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Sharafi Sm - - 2010
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity. Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium ...
Liu Tiangang - - 2010
Fatty acids are central hydrocarbon intermediates in the biosynthesis of diesel from renewable sources. We have engineered an Escherichia coli cell line that produces 4.5 g/L/day total fatty acid in a fed-batch fermentation. However, further enhancement of fatty acid biosynthesis in this cell line proved unpredictable. To develop a more ...
Veyron-Churlet Romain - - 2010
Mycolic acids are key cell wall components for the survival, pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance of the human tubercle bacillus. Although it was thought that Mycobacterium tuberculosis tightly regulates their production to adapt to prevailing environmental conditions, the molecular mechanisms governing mycolic acid biosynthesis remained extremely obscure. Meromycolic acids, the direct ...
Gallagher John R - - 2010
Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) has a single reactive sulfhydryl necessary for function in covalently binding nascent fatty acids during biosynthesis. In Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most lethal form of malaria, fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in the apicoplast organelle during the liver stage of the parasite life cycle. ...
Grossmann Klaus - - 2010
Synthetic compounds that act like phytohormonal 'superauxins' have been among the most successful herbicides used in agriculture for more than 60 years. These so-called auxin herbicides are more stable in planta than the main natural auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and show systemic mobility and selective action, preferentially against dicot weeds ...
Borisova Svetlana A SA Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2010
Rhizocticins are phosphonate oligopeptide antibiotics containing the C-terminal nonproteinogenic amino acid (Z)-l-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid (APPA). Here we report the identification and characterization of the rhizocticin biosynthetic gene cluster (rhi) in Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633. Rhizocticin B was heterologously produced in the nonproducer strain Bacillus subtilis 168. A biosynthetic pathway is proposed on ...
Schwartz Brett D - - 2010
The major spiroacetal ((E,E)-1) of the pestiferous fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera cucumis, is biosynthesised from fatty acids by distinguishable pathways which utilise modified beta-oxidation and C-H hydroxylation, generating a putative ketodiol which cyclises.
Matsumoto Shogo - - 2010
Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multicomponent blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone components are de novo synthesized from acetyl-CoA in the pheromone ...
Agbaga Martin-Paul - - 2010
The disk membranes of retinal photoreceptor outer segments and other neuronal and reproductive tissues are enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3), which is essential for their normal function and development. The fatty acid condensing enzyme Elongation of Very Long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) is highly expressed in retina photoreceptors as ...
Ishii Takahiro - - 2010
Previously we identified aminooxy compounds as auxin biosynthesis inhibitors. One of the compounds, aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) inhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in rice and tomato. Here, we found that AOA induced auxin over-accumulation in Arabidopsis. The results suggest that auxin-related metabolic pathways are divergent among these plant species.
Li Hui - - 2010
The anther cuticle and microspore exine act as protective barriers for the male gametophyte and pollen grain, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of the monomers of which they are composed. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile ...
Imker Heidi J - - 2009
Syringolins are a class of cyclic tripeptide natural products that are potent and irreversible inhibitors of the eukaryotic proteasome. In addition to being hybrid NRPS/PKS molecules, they also feature an unusual ureido-linkage (red) between two amino acid monomers. Here we report the first in vitro characterization of enzymatic ureido-linkage formation ...
Sch?fer Helmut - - 2010
Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good efficacy ...
Chen Wenlan - - 2009
Identification of uncommon targets for inhibition, such as virulence factors, represents an emerging approach for combating the problem of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Unfortunately, the lack of effective systems for the discovery and evaluation of inhibitors for such targets has considerably slowed progress. A recent article in ACS Chemical Biology, ...
Kallenbach Mario - - 2010
Wounding and herbivore attack elicit the rapid (within minutes) accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) that results from the activation of previously synthesized biosynthetic enzymes. Recently, several regulatory factors that affect JA production have been identified; however, how these regulators affect JA biosynthesis remains at present unknown. Here we demonstrate that ...
Xiao Ying - - 2010
LAB (lithospermic acid B) is a dimer of RA (rosmarinic acid) and has been suggested to be derived from RA, but the detailed biosynthesis process has not yet been identified. The accumulation of RA has been intensively investigated in the plant species of Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae. In the present study, ...
Schaller Andreas - - 2009
Jasmonates are a growing class of lipid-derived signaling molecules with diverse functions ranging from the initiation of biotic and abiotic stress responses to the regulation of plant growth and development. Jasmonate biosynthesis originates from polyunsaturated fatty acids in chloroplast membranes. In a first lipoxygenase-catalyzed reaction molecular oxygen is introduced to ...
Wilmot Carrie M - - 2009
Catalytic quinone cofactors derived from post-translational modification of amino acid residues within the enzyme polypeptide have roles in a variety of biological processes ranging from metabolism in bacteria to inflammation and connective tissue maturation in humans. In recent years, studies of the biosynthesis of one of these cofactors, tryptophan tryptophylquinone ...
Petersen Maike - - 2009
Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid ...
