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Gao Chao - - 2011
Chemoenzymatic synthesis of N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid from N-acetyl-d-glucosamine using the spore surface-displayed N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid aldolase at a high concentration (53.9 g liter(-1)) was achieved in this study. Thus, displaying a target enzyme on the surface of spores might be an alternative for integration of biocatalytic conversion into chemical synthesis.
Nimesh Surendra - - 2011
The design and development of nucleic acids based therapeutics for the treatment of diseases arising from genetic abnormalities has made significant progress over the past few years. Advances in synthetic oligonucleotide chemistry resulted in synthesis of nucleic acids that are relatively stable in in vivo environments. However, cellular targeting and ...
Reginato Gianna - - 2011
An efficient synthesis of various protected syn-β-sulfenyl amides is described. These are prepared from the corresponding enantiopure amino allylsilanes which are in turn obtained from naturally occurring amino acids. The key step for introduction of the sulfur substituent is a diastereoselective electrophilic sulfodesilylation which is carried out with phthalimidesulfenyl chloride. ...
Milanese Alberto - - 2011
6[3-(1-Adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-naphthoic acid (Adapalene®), a synthetic aromatic retinoid specific for RARβ and RARγ receptors, has been prepared utilizing a Pd/C-mediated Suzuki coupling between 6-bromo-2-naphthoic acid and 4-methoxyphenyl boronic acid, followed by introduction of an adamantyl group in the position 3 of the formed 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-naphthoic acid. The interaction of 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-naphthoic acid/ethyl ester ...
Gouault Nicolas - - 2011
The enantiospecific syntheses of pyridinones from amino acids via a gold-catalyzed strategy are reported. Excellent stereocontrol was observed during the cyclization. This approach provides a straightforward tool for further synthetic applications toward piperidines.
Erives Albert - - 2011
All living organisms encode the 20 natural amino acid units of polypeptides using a universal scheme of triplet nucleotide "codons". Disparate features of this codon scheme are potentially informative of early molecular evolution: (i) the absence of any codons for D-amino acids; (ii) the odd combination of alternate codon patterns ...
Iwayama Yuki - - 2011
The glycan moiety of ganglioside HPG-7, isolated from the sea cucumber (Holothuria pervicax), was synthesized for the first time. The characteristic substructure, a trisialic acid sequence embedded in the glycan, was deliberately constructed by utilizing suitably differentiated sialyl units for various synthetic purposes. Finally, a pentasaccharide was successfully delivered as ...
Zhou Xiao-Long - - 2011
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are remarkable enzymes that are in charge of the accurate recognition and ligation of amino acids and tRNA molecules. The greatest difficulty in accurate aminoacylation appears to be in discriminating between highly similar amino acids. To reduce mischarging of tRNAs by non-cognate amino acids, aaRSs have evolved ...
Kosaki Yusuke - - 2011
An aldol reaction followed by elimination of the derived mesylate was used to construct the side chain that was designed to afford the cyclohexene ring of coronafacic acid via intramolecular alkylation. Elimination of the mesylate proceeded with TBAF. The alkylation was achieved with t-BuOK in THF, and then hydrolysis afforded ...
Czifrák Katalin - - 2011
O-Peracetylated or -perbenzoylated C-(1-bromo-1-deoxy-d-glycopyranosyl)formamides of d-gluco, d-galacto, and d-arabino configuration were reacted with Ag(I)-salts or HgO in nitrile solvents to give N-acyl-1-cyano-d-glycopyranosylamines with an axial C-N bond at the anomeric centre. In the presence of HgBr(2), Hg(CN)(2), or InCl(3) the anomer of the above glycosylamine with an equatorial C-N bond ...
Lin Daizong - - 2011
A new β-amino acrylic acid Ni(II) complex has been developed and used for the synthesis of α-alkyl-β-amino acids via alkylation with alkyl halides under operationally convenient conditions. The pivotal α-alkylated intermediate can be converted into the corresponding α-alkyl-β-amino acids via two steps with a wide range of substituents.
Hogendorf Wouter F J - - 2011
This communication describes the first automated solid phase synthesis of teichoic acids (TAs) and the preparation by this method of a number of well-defined TA structures, which were probed for their antigenicity. An opsonophagocytic killing assay revealed a clear TA-length-activity relationship and indicated a promising candidate for future vaccine development.
