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Mallet Louise - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of oral valproic acid-induced hyperammonemia and thrombocytopenia in an elderly patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 76-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with generalized weakness, confusion, nausea, and vomiting. She was taking sodium divalproex 750 mg 3 times daily, with valproic acid concentration 144 mg/L. ...
Walmod Peter S - - 2004
Screening for potential teratogenicity of 20 test compounds was performed using a computerised microscope workstation for determination of cytotoxicity, proliferation and morphology of fibroblastoid murine L929-cells. The test compounds, which were divided into four classes according to teratogenicity were: 5-bromo-2(')-deoxyuridine, 6-aminonicotinamide, acrylamide, boric acid, D-(+)-camphor, dimethadione, dimethyl phthalate, diphenhydramine, hydroxyurea, ...
Eyal Sara - - 2004
Valproic acid (VPA), one of the widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), was recently found to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDAC inhibitors of a wide range of structures, such as hydroxamic acids, carboxylic acids, and cyclic tetrapeptides, have various effects on transformed and nontransformed cells, including neuromodulation and neuroprotection. The aim ...
Zgouras Dimitrios - - 2004
Recent studies have attested to the antiangiogenic effects of HDAC inhibitors on solid human tumors. The HDAC inhibitor butyrate has been reported to impair tumor-cell-induced angiogenesis. However, due to its poor bioavailability in vivo, the therapeutic use of butyrate is limited. On the other hand, valproic acid has inhibitory effects ...
Antoniou Tony - - 2004
A 42-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a history of complex partial seizures developed severe anemia after the addition of valproic acid to his stable antiretroviral regimen of zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir. The inhibition of zidovudine glucuronidation by valproic acid and the resultant zidovudine hematologic toxicity is ...
zur Nieden N I - - 2004
The embryonic stem cell test (EST) examines the cytotoxicity of chemical compounds on embryonic stem (ES) cells and 3T3.A31 fibroblasts. Additionally, the EST measures the ability of ES cells to differentiate into contracting cardiomyocytes following drug exposure. In this study, we introduce new endpoints to obtain a molecular multiple endpoint ...
Otto Marit - - 2004
The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study was to test whether valproic acid relieves painful polyneuropathy. Thirty-one patients completed two treatment phases of 4 weeks' duration with valproic acid (1,500 mg daily) and placebo. There was no significant difference between valproic acid and placebo in the rating of ...
Kanai H - - 2004
Valproic acid (VPA), used to treat bipolar mood disorder and seizures, also inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC). Here, we found that VPA and other HDAC inhibitors, butyrate and trichostatin A, robustly protected mature cerebellar granule cell cultures from excitotoxicity induced by SYM 2081 ((2S, 4R)-4-methylglutamate), an inhibitor of excitatory amino-acid transporters ...
Perry Caroline M - - 2004
Zoledronic acid (Zometa), a parenteral bisphosphonate, is an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and is used in the management of patients with cancer. Zoledronic acid 4 mg is administered as an intravenous infusion over 15 minutes. In the treatment of bone metastases, zoledronic acid is the first and only bisphosphonate ...
Källén Bengt - - 2004
The use of valproic acid during human pregnancy increases the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Rats exposed in utero to valproic acid did not develop hypospadias and even had a slightly increased anogenital distance in males 3-4 days after birth. A classical antiandrogenic drug, flutamide, caused hypospadias as well ...
Wu Shufang - - 2004
Valproic acid is widely used in the treatment of children with epilepsy. Evidence indicates that valproic acid has teratogenic effects on the skeletal system. In addition, the use of valproic acid in children has been associated with short stature. Thus, we hypothesized that valproic acid could also affect bone growth ...
Karabiber Hamza - - 2004
In experimental epilepsy studies, nitric oxide was found to act as both proconvulsant and anticonvulsant. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of valproic acid and carbamazepine on serum levels of nitrite and nitrate, which are the metabolites of nitric oxide. To achieve this goal, serum nitrite ...
Trapani G - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of two novel solid formulations of valproic acid (VPA) prepared by complexation with hydrophilic cyclodextrins (CDs) as hydroxypropyl-beta- and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin and by solid dispersion (SD) in hydrophilic carriers as polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30). ...
Kravchenko I A - - 2003
We studied the effect of lauric acid on transdermal penetration of phenazepam in vivo. It was found that treatment with lauric acid 3-fold increased the maximum anticonvulsive effect of phenazepam applied in a transdermal therapeutic system in comparison with the control. Study of the pharmacokinetics of phenazepam transdermal therapeutic system ...
Ulander Johan - - 2003
Valproic acid is a short branched fatty acid used as an anticonvulsant drug whose therapeutic action has been proposed to arise from membrane-disordering properties. Static and kinetic properties of valproic acid interacting with fully hydrated dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers are studied using molecular-dynamics simulations. We calculate spatially resolved free energy ...
Ritchie Bruce C - - 2003
Deficiency of C1 Inhibitor leads to unopposed activation of complement, with localized, unpredictable, and sometimes life-threatening attacks of angioedema. Treatment with plasma-derived C1 Inhibitor rapidly aborts attacks, and may be lifesaving, but is expensive, requires use of a pooled blood product, may need to be repeated and may not be ...
Sumner Charlotte J - - 2003
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease caused by mutation of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). Although a centromeric copy of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN2) is retained in all patients with SMA, it differs from SMN1 at a critical nucleotide ...
Greilich Philip E - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Aprotinin is a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor that has been shown to attenuate the systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Although epsilon-aminocaproic acid is similar to aprotinin in its ability to inhibit excessive fibrinolysis (ie, plasmin activity and D-dimer formation), its ability to influence ...
Yamasaki Satoshi - - 2004
We investigated the effects of tranexamic acid in 40 patients who had received cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a prospective, randomized study. In 20 patients, 1000 mg of whole-body tranexamic acid was administered intravenously 5 min before the operation started. The other 20 patients served as a control group ...
Sattar S Pirzada - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of somnambulism due to a probable interaction between valproic acid and zolpidem in a patient with no prior personal or family history of somnambulism. CASE SUMMARY: A 47-year-old white man with a history of bipolar disorder was being maintained on citalopram 40 mg once daily ...
Ferzli George T - - 2003
Morphea, a specific type of cutaneous sclerosis, is known in the pediatric age group, but not as an adverse effect to the antiepileptic valproic acid. We report a 14-year-old male patient with absence seizures who, after treatment with valproic acid, developed skin tightness on the fingers. A biopsy specimen revealed ...
Neville-Webbe H l - - 2003
Zoledronic acid is a potent, third generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, licensed for the management of skeletal metastases and hypercalcaemia of malignancy, both of which cause considerable morbidity. In the preclinical setting, zoledronic acid has demonstrated superior potency regarding inhibition of osteolysis and reduction of hypercalcaemia as compared with other bisphosphonates. Clinical ...
Kravetz Jeffrey D - - 2003
Valproic acid is a carboxylic acid used for the treatment of both seizure and mood disorders. Its association with pleural fluid eosinophilia has been reported once in the English language literature. We present another case of valproic acid-induced pleural fluid eosinophilia associated with fever and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Extensive evaluation ...
Prasad Avinash - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In the face of availability of newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as lamotrigine and topiramate, there is need to reassess the role of older AEDs in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). OBJECTIVES: To explore whether lamotrigine and topiramate monotherapy or polytherapy can be effective options in the ...
Jabbur Nada S - - 2003
A 78-year-old woman developed a severe fibrinous anterior chamber reaction 1 day after uneventful clear corneal incision cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. There was no history of uveitis or diabetes, and the fibrin responded immediately to topical steroids. The patient was followed closely to rule out endophthalmitis. The only ...
Wahlberg Jessica - - 2003
The copolymerization of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and d,l-lactide catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B was studied. Copolymerizations with different epsilon-CL-to-lactide ratios were carried out, and the product was monitored and characterized by MALDI-TOF MS, GPC, and (1)H NMR. The polymerization of epsilon-CL, which is normally promoted by C. antarctica lipase B, ...
Burneo J G - - 2003
Reversible neurotoxic symptoms were observed in three adult patients with absence status epilepticus on lamotrigine (LTG) therapy after administration of an IV bolus followed by oral valproic acid (VPA). Neurotoxicity was likely related to elevated serum LTG levels, as improvement correlated with discontinuing or reducing LTG dosage.
Ethell Brian T - - 2003
Valproic acid glucuronidation kinetics were carried our with three human UGT isoforms: UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 as well as human liver and kidney microsomes. The glucuronidation of valproic acid was typified by high K(m) values with microsomes and expressed UGTs (2.3-5.2mM). The ability of valproic acid to interact with the ...
Yoshida T - - 2003
epsilon-Poly-L-lysine (epsilon-PL) is a homo-poly-amino acid characterized by the peptide bond between the carboxyl and epsilon-amino groups of L-lysine. epsilon-PL shows a wide range of antimicrobial activity and is stable at high temperatures and under both acidic and alkaline conditions. The mechanism of the inhibitory effect of epsilon-PL on microbial ...
Yamanouchi Hideo - - 2003
A 5-year-old female developed alteration of consciousness during 3 days of long-term treatment with valproic acid for localization-related epilepsy. Computed tomography revealed cerebral atrophy, and electroencephalography presented slow background activity. Consciousness cleared only 12 hours after valproic acid was discontinued, and normal electroencephalography results were evident 1 week later. Cerebral ...
Muraoka Sanae - - 2003
Creatine kinase (CK) was used as a marker molecule to examine the side effects of damage to tissues by mefenamic acid, an effective drug to treat rheumatic and arthritic diseases, with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H(2)O(2)). Mefenamic acid inactivated CK during its interaction with HRP-H(2)O(2). Also, diphenylamine and flufenamic ...
Jörg Leis Hans - - 2003
A specific method for the quantitative determination of valproic acid in human plasma is presented. Valproate was extracted from acidified plasma by hexane extraction and converted to its trimethylsilyl derivative without sample concentration. The derivatives were analyzed without any further purification. Using gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry, diagnostic useful fragment ...
Krishnan Lissy K - - 2003
Experiments have been carried out to determine if aprotinin and epsilon -amino caproic acid increases the quality of Fibrin glue. A rat model was used for tissues such as liver and skin while rabbits were used for application of glue in dura mater. Apposition of all the tissues, glued with ...
Wellington Keri - - 2003
Tranexamic acid (Transamin), Cyklokapron, Exacyl, Cyklo-f) is a synthetic lysine derivative that exerts its antifibrinolytic effect by reversibly blocking lysine binding sites on plasminogen and thus preventing fibrin degradation. In a number of small clinical studies in women with idiopathic menorrhagia, tranexamic acid 2-4.5 g/day for 4-7 days reduced menstrual ...
Smith Michael C - - 2003
Valproic acid has clear efficacy in the treatment of partial epilepsies. Its multiple mechanisms predicted its broad spectrum of efficacy and preclinical experimental data prompted its clinical use. Valproic acid's efficacy has been repeatedly demonstrated in clinical trials over the past 25 years. Its efficacy in the treatment of partial ...
Gopaul V S - - 2003
In this study, spectroscopic and chromatographic evidence is presented for the identification and characterization of the metabolites, valproyl glutamate (2-propylpentanoyl glutamate, VPA-GLU) and valproyl glutamine (2-propylpentanoyl glutamine, VPA-GLN) in the urine, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients on valproic acid (VPA) therapy. Moreover, the identification of valproyl glycine (2-propylpentanoyl ...
Stoll C - - 2003
Fetal valproate syndrome results from in utero exposure to valproic acid. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearence, a cluster of minor and major anomalies, and central nervous system dysfunction. We report on a child exposed prenatally to valproic acid with unusual anomalies. This patient was the first child ...
Freitag Frederick G - - 2003
Valproic acid has been used in the treatment of migraine headache for nearly 20 years. During this period of use several additional delivery modes have been developed to either improve tolerability or patient compliance with the divalproex sodium formulation and the extended-release formulation of divalproex sodium. Additionally, an intravenous formulation ...
Elgudin Larissa - - 2003
Valproic acid is widely used as a mood stabilizer. We report a case of an adult with bipolar disorder taking therapeutic doses of valproic acid, who presented to the emergency department with coma related to hyperammonemia as a complication of valproic acid treatment. Valproic acid was discontinued which resulted in ...
Wellington Keri - - 2003
Zoledronic acid (Zometa) is an effective inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Zoledronic acid demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of skeletalrelated events (SREs) in patients with multiple myeloma or bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, prostate cancer or other solid tumours, or hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Zoledronic acid was effective in patients ...
Green Jonathan R - - 2002
The evolution of bisphosphonates over the past 30 years has led to the development of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates with ever-increasing potency. Recent studies have begun to shed light on the unique mechanism of action and pharmacologic properties of these compounds. On the basis of in vitro studies and animal models of ...
Park H-M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine population-based pharmacokinetic parameters for intravenous valproic acid, and the factors influencing these parameters, in Korean adults. METHODS: Valproic acid concentrations were obