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Results 351 - 400 of 746
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Yi Jian - - 2002
Product yields in microbial synthesis are ultimately limited by the mechanism utilized for glucose transport. Altered expression of phosphoenolpyruvate synthase was examined as a method for circumventing these limits. Escherichia coli KL3/pJY1.216A was cultured under fed-batch fermentor conditions where glucose was the only source of carbon for the formation of ...
Murga Juan - - 2002
The first total synthesis of the naturally occurring nonenolide, microcarpalide, is described. The key step in the synthesis was the ring-closing metathesis of a dienic ester prepared in turn by coupling an acid and an alcohol stereoselectively synthesized from (S,S)-tartaric acid and (R)-glycidol, respectively. [structure: see text]
van Milgen Jaap - - 2002
A framework representing the major biochemical pathways of nutrient metabolism is developed allowing quantification of the energy efficiency of different nutritional scenarios. The model is based on a number of carbon chain pivots (glucose, pyruvate, acetyl coenzyme A, alpha-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate and serine) and cofactors involved in metabolism. Excess pivots yield ...
Atwell Graham J - - 2002
5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) is a novel anticancer agent with a number of unique activities, and is in clinical trial. The current synthesis of DMXAA involves six steps, beginning with a heterogeneous reaction to form an isonitrosoacetanilide, and gives an overall yield of 11% from 2,3-dimethylaniline. We report an alternative synthesis ...
Wallis James G - - 2002
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have crucial roles in membrane biology and signaling processes in most living organisms. However, it is only recently that molecular genetic approaches have allowed detailed studies of the enzymes involved in their synthesis. New evidence has revealed a range of pathways in different organisms. These include a ...
Weibel Douglas B - - 2002
A tandem Wittig approach has been employed for the synthesis of both (11S,9Z,12Z,15Z)- and (11R,9Z,12Z,15Z)-hydroxyoctadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid (11-hydroxylinolenic acid, 11-HLA) from (R)-glyceraldehyde acetonide. From (11R)-HLA we have prepared the corresponding palmitic acid and stearic acid esters, mayolene-16 (1) and mayolene-18 (2), insect defensive compounds recently identified from Pieris rapae larvae. In ...
Detsi Anastasia - - 2002
The synthesis of (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen and (Z)-2-[4-[1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenyl]-1-butenyl]phenoxyacetic acid was accomplished using a McMurry reaction as the key step. The perfluorotolyl derivatives of the McMurry products enabled the separation of the minor undesirable geometrical isomer. The methodology proceeds without E,Z isomerization, employs a very mild final debenzylation step compatible with a large ...
Hanessian Stephen - - 2002
Two strategies were developed toward the stereocontrolled synthesis of 8-aryl-3-hydroxy-4-amino-2,7-diisopropyloctanoic acids with predetermined stereogenic centers. This is a generic motif in a new class of potent inhibitors of the enzyme renin, exemplified by CGP-60536B. The synthesis relies on the utilization of L-pyroglutamic acid as chiron, and proceeds through the incorporation ...
Cazzolli R - - 2002
We have previously shown that glycogen synthesis is reduced in lipid-treated C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle myotubes and that this is independent of changes in glucose uptake. Here, we tested whether mitochondrial metabolism of these lipids is necessary for this inhibition and whether the activation of specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms ...
Pathak A - - 2002
Triterpenoid-based scaffolds betulinic acid (1a) and ursolic acid (1b), have been used for the generation of combinatorial libraries in parallel format using solid phase organic synthesis method. These templates have the potential for the synthesis and amplification of triterpenoid-based compounds with one and two-point diversity. This has been demonstrated by ...
Lauffer David J - - 2002
A simple and versatile method for the synthesis of (S) 3-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,5-benzodiazepine-1-acetic acid methyl ester (4), a dipeptide mimetic, has been developed. The regioselective functionalization of the N1 and N5 ring nitrogens and the C3 amino group is demonstrated in the synthesis of an interleukin-1beta converting enzyme inhibitor 13.
Bunch Lennart - - 2002
Direct functionalization of the 3-oxygenated isothiazole heteroaromatic parental system has not yet been reported in the literature. Here, we report the first regioselective lithiation of the 5-position of 3-(benzyloxy)isothiazole (4) using LDA in diethyl ether. The versatility of the methodology was explored by quenching with a variety of electrophiles to ...