Xiang Zheng Z The Jack H. Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2011
Fluorescent unnatural amino acids (UAAs), when genetically incorporated into proteins, can provide unique advantages for imaging biological processes in vivo. Synthesis of optically pure L-enantiomer of fluorescent UAAs is crucial for their effective application in live cells. An efficient six-step synthesis of L-3-(6-acetylnaphthalen-2-ylamino)-2-aminopropanoic acid (L-Anap), a genetically encodable and polarity-sensitive ...
Jafari E - - 2011
Quinazolinones are interesting molecules with a wide range of biological activities. We prepared a number of quinazolinone derivatives by the condensation of 5-bromo- or 5-nitro-substituted anthranilic acids with chloro-acyl chlorides. Anthranilic acid derivatives were treated with either 3-chloro-propionyl chloride or 4-chloro-butyryl chloride to yield the corresponding N-acyl-anthranilic acids. The resultants ...
Baboota Sanjula - - 2011
Betamethasone dipropionate (BD) has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity. The aim of the current work was to test the hypothesis that the addition of corticosteroid such as BD and a keratolytic agent such as salicylic acid in nanocarrier based microemulsions formulation would result in enhancement and sustaining of corticosteroid delivery ...
Nuñez-Villanueva Diego - - 2011
To explore further the chemistry of amino acid-derived β-lactams, their conversion to α,α-heterocyclic quaternary amino acid derivatives is investigated. The latter derivatives, containing 2-oxoazepane as the α,α-substituent, are synthesized by a simple Pd-C catalyzed hydrogenolysis of Orn(Z)-derived 2-azetidinones. The rearrangement from 4- to 7-membered lactam ring is driven by the ...
Morimoto Jumpei - - 2011
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an essential component of the cell's translation apparatus. These RNA strands contain the anticodon for a given amino acid, and when "charged" with that amino acid are termed aminoacyl-tRNA. Aminoacylation, which occurs exclusively at one of the 3'-terminal hydroxyl groups of tRNA, is catalyzed by a ...
Fante Cristina - - 2011
Dopamine has previously been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, but its clinical applications in this context are severely limited by its short half-life. Here we report the synthesis of a polyglutamic acid-dopamine conjugate and show that conjugation significantly extends (from 1 to 24 h) dopamine's antiangiogenic ...
Song Xiao-Ping - - 2011
Previous studies have demonstrated that some selected amino monoacids and amino diacids can function as leaving groups in the polymerase-catalyzed incorporation of deoxynucleotides into DNA. Among these, the iminodiacetic acid phosphoramidate of deoxyadenosine monophosphate (IDA-dAMP) represents an interesting example, as it could overcome some of the problems observed when using ...
Ellamar Joel B - - 2011
Furan fatty acids (F-acids) gain special attentions since they are known to play important roles in biological systems including human. Specifically F-acids are known to have strong antioxidant activity like radical scavenging activity. Although widely distributed in most biological systems, F-acids are trace components and their biosynthesis are complicated and ...
Grim Joseph C - - 2011
A divergent synthesis of (-)-4-epi-shikimic acid was developed. This route features a one-pot zinc-mediated reductive ring opening of an arabinofuranose followed by a Barbier reaction and culminates in a ring-closing metathesis. Functionalization of (-)-4-epi-shikimic acid via conjugate addition of a thiol occurs in high diastereoselectivity to afford a product with ...
Zhang Yingjie - - 2011
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a promising target for treating cancer and some other disorders. Herein, based on the structure of our previously reported tetrahydroisoquinoline-based hydroxamic acids, a novel series of tyrosine-based hydroxamic acid derivatives was designed and synthesized as HDACs inhibitors. Compared with tetrahydroisoquinoline-based hydroxamic acids, tyrosine-based hydroxamic acid derivatives ...
Jiang Jian-Ming - - 2011
PBDTBO, a conjugated polymer comprising benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazole (BO) units, exhibits a deep HOMO energy level of -5.27 eV and excellent solubility. A device incorporating PBDTBO and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (1 : 1, w/w) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 5.7%.