Lee Jeong Wook - - 2010
Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, the proteome of a metabolically engineered succinic acid-overproducing bacterium, Mannheimia succiniciproducens LPK7, was examined and compared with that of its wild type strain, MBEL55E, to elucidate the physiological and metabolic changes responsible for succinic acid overproduction and cell growth. Comparative proteomic studies ...
Sullivan Michaell - - 2009
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several mumol g(-1) fresh weight of phaselic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-l-malate]. Postharvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forage crops like alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lack both polyphenol oxidase and o-diphenols, and breakdown of their protein ...
Mitchell Ryan W - - 2009
Cardiolipin (CL) is a major phospholipid involved in energy metabolism mammalian mitochondria and fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) is a fatty acid transport protein that may regulate the intracellular level of fatty acyl-Coenzyme A's. Since fatty acids are required for oxidative phosphorylation via mitochondrial oxidation, we examined the effect of ...
Tzin Vered - - 2009
Plants can synthesize the aromatic amino acid Phe via arogenate, but it is still not known whether they also use an alternative route for Phe biosynthesis via phenylpyruvate, like many micro-organisms. To examine this possibility, we expressed a bacterial bi-functional PheA (chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana that converts ...
Yang Hao-Ru - - 2009
The role of jasmonic acid (JA) in plant wounding response has been demonstrated. However, the source of JA in wound signaling remains unclear. In the present study, pea seedlings were used as material to investigate the systemic induction of JA and the activation of lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent octadecanoid pathway upon wounding. ...
Kurth Daniel G DG Microbiology Division, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, - - 2009
Mycolic acids are essential for the survival, virulence and antibiotic resistance of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inhibitors of mycolic acid biosynthesis, such as isoniazid and ethionamide, have been used as efficient drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. However, the increase in cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has prompted a search ...
Kashima Takasumi - - 2009
The biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin (1) and its (5S)-5-hydroxylated derivative (2) were investigated by the administration of (13)C-labeled acetates to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The labeling patterns of biosynthetically (13)C-labeled 1 and 2 were determined by (13)C-NMR and INADEQUATE spectra, demonstrating the octaketide origins of 1 and 2. Taking into account the biosynthetic ...
Seshime Yasuyo - - 2009
alpha-Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole tetramic acid mycotoxin. Based on our identification of the polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthase (PKS-NRPS) hybrid gene cpaA involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis in Aspergillus fungi, we carried out heterologous expression of Aspergillus flavuscpaA under alpha-amylase promoter in Aspergillus oryzae and identified its sole product ...
Sircar Debabrata - - 2009
Biosynthesis of hydroxybenzoates even at enzymatic level is poorly understood. In this report, effect of feeding of putative biosynthetic precursors and pathway-specific enzyme inhibitors of early phenylpropanoid pathway on p-hydroxybenzoic acid accumulation in chitosan-elicited hairy roots of Daucus carota was studied. Three selective metabolic inhibitors of plant phenylpropanoid pathway, namely, ...
Kelly Wendy L - - 2009
Thiopeptide antibiotics are a group of highly modified peptide metabolites. The defining scaffold for the thiopeptides is a macrocycle containing a dehydropiperidine or pyridine ring, dehydrated amino acids, and multiple thiazole or oxazole rings. Some members of the thiopeptides, such as thiostrepton, also contain either a quinaldic acid or indolic ...
Lodeiro Silvia - - 2009
Details of the fungal biosynthetic pathway to helvolic acid and other fusidane antibiotics remain obscure. During product characterization of oxidosqualene cyclases in Aspergillus fumigatus, we found the long-sought cyclase that makes (17Z)-protosta-17(20),24-dien-3beta-ol, the precursor of helvolic acid. We then identified a gene cluster encoding the pathway to helvolic acid, which ...
Strijbis Karin - - 2009
Carnitine is an essential metabolite that enables intracellular transport of fatty acids and acetyl units. Here we show that the yeast Candida albicans can synthesize carnitine de novo, and we identify the 4 genes of the pathway. Null mutants of orf19.4316 (trimethyllysine dioxygenase), orf19.6306 (trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase), and orf19.7131 (butyrobetaine dioxygenase) ...
Pollmann Stephan - - 2009
Plants are suggested to produce their major growth promoting phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), via multiple redundantly operating pathways. Although great effort has been made and plenty of possible routes have been proposed based on experimental evidence, a complete pathway for IAA production has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, ...
Mustafa Natali R - - 2009
Feeding experiments using [1-(13)C]-d-glucose to Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don cell suspension cultures followed by elicitation with Pythium aphanidermatum extract were performed in order to study the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthetic pathway and that of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) as a comparison. A strongly labeled C-7 and a symmetrical partitioning of the ...
Boutigny Anne-Laure - - 2009
The effect of ferulic acid, the most abundant phenolic acid in wheat bran, was studied in vitro on type B trichothecene biosynthesis by Fusarium. It was demonstrated that ferulic acid is an efficient inhibitor of mycotoxin production by all strains of Fusarium tested, including different chemotypes and species. To analyse ...
