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Williams-Johnson J A - - 2010
Tranexamic acid can reduce bleeding in patients undergoing elective surgery. We assessed the effects of early administration of a short course of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and the receipt of blood transfusion in trauma patients. This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 274 hospitals in 40 countries. ...
Lait Cameron G - - 2010
N-Linolenoyl-L-glutamine is one of several structurally similar fatty acid-amino acid conjugate (FAC) elicitors found in the oral secretions of Lepidopterous caterpillars and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by membrane-associated alimentary tissue enzyme(s). FAC elicitors comprise 17-hydroxylated or non-hydroxylated linolenic acid coupled with L-glutamine or L-glutamate by an amide bond. We demonstrate ...
Handke Paul - - 2011
Research towards the commercialization of fungible biofuels has received a great deal of recent interest and investment. To this end the microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels from sustainable feedstocks is emerging as a viable option with rapid advances from both industry and academia. The manipulation of the fatty acid ...
Magee Ciara N - - 2010
Rhabdomyolysis is a known complication of statin therapy and may be triggered by a pharmacokinetic interaction between a statin and a second medication. Fatal statin-induced rhabdomyolysis has an incidence of 0.15 deaths/million prescriptions. We describe 4 cases of severe rhabdomyolysis with the common feature of atorvastatin use and coadministration of ...
Mujahid Md - - 2011
Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indoles with simultaneous utilization of L-tryptophan. Fifteen chromatographically distinct indole derivatives were detected from the L-tryptophan-supplemented cultures of R. benzoatilyticus JA2. Nine of these were identified as, indole 3-acetamide, Methoxyindole-3-aldehyde, indole 3-aldehyde, methoxyindole-3-acetic acid, indole 3-acetic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetonitrile, indole, and trisindoline. Tryptophan stable isotope ...
Crnovcić Ivana - - 2010
The actinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces chrysomallus harbors two paralogous genes, acmI and acmL, encoding methyltransferases. To unveil their suspected role in the formation of 3-hydroxy-4-methyl-anthranilic acid (4-MHA), the building block of the actinomycin chromophore, each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. Testing the resulting ∼40 kDa His(6)-tagged proteins ...
Heaton Nicholas S - - 2010
Dengue virus (DENV) modifies cellular membranes to establish its sites of replication. Although the 3D architecture of these structures has recently been described, little is known about the cellular pathways required for their formation and expansion. In this report, we examine the host requirements for DENV replication using a focused ...
Tzin Vered - - 2010
The aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan in plants are not only essential components of protein synthesis, but also serve as precursors for a wide range of secondary metabolites that are important for plant growth as well as for human nutrition and health. The aromatic amino acids are synthesized ...
Fekete Katalin - - 2010
The treatment of children with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is mainly based on restricted dietary intake of protein-containing foods. However, dietary protein restriction may not only reduce amino acid intake, but may be associated with low intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well. This review focuses on the consequences ...
Song Ju Yeon - - 2010
Clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, is used together with β-lactam antibiotics to create drug mixtures possessing potent antimicrobial activity. In view of the clinical and industrial importance of clavulanic acid, identification of the clavulanic acid biosynthetic pathway and the associated gene cluster(s) in the main producer species, Streptomyces clavuligerus, has ...
Wang Hong-Lei - - 2010
The Chinese tussah silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) produces a rare dienoic sex pheromone composed of (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate, and for which the biosynthetic routes are yet unresolved. By means of gland composition analyses and in vivo labeling we evidenced that pheromone biosynthesis towards the immediate dienoic gland ...
Rui Fabio - - 2010
During sexual reproduction, female gametes or eggs of brown algae release pheromones to attract their male mating partners. The biologically active compounds comprise linear or alicyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons derived from the aliphatic terminus of C(20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by oxidative cleavage. The current study addresses the stereochemical course of ...
Foster Stephen P - - 2010
Previously, we demonstrated that sex pheromone production in mated female Heliothis virescens moths is dependent upon hemolymph trehalose concentration (HTC), which is influenced by activities such as the feeding of adults on sucrose. In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, that this effect also occurs in starved (i.e., ...
Pierrel Fabien - - 2010
Yeast ubiquinone or coenzyme Q(6) (Q(6)) is a redox active lipid that plays a crucial role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. At least nine proteins (Coq1p-9p) participate in Q(6) biosynthesis from 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB). We now show that the mitochondrial ferredoxin Yah1p and the ferredoxin reductase Arh1p are required for ...
Ding Wei - - 2010
The enzymes 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthases (6-MSASs) are involved in the building of an aryl moiety in many bioactive secondary metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria. Using the bacterial 6-MSAS ChlB1 in the biosynthesis of spirotetronate antibiotic chlorothricin (CHL) as a model, functional analysis of its dehydratase (DH) and ketoreductase ...