Ley Steven V - - 2002
[structure: see text] The total synthesis of Argyrin B (1) is presented using a synthetic plan that is convergent and flexible and conserves the stereogenic centers. The unusual amino acid 4-methoxy tryptophan (6) was obtained via an enzymatic resolution. Cyclization followed by oxidative elimination of the phenylseleno cysteine to the ...
Shih Hsiencheng - - 2002
A facile synthesis of 9-substituted 9-deazapurines as potential inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase has been achieved by the direct Friedel-Crafts aroylation or arylmethylation of 9-deazapurines using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid as catalyst. The aroylated 9-deazapurines could be transformed into the corresponding 9-aryimethyl derivatives by the Wolff-Kishner reaction. A novel synthesis of 9-deazahypoxanthine ...
Rawsthorne Stephen - - 2002
The de novo synthesis of fatty acids in plants occurs in the plastids through the activity of fatty acid synthetase. The synthesis of the malonyl-coenzyme A that is required for acyl-chain elongation requires the import of metabolites from the cytosol and their subsequent metabolism. Early studies had implicated acetate as ...
Hashimoto Makoto - - 2002
A versatile synthesis of diazirine-based photoreactive fatty acid analogues is reported. The key step is phenoxy alkylation of diazirine with halo alkyl acid esters. The conditions described will be acceptable for the synthesis of various alkyl-length derivatives. The fatty acid derivatives are acceptors for reverse reactions of sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase ...
Westerhoff Hans V - - 2002
Although metabolic control analysis (MCA) cannot be applied directly to microbial ecological systems because of mass conservation and stoichiometric constraints, we demonstrate here that Hierarchical Control Analysis (HCA) can be applied to such systems. We illustrate the approach for a particular ecosystem example of the biological synthesis of acetic acid ...
Viirre R D - - 2001
A new scheme for the synthesis of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is described. First, a resin-bound amino acid is alkylated under Fukuyama-Mitsunobu conditions. A nucleobase is then incorporated via an acid fluoride. Subsequently, oligomerization may be achieved by deprotection, coupling of another amino acid, and repetition of the cycle. Each ...
Nilsson J W - - 2001
Strategies for finding novel structures of therapeutical interest are discussed. The rationale for the selection of the two scaffolds N4-(m-aminophenyl)-piperazine-2-carboxylic acid E and N4-(o-aminophenyl)-piperazine-2-carboxylic F is described. The synthesis of the appropriate precursors to scaffold E and F and their use in solid-phase chemistry are described. A 160-member library was ...
Lee H J - - 2001
A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was ...
Kuroda N - - 2001
An improved general method for automated synthesis of tripeptides was developed, in which methanesulfonic acid (MSA) was used in place of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), thus making it possible to avoid, 1) corrosion of the apparatus by strong acid vapor, 2) formation of emulsions, and 3) use of the restricted solvent, ...
Paul K S - - 2001
The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein contains myristate as its sole fatty acid component. Surprisingly, there does not appear to be enough myristate in either the parasite or its host's bloodstream to sustain myristoylation of the enormous quantity of variant surface glycoprotein produced. Here, we discuss ...
Patel R N RN Enzyme Technology, Process Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, One Squibb Drive, P.O. Box 191, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA. - - 2001
Biocatalytic processes were used to prepare chiral intermediates required for the synthesis of Omapatrilat 1 by three different routes. The synthesis and enzymatic conversion of 2-keto-6-hydroxyhexanoic acid 3 to L-6-hydroxynorleucine 2 was demonstrated by reductive amination using beef liver glutamate dehydrogenase. To avoid the lengthy chemical synthesis of the ketoacid ...
Albericio F - - 2001
A five-step solid-phase synthesis of sulfahydantoins from alpha-amino acids and aldehydes was developed. The synthetic method allows the use of hindered amino acids, including Val, Phg, and Aib, and use of aromatic aldehydes substituted with electron-withdrawing and -donating groups. Some limitations were encountered with amino acids with reactive side chains. ...
Koviach J L - - 2001
To probe the conformational requirements of O-linked glycoproteins for binding to various enzymes and receptors, two conformationally constrained glycosylated amino acids, 2 and 3, were designed. The analogues were found to represent two potential low energy conformations of the parent conjugate, 1, by molecular modeling. A convergent synthesis of both ...
