final reactions of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis, the introduction of the aromatic 3- and 3'-hydroxyl groups, are catalysed by cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylases. The cDNAs encoding CYP98A14 as well as a NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) were isolated from Coleus blumei and actively expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The CYP98A14-cDNA showed an open ...
Singh Shailendra P - - 2008
The mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) profile of a rice-field cyanobacterium, Anabaena doliolum, was studied under PAR and PAR + UVR conditions. The high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of water-soluble compounds reveals the biosynthesis of three MAAs, mycosporine-glycine (lambda (max) = 310 nm), porphyra-334 (lambda (max) = 334 nm) and shinorine (lambda ...
Kanellakopoulou K - - 2008
The characteristics of cancellous bone allografts as carriers of fusidic acid and teicoplanin are described. Particles of cancellous bone were compressed into a wiremesh cylinder; five replicas were impregnated for one hour into fusidic acid; and another five for one hour into teicoplanin. Elution was estimated daily. Concentrations of fusidic ...
Kuwano Mio - - 2009
Phytic acid acts as the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds and is poorly digested by monogastric animals. The degradation of phytic acid in animal diets is necessary to overcome both environmental and nutritional issues. The enzyme 1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate [Ins(3)P(1)] synthase (EC 5.5.1.4) catalyses the first step of ...
Panagopoulos Periklis - - 2008
Stimulan was evaluated in vitro as a biodegradable carrier for local delivery of moxifloxacin and fusidic acid. Moxifloxacin or fusidic acid was mixed with calcium sulphate at a ratio of 95:5 to prepare five replicas per antibiotic. In vitro elution was estimated daily using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. ...
Delgado Alejandro - - 2008
Fusidic acid interferes with the release of elongation factor G (EF-G) after the translocation step of protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to characterize the fusidic acid stimulon of a fusidic acid-susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus (SH1000). S. aureus microarrays and real-time PCR determined transcriptome alterations occurring in ...
Eliot Andrew C - - 2008
The antibiotics fosmidomycin and FR900098 are members of a unique class of phosphonic acid natural products that inhibit the nonmevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Both are potent antibacterial and antimalarial compounds, but despite their efficacy, little is known regarding their biosynthesis. Here we report the identification of the Streptomyces rubellomurinus ...
Shen C R - - 2008
Production of higher alcohols via the keto-acid intermediates found in microorganism's native amino-acid pathways has recently shown promising results. In this work, an Escherichia coli strain that produces 1-butanol and 1-propanol from glucose was constructed. The strain first converts glucose to 2-ketobutyrate, a common keto-acid intermediate for isoleucine biosynthesis. Then, ...
Bumpus Stefanie B - - 2008
Polyketide biosynthesis is typically directed by cis-acting catalytic domains. In the case of the Bacillus subtilis secondary metabolite dihydrobacillaene, the cis-acting domains are not sufficient to generate the saturated C14'-C15' bond. In this communication, we identify PksE as a trans-acting enoyl reductase utilized in the biosynthesis of this portion of ...
Braun Sascha D - - 2008
The epiphyte Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 (Pss22d) produces a toxin that strongly inhibits the growth of its relative, the plant pathogen P. syringae pv. glycinea. The inhibition can be overcome by supplementing the growth medium with the essential amino acid, L-arginine; this suggests that the toxin acts as an ...
Mu Jinye - - 2008
In plants, fatty acids are de novo synthesized predominantly in plastids from acetyl-coenzyme A. Although fatty acid biosynthesis has been biochemically well studied, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the pathway. Here, we show that overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) gene causes globally increased ...
Bhinu V-S - - 2009
Arabidopsis thaliana and other members of the Brassicaceae accumulate the hydroxycinnamic acid esters sinapoylmalate in leaves and sinapoylcholine in seeds. Our recent understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway although complex has enabled us to perturb the sinapine biosynthesis pathway in plants. Sinapine (sinapoylcholine) is the most abundant antinutritional phenolic compound in ...
Cutignano Adele - - 2008
The biosynthesis of lignarenones 1 and 2, the major polyketides of the Mediterranean mollusc Scaphander lignarius is described. The process is primed by benzoic acid and requires acetate and propionate as extender units. The labeling pattern suggests PKS-like synthesis of an unusual E,Z,E-triene chain and origin of the benzoate unit ...
O'Mahony C - - 2008
Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but life-threatening complication of statin therapy. A 74-year-old man, treated with atorvastatin, developed rhabdomyolysis after the co-administration of fusidic acid and flucloxacillin. The patient recovered with supportive treatment and subsequently tolerated reintroduction of atorvastatin. Pharmacokinetic interactions can cause raised plasma statin concentrations, which can precipitate rhabdomyolysis ...
Uhlig Silvio - - 2008
Four major alkaloids in the extracts from sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea, picked from wild grasses, have been identified as lactam (non-cyclol) ergot alkaloids. The structural information was obtained from ion trap MS and NMR spectroscopy. The data for one of the lactam ergot alkaloids were coinciding with ergocristam [N-(lysergyl-valyl)-cyclo(phenylalanyl-prolyl)]. The ...
Geelen Math J H - - 2008
The cellular ATP concentration was tested for its effect on fatty acid biosynthesis from glucose in hepatocytes. ATP was manipulated by adding increasing concentrations of cycloheximide, amytal, atractyloside, 2,4-dinitrophenol or adenosine. A slight decrease in cellular ATP coincided with a stimulation of fatty acid biosynthesis whereas a further lowering of ...
Tipparaju Suresh K - - 2008
Enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR), the product of the FabI gene, from Bacillus anthracis (BaENR) is responsible for catalyzing the final step of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. A number of novel 2-pyridone derivatives were synthesized and shown to be potent inhibitors of BaENR.
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