Tuckwell Danny D National Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, University of Manchester, School of Translational Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. - - 2011
Our understanding of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus has recently benefitted from much work at the genomics level, including genome sequencing and comparative genome analyses. The next stage in this process is to develop a higher-level appreciation of the organism's biology and to this end the Pathway Tools software ...
Koch Michael - - 2010
Exocarpic acid (13 E-octadecene-9,11-diynoic acid) from Exocarpos latifolius R.Br. (Santalaceae) was previously shown to have specific antimycobacterial activity. Microarray data suggested inhibition of fatty acid metabolism as a potential mode of action. Experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of action showed that exocarpic acid was effective at inhibition of mycolic ...
Wang Hong-Lei - - 2010
The sex pheromone of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), consists of two different types of components, one type including (11Z,13Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal (11Z,13Z-16:Ald) with a terminal functional group containing oxygen, similar to the majority of moth pheromones reported, and another type including the unusual long-chain pentaenes, (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-3,6,9,12,15-tricosapentaene (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-23:H) and ...
Castanheira Mariana - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To determine fusidic acid resistance rates (MICs of > or = 2 mg/L) and the prevalence of fusidic acid resistance mechanisms among Staphylococcus spp. collected from European countries (2008). METHODS: Staphylococcal isolates (3134) collected from Europe were tested by CLSI broth microdilution. Isolates displaying a fusidic acid MIC of ...
Kresge Nicole - - 2010
RNA Determinants for Translational Editing: Mischarging a Minihelix Substrate by a tRNA Synthetase (Nordin, B. E., and Schimmel, P. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 6835-6838) Structure-specific tRNA Determinants for Editing a Mischarged Amino Acid (Beebe, K., Merriman, E., and Schimmel, P. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 45056-45061).
Ferrero Miguel Angel - - 2010
Polysialic acids (PA) are protective capsular sialohomopolymers present in some bacteria which can invade the mammalian host and cause lethal bacteremia and meningitis. Biosynthesis and translocation of PA to the cell surface are equivalent in different species and bacterial strains which are produced. The diversity in PA structure is derived ...
Biedenbach Douglas J - - 2010
Fusidic acid (CEM-102) is a steroidal antimicrobial agent with focused Gram-positive activity that acts by preventing bacterial protein synthesis via interacting with elongation factor G. A collection of 114 wild-type isolates (> 80 species) was used to define the contemporary limits of fusidic acid spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative species. ...
Domínguez Eva - - 2010
The implication of a self-assembly process in the early stages of cutin biosynthesis has been shown by means of antibodies raised against polyhydroxy fatty acidnanoparticles (cutinsomes).
Bonaventure Gustavo - - 2010
In plants, herbivore attack elicits the rapid accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) which results from the activation of constitutively expressed biosynthetic enzymes. The molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of JA biosynthesis remain largely unknown however new research has elucidated some of the early regulatory components involved in this process. Nicotiana ...
Wilson A C C - - 2010
The pea aphid genome includes 66 genes contributing to amino acid biosynthesis and 93 genes to amino acid degradation. In several respects, the pea aphid gene inventory complements that of its symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola (Buchnera APS). Unlike other insects with completely sequenced genomes, the pea aphid lacks the capacity ...
Sharafi Sm - - 2010
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity. Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium ...
Liu Tiangang - - 2010
Fatty acids are central hydrocarbon intermediates in the biosynthesis of diesel from renewable sources. We have engineered an Escherichia coli cell line that produces 4.5 g/L/day total fatty acid in a fed-batch fermentation. However, further enhancement of fatty acid biosynthesis in this cell line proved unpredictable. To develop a more ...
Veyron-Churlet Romain - - 2010
Mycolic acids are key cell wall components for the survival, pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance of the human tubercle bacillus. Although it was thought that Mycobacterium tuberculosis tightly regulates their production to adapt to prevailing environmental conditions, the molecular mechanisms governing mycolic acid biosynthesis remained extremely obscure. Meromycolic acids, the direct ...
Gallagher John R - - 2010
Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) has a single reactive sulfhydryl necessary for function in covalently binding nascent fatty acids during biosynthesis. In Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most lethal form of malaria, fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in the apicoplast organelle during the liver stage of the parasite life cycle. ...
Grossmann Klaus - - 2010
Synthetic compounds that act like phytohormonal 'superauxins' have been among the most successful herbicides used in agriculture for more than 60 years. These so-called auxin herbicides are more stable in planta than the main natural auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and show systemic mobility and selective action, preferentially against dicot weeds ...
Borisova Svetlana A SA Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2010
Rhizocticins are phosphonate oligopeptide antibiotics containing the C-terminal nonproteinogenic amino acid (Z)-l-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid (APPA). Here we report the identification and characterization of the rhizocticin biosynthetic gene cluster (rhi) in Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633. Rhizocticin B was heterologously produced in the nonproducer strain Bacillus subtilis 168. A biosynthetic pathway is proposed on ...