Flores-Cotera L B - - 2001
The influence of ammonium, phosphate and citrate on astaxanthin production by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was investigated. The astaxanthin content in cells and the final astaxanthin concentration increased upon reduction of ammonium from 61 mM to 12.9 mM (from 140 microg/g to 230 microg/g and 1.2 microg/ml to 2.3 microg/ml, ...
Rainier J D - - 2001
This paper describes a formal total synthesis of the marine ladder toxin hemibrevetoxin B from Danishefsky's dienes. This approach couples the generation of C-glycosides from cyclic enol ethers with metathesis or acid-mediated annulation reactions. The result is a highly efficient synthesis of the tetracyclic ring system of hemibrevetoxin B.
Blázquez C - - 2001
Fatty acids induce apoptosis in primary astrocytes by enhancing ceramide synthesis de novo. The possible role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the control of apoptosis was studied in this model. Long-term stimulation of AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) prevented apoptosis. AICAR blunted fatty acid-mediated induction of serine palmitoyltransferase ...
O'Hara P - - 2001
In young expanding leaves of Brassica napus, the demand for fatty acids is met by de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid synthase components, as demonstrated by 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase. Using a novel radio-chemical assay for 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase and specific antibodies, we have demonstrated a direct relationship between the increase in activity ...
SzymaƄska A - - 2001
An efficient synthesis of L-3-(1'-pyrenyl)alanine (Pya), a highly fluorescent amino acid, is described. The amino acid was obtained by the classical asymmetric hydrogenation of chiral 1-acetyl-3-pyrenemethylidene-6-methyl-piperazine-2,5-dione. In the proposed improved procedure mild conditions of the synthesis were applied and the final product--N-tertbutoxycarbonyl-pyrenylalanine--was obtained in good yield. Pyrenylalanine, due to its ...
Ljung K - - 2001
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis was investigated during seed germination and early seedling growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). IAA-ester conjugates were initially hydrolyzed in the seed to yield a peak of free IAA prior to initiation of root elongation. Developmental regulation of IAA synthesis was observed, with tryptophan-dependent synthesis being ...
Ando S - - 2000
Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of the N-terminal glycopentapeptide of human glycophorin AM, bearing the consecutive sialyl-T antigen, was accomplished using glycosylated amino acid building blocks on a weakly acid-labile resin with high efficiency. The benzylated glycopeptide was treated with TMSOTf-thioanisole in TFA and then with aq NaHCO3 to afford the deprotected ...
Mulzer J - - 2000
The synthesis of a highly functionalized 4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrol, namely, the D-ring fragment 5a of cobyric acid (1), is described in this letter. A very efficient assembly to 5a involves CBS-reduction of 10, a [2,3] Wittig-Still rearrangement, and a stereoselective Michael addition to a nitro olefin.
Freeman-Cook K D - - 2000
A symmetry-based strategy for the synthesis of the zaragozic acids is reported. Two enantioselective dihydroxylations were used to establish the absolute configuration of a C(2) symmetric intermediate. Noteworthy transformations include a group-selective lactonization, which accomplished an end-differentiation of a pseudo-C(2) symmetric intermediate. Late stage protecting group adjustments and oxidations accomplished ...
Pearson C - - 2000
[structure: see text] Synthesis of the unusual amino acid (2S,3S,8S, 9S)-3-amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyl-4,6-decadienoic acid (Adda), a unit of numerous cyanobacterial toxins, is described. Construction of the target molecule was achieved in 13 steps with an overall yield of 40%. The work is highlighted by a novel one-pot transformation from isoxazolidin-5-one intermediate 6 ...
Gopalsamy A - - 2000
A combinatorial approach for rapid optimization of a vitronectin receptor (alphavbeta3) inhibitor lead was accomplished by solid-phase synthesis. Orthogonally bis protected 2,3-diaminopropionic acid was used to immobilize the C-terminus of the molecule. Selective deprotection and functionalization of the alpha-amino group followed by acyl resorcinol scaffold attachment and N-terminus diversification was ...
Hojo H - - 2000
The recent understanding of the biological role of glycoproteins has brought about a demand for the highly homogeneous glycopeptides as the functional model for glycoproteins. Thus, much efforts have been made to establish easy and efficient method for glycopeptide synthesis. In this paper, we briefly review the recent advances in ...