Chamberland Stephen - - 2009
Beyond the identification of 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA) and D-glucosamine as biosynthetic precursors to mitomycin C (5) and FR900482 (6), little is known about the pathway Nature uses to prepare these antitumor antibiotics. To gain some insight into their biosynthesis, amino acids 1 and 2 as well as C-2 N-acetylated derivatives ...
Zhao Guang-Rong - - 2009
Streptolydigin, a secondary metabolite produced by Streptomyces lydicus, is a potent inhibitor of bacterial RNA polymerases. It has been suggested that streptolydigin biosynthesis is associated with polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). Thus, there is great interest in understanding the role of fatty acid biosynthesis in the biosynthesis ...
Krauth Christine - - 2009
As glycosyltransferases found in nature often show distinct substrate specificity, glycosyltransferase engineering is an important research field. In this work, we were able to introduce an activity into a glycosyltransferase involved in natural product (landomycin E) biosynthesis. This was achieved by recognizing hot spot amino acids in glycosyltransferases which are ...
Su Dan - - 2009
Selenocysteine (Sec) is the 21st genetically encoded amino acid found in organisms from all three domains of life. Sec biosynthesis is unique in that it always proceeds from an aminoacyl-tRNA precursor. Even though Sec biosynthesis in bacteria was established almost two decades ago, only recently the pathway was elucidated in ...
Tang Kuo-Hsiang - - 2009
The Roseobacter clade of aerobic marine proteobacteria, which compose 10-25% of the total marine bacterial community, has been reported to fix CO(2), although it has not been determined what pathway is involved. In this study, we report the first metabolic studies on carbohydrate utilization, CO(2) assimilation, and amino acid biosynthesis ...
Thompson Sian A - - 2009
α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) deficiency is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism which has recently been described in three adult cases. We have identified a further patient with clinical features of a relapsing encephalopathy, seizures and cognitive decline over a 40 year period. Biochemical studies revealed grossly elevated plasma pristanic ...
Jeong Haesang - - 2009
[This corrects the article on p. 6924 in vol. 8.].
Choi Jang-Gi - - 2009
Methyl gallate is a major component of Galla Rhois, as carvacrol is of oregano essential oils. Both have shown good antibacterial activity against intestinal bacteria. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of nalidixic acid in combination with methyl gallate and carvacrol against nalidixic acid resistant bacteria. The combined effect of ...
Kusche Brian R - - 2009
Nonactin, produced by Streptomyces griseus ETH A7796, is a macrotetrolide assembled from nonactic acid. It is an effective inhibitor of drug efflux in multidrug resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells at sub-toxic concentrations and has been shown to possess both antibacterial and antitumor activity. As total synthesis is impractical for the generation ...
Baud Sébastien - - 2009
As a Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis thaliana constitutes an excellent model system to investigate oil biosynthesis in seeds. Extensive tools for the genetic and molecular dissection of this model species are now available. Together with analytical procedures adapted to its tiny seeds, these tools have allowed major advances in isolating and characterising ...
Bayoumi Soad A L - - 2008
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important starch-rich crop, but the storage roots only have a short shelf-life due to post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD), which includes the over-production and polymerisation of hydroxycoumarins. Key aspects of coumarin secondary-metabolite biosynthesis remain unresolved. Here we exploit the accumulation of hydroxycoumarins to test alternative ...
Horinouchi Sueharu - - 2008
One of the approaches of combinatorial biosynthesis is combining genes from different organisms and designing a new set of gene clusters to produce bioactive compounds, leading to diversification of both chemical and natural product libraries. This makes efficient use of the potential of the host organisms, especially when microorganisms are ...
Gallimore Andrew R - - 2009
The biosynthetic pathways to polyketide-derived polycyclic ethers, in bacteria, plants and marine organisms, have, until now, tended to be considered separately. The purpose of this article is to provide an integrated review of the common mechanistic aspects of polyether biosynthesis from these diverse sources. In particular, the focus will be ...
Enríquez Rocío - - 2009
Recently the CLSI recommended a disk diffusion method and breakpoints for meningococci which include breakpoints derived for nalidixic acid which serve as surrogate markers for gyrase A mutations associated with diminished fluoroquinolone susceptibility. This study presents the application of this methodology to a panel of 57 meningococcal strains isolated in ...
Nakayama Jiro - - 2009
Quorum sensing is a cell-density-dependent regulatory system in gram-positive bacteria and is often regulated by cyclic peptides called "quormones," which function as extracellular communication signals. With an aim to discover an antipathogenic agent targeting quorum sensing in gram-positive bacteria, we screened 153 samples of fungal butanol extracts with the guidance ...
Bayoumi Soad A L - - 2008
Two to three days after harvesting, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots suffer from post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) when secondary metabolites are accumulated. Amongst these are hydroxycoumarins (e.g. scopoletin and its glucoside scopolin) which play roles in plant defence and have pharmacological activities. Some steps in the biosynthesis of these molecules ...
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