Schwartz Brett D - - 2010
The major spiroacetal ((E,E)-1) of the pestiferous fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera cucumis, is biosynthesised from fatty acids by distinguishable pathways which utilise modified beta-oxidation and C-H hydroxylation, generating a putative ketodiol which cyclises.
Matsumoto Shogo - - 2010
Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multicomponent blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone components are de novo synthesized from acetyl-CoA in the pheromone ...
Agbaga Martin-Paul - - 2010
The disk membranes of retinal photoreceptor outer segments and other neuronal and reproductive tissues are enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3), which is essential for their normal function and development. The fatty acid condensing enzyme Elongation of Very Long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) is highly expressed in retina photoreceptors as ...
Ishii Takahiro - - 2010
Previously we identified aminooxy compounds as auxin biosynthesis inhibitors. One of the compounds, aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) inhibited indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in rice and tomato. Here, we found that AOA induced auxin over-accumulation in Arabidopsis. The results suggest that auxin-related metabolic pathways are divergent among these plant species.
Li Hui - - 2010
The anther cuticle and microspore exine act as protective barriers for the male gametophyte and pollen grain, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of the monomers of which they are composed. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile ...
Imker Heidi J - - 2009
Syringolins are a class of cyclic tripeptide natural products that are potent and irreversible inhibitors of the eukaryotic proteasome. In addition to being hybrid NRPS/PKS molecules, they also feature an unusual ureido-linkage (red) between two amino acid monomers. Here we report the first in vitro characterization of enzymatic ureido-linkage formation ...
Sch?fer Helmut - - 2010
Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good efficacy ...
Chen Wenlan - - 2009
Identification of uncommon targets for inhibition, such as virulence factors, represents an emerging approach for combating the problem of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Unfortunately, the lack of effective systems for the discovery and evaluation of inhibitors for such targets has considerably slowed progress. A recent article in ACS Chemical Biology, ...
Kallenbach Mario - - 2010
Wounding and herbivore attack elicit the rapid (within minutes) accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) that results from the activation of previously synthesized biosynthetic enzymes. Recently, several regulatory factors that affect JA production have been identified; however, how these regulators affect JA biosynthesis remains at present unknown. Here we demonstrate that ...
Xiao Ying - - 2010
LAB (lithospermic acid B) is a dimer of RA (rosmarinic acid) and has been suggested to be derived from RA, but the detailed biosynthesis process has not yet been identified. The accumulation of RA has been intensively investigated in the plant species of Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae. In the present study, ...
Schaller Andreas - - 2009
Jasmonates are a growing class of lipid-derived signaling molecules with diverse functions ranging from the initiation of biotic and abiotic stress responses to the regulation of plant growth and development. Jasmonate biosynthesis originates from polyunsaturated fatty acids in chloroplast membranes. In a first lipoxygenase-catalyzed reaction molecular oxygen is introduced to ...
Wilmot Carrie M - - 2009
Catalytic quinone cofactors derived from post-translational modification of amino acid residues within the enzyme polypeptide have roles in a variety of biological processes ranging from metabolism in bacteria to inflammation and connective tissue maturation in humans. In recent years, studies of the biosynthesis of one of these cofactors, tryptophan tryptophylquinone ...
Petersen Maike - - 2009
Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid ...
Lee Jeong Wook - - 2010
Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, the proteome of a metabolically engineered succinic acid-overproducing bacterium, Mannheimia succiniciproducens LPK7, was examined and compared with that of its wild type strain, MBEL55E, to elucidate the physiological and metabolic changes responsible for succinic acid overproduction and cell growth. Comparative proteomic studies ...
Sullivan Michaell - - 2009
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several mumol g(-1) fresh weight of phaselic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-l-malate]. Postharvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forage crops like alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lack both polyphenol oxidase and o-diphenols, and breakdown of their protein ...
Mitchell Ryan W - - 2009
Cardiolipin (CL) is a major phospholipid involved in energy metabolism mammalian mitochondria and fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) is a fatty acid transport protein that may regulate the intracellular level of fatty acyl-Coenzyme A's. Since fatty acids are required for oxidative phosphorylation via mitochondrial oxidation, we examined the effect of ...
Tzin Vered - - 2009
Plants can synthesize the aromatic amino acid Phe via arogenate, but it is still not known whether they also use an alternative route for Phe biosynthesis via phenylpyruvate, like many micro-organisms. To examine this possibility, we expressed a bacterial bi-functional PheA (chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana that converts ...
Yang Hao-Ru - - 2009
The role of jasmonic acid (JA) in plant wounding response has been demonstrated. However, the source of JA in wound signaling remains unclear. In the present study, pea seedlings were used as material to investigate the systemic induction of JA and the activation of lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent octadecanoid pathway upon wounding. ...
Kurth Daniel G DG Microbiology Division, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, - - 2009
Mycolic acids are essential for the survival, virulence and antibiotic resistance of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inhibitors of mycolic acid biosynthesis, such as isoniazid and ethionamide, have been used as efficient drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. However, the increase in cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has prompted a search ...
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