Vasantha B - - 2011
Synthesis of N(α)-protected amino acyl azides starting from corresponding acids via the carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activation is described. The protocol is extended for a one-pot preparation of ureido peptides that circumvents the isolation of acyl azide and isocyanate intermediates. The reaction was accomplished without using any additives and base. The protocol ...
Roviello Giovanni N - - 2011
In this work, we report a technological approach to a novel Fmoc-protected nucleoamino acid, based on l-tyrosine, carrying the DNA nucleobase on the hydroxyl group by means of an ester bond, suitable for the solid-phase synthesis of novel aromatic nucleopeptides of potential interest in biomedicine. After ESI-MS and NMR characterization ...
Zhou Dan - - 2011
Amino acid response (AAR) pathway is activated when cells are deprived of amino acids. In the present study, using the human colon cancer cell line SW480, we observed that DKK1, an antagonist of the Wnt pathway, was significantly induced at the mRNA level after the removal of amino acids from ...
Chuang Hui-Yen - - 2011
We established a HT-29/tk-luc human colorectal carcinoma-bearing animal model for the study of the inhibition effect and mechanism of orlistat, a fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor. The results showed that orlistat caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and triggered apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. The tumor inhibition effect of orlistat ...
Jakubowski Hieronim - - 2011
All living organisms conduct protein synthesis with a high degree of accuracy maintained in the transmission and flow of information from a gene to protein product. One crucial "quality control" point in maintaining a high level of accuracy is the selectivity by which aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases furnish correctly activated amino acids, ...
Barrett Lee - - 2011
Metallic nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides are used for a number of nucleic acid detection strategies. However, oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates suffer from a lack of stability when exposed to certain conditions associated with DNA detection assays. In this study, we report the synthesis of thiol and thioctic acid-modified oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle (OGNs) ...
Robertson Daniel Stewart - - 2011
Abstract Biochemical reactions in cells which involve oxalic acid are described. It is shown that this compound is required for the formation of uracil and orotic acid. The former is a component of RNA which is common to all cells in the human metabolism. On the basis of the biochemical ...
Fowler Lindsay S - - 2011
The first stereoselective synthesis of 2,6-trans-6-substituted-4-oxo-l-pipecolic acids using a tandem reductive amination/6-endo-trig cyclisation process is described. The sequential reduction and cyclisation mediated by sodium cyanoborohydride allowed the preparation of a series of highly functionalised 6-alkyl and 6-aryl analogues.
Ogris Manfred - - 2011
Nucleic acids offer the possibility of tailor made, individualized treatments for genetic disorders, infectious diseases and cancer. As an alternative to viral vectors, synthetic delivery systems have a potentially improved safety profile, but often lack sufficient efficiency especially when applied in vivo. Receptor targeting of synthetic vectors can improve the ...
Sie Karen K Y - - 2011
Background Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring was investigated. Methods Female rats were ...
Yao Kun - - 2011
The in vivo anti-thrombotic activities of amino acid modified tetrahydro-β-carbolines depended upon the proximity of the side chain of the amino acid residue to the carboline-cycle. Based on this proximity the computerized screening of various tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives was performed and N-[(1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carbonyl]-N'-(amino-acid-acyl)hydrazines were explored having large proximity. The in vivo anti-thrombotic assays explored ...
Herath Kithsiri - - 2011
Protein synthesis can be estimated by measuring the incorporation of a labeled amino acid into a proteolytic peptide. Although prelabeled amino acids are typically administered, recent studies have tested (2)H(2)O; the assumption is that there is rapid equilibration of (2)H (in body water) with the carbon-bound hydrogens of amino acids ...
Johnsson Richard - - 2011
We report on the synthesis and properties of oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-(levulinic acid) and 2'-O-(amino acid) acetalesters. Given that esters serve as promoieties in several therapeutic prodrugs, we believe that these derivatives will have potential use as nucleic acid prodrugs. In addition, we report on the synthesis of a novel solid ...
Fujihara Tsutomu - - 2011
Characteristically the metabolism of microbial nitrogen (N) compounds in ruminants involves the degradation of dietary N and synthesis of microbial protein (MP), compounds including a small amount of peptides and free amino acids, which may account for 75-85% of total N and the remainder are nucleic acids (NA: DNA and ...
Cosman Felicia - - 2011
Clinical data suggest concomitant therapy with bisphosphonates and parathyroid hormone (PTH) may blunt the anabolic effect of PTH; rodent models suggest that infrequently administered bisphosphonates may interact differently. To evaluate the effects of combination therapy with an intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg and daily subcutaneous recombinant human (rh)PTH(1-34) ...
Koster Andreas - - 2011
Hemorrhage, transfusions and the need for re-exploration can have a detrimental effect on patient outcome in cardiac surgery. With the suspension of aprotinin from the market, only the antifibrinolytics tranexamic acid and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) are left as pharmacological options to reduce hemostatic activation and associated bleeding complications. In light ...
Ramapanicker Ramesh - - 2011
Propargyl esters are employed as effective protecting groups for the carboxyl group during solution-phase peptide synthesis. The propargyl ester groups can be introduced onto free amino acids by treating them with propargyl alcohol saturated with HCl. The reaction between propargyl groups and tetrathiomolybdate is exploited to deblock the propargyl esters. ...
Nakano Shu-Ichi - - 2011
Unnatural nucleosides have been explored to expand the properties and the applications of oligonucleotides. This paper briefly summarizes nucleic acid analogs in which the base is modified or replaced by an unnatural stacking group for the study of nucleic acid interactions. We also describe the nucleoside analogs of a base ...
Doessing Holger - - 2011
Nucleic acids are able to adopt a plethora of structures, many of which are of interest in therapeutics, bio- or nanotechnology. However, structural and biochemical stability is a major concern which has been addressed by incorporating a range of modifications and nucleoside derivatives. This review summarizes the use of locked ...
Corpeleijn W E - - 2011
Amino acids and proteins play a pivotal role during growth and development. Besides acting as building blocks during tissue synthesis, amino acids or proteins act specifically by upregulating defense systems or by stimulating key sites in metabolic pathways. Following premature birth, the neonatologist is responsible for delivering the right amount ...
Heidel Jeremy D - - 2011
Numerous nonviral systems have been developed for the delivery of nucleic acids to cultured cells and to particular cell types in vivo. These systems vary with regard to their toxicity, immunogenicity, and ability to target particular cell surface receptors and/or cell types. A class of linear cationic polymers containing the ...
Chaturvedula Venkata Sai Prakash - - 2011
Synthesis of two ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, steviol 19-O-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (steviol glucuronide, 5), and 13-hydroxy ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (7) has been achieved from a common starting material, steviol, using phase transfer catalyst. Also, synthesis of an additional 17-nor-ent-kaurane glycoside, namely 13-methyl-16-oxo-17-nor-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (10) was performed using the starting material isosteviol ...
Hollenstein Marcel - - 2011
Modified nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are a versatile platform for the generation of high-density functionalized nucleic acids. The enzymatic polymerization of dNTPs allows the introduction of sensible functionalities that might not be compatible with the standard automated synthesis of oligonucleotides. Their application to in vitro selections, an elegant chemical approach to ...
Zhu Jieping - - 2011
A conceptually novel macrolactonization technology is described. A strategically positioned 5-aminooxazole served as an internal traceless activator of the neighboring C-terminal carboxylic acid allowing the occurrence of macrolactonization under mild acidic conditions. It is a domino process involving a sequence of: a) protonation of 5-aminooxazole leading to an electrophilic iminium ...
Nakatsuka Matthew A - - 2011
This paper reports the one-pot synthesis of perfluorocarbon microbubbles with crosslinked shells of poly(acrylic acid) and phospholipid that boast excellent ultrasound contrast enhancement, enhanced loading capacity, and the ability to retain or release their contents through variation in the level of ultrasound exposure.
Tamura Koji - - 2011
The chiral-selective aminoacylation of an RNA minihelix is a potential progenitor to modern tRNA-based protein synthesis using l-amino acids. This article describes the molecular basis for this chiral selection. The extended double helical form of an RNA minihelix with a CCA triplet (acceptor of an amino acid), an aminoacyl phosphate ...
Uluisik Irem - - 2011
Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. ...
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