Hashimoto F - - 2000
We studied whether gemfibrozil and clofibric acid alter isoprenoid lipid synthesis in rat hepatocytes. After incubation of the cells with the agent for 74 hr, [(14)C]acetate or [(3)H]mevalonate was added, and the cells were further incubated for 4 hr. Gemfibrozil and clofibric acid increased ubiquinone synthesis from [(14)C]acetate and [(3)H]mevalonate. ...
Lagace T A - - 2000
Sterol regulation-defective (SRD) 4 cells expressing a mutant sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP D443N) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing SCAP (CHO-SCAP) and SCAP D443N (CHO-SCAP-D443N) have increased cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis because of constitutive processing of SREBPs. We assessed whether constitutive activation of ...
Lyons J - - 2000
The availability of cysteine is thought to be the rate limiting factor for synthesis of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), based on studies in rodents. GSH status is compromised in various disease states and by certain medications leading to increased morbidity and poor survival. To determine the possible importance of dietary ...
Carballeira N M - - 2000
The dimethylated fatty acid 9,13-dimethyltetradecanoic acid was identified for the first time in nature in the Caribbean sponge Calyx podatypa where it occurs together with the rare 10, 13-dimethyltetradecanoic acid. The characterization of the novel compound was accomplished using GC-MS, pyrrolidide derivatization, and a five-step total synthesis starting with 8-bromooctanoic ...
Capaldi D C - - 2000
A triester method for the synthesis of deoxynucleoside phosphorodithioate dimers is described. The phosphorodithioate linkage is introduced using a new dithiophosphorylating reagent DPSE-SP(S)Cl(2)where DPSE = 2-diphenylmethylsilylethyl. This group is removed quickly using tetra-butylammonium fluoride leading to the quantitative formation of phosphorodithioate diesters uncontaminated with the corresponding phosphorothioates. The utility of ...
Morita Y S - - 2000
African trypanosomes, the cause of sleeping sickness, need massive amounts of myristate to remodel glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors on their surface glycoproteins. However, it has been believed that the parasite is unable to synthesize any fatty acids, and myristate is not abundant in the hosts' bloodstreams. Thus, it has been ...
Bao X - - 2000
The principal supply of carbon precursors for fatty acid synthesis in leaf tissue has been a much debated topic, with some experiments suggesting a direct supply from the C3 products of photosynthetic carbon fixation and colleagues suggesting the utilization of free acetate (for which concentrations in leaves in the range ...
Harada N - - 2000
We have developed an automated synthesis apparatus for L-[3-11C]-labeled aromatic amino acids by improved multi-enzymatic reactions. Use of a specially designed reaction vessel and of CH2Cl2 as a solvent has greatly simplified the overall operation, proving to be suitable for automated synthesis, and also has given better yields and higher ...
Shapiro R - - 2000
Many scientific theories of the origin of life suggest that life began with the spontaneous formation of a replicator (a self-copying organic polymer) within an unorganized chemical mixture, or "soup." A profound difficulty exists, however, with the idea of RNA, or any other replicator, at the start of life. Existing ...
Eastmond P J - - 2000
Measurements of metabolic fluxes in whole embryos and isolated plastids have revealed major changes in the pathways of carbon utilization during cotyledon filling by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos. In the early cotyledon stage (stage A), embryos used sucrose (Suc) predominantly for starch synthesis. Plastids isolated from these embryos ...
Miwa M - - 2000
In a previous study, we have demonstrated that sodium arsenite (arsenite) as chemical stress stimulates heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) induction and arachidonic acid release in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, and that the response of HSP27 induction is coupled with metabolic activity of the arachidonic acid cascade. In the present study, ...
Delle Monache G - - 2000
A convenient synthesis of (S)- and (R)-4-vinyl oxazolidin-2-one 1 and 2 from the same inexpensive starting material, D-isoascorbic acid, is described. The title compounds were obtained in 44% and 38% yield, respectively, by operationally simple steps. This approach is a suitable alternative to the literature methods and enhances the synthetic ...
Jackowski S - - 2000
PtdCho accumulation is a periodic, S phase-specific event that is modulated in part by cell cycle-dependent fluctuations in CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) activity. A supply of fatty acids is essential to generate the diacylglycerol (DG) precursors for phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis but it is not known whether the DG supply is also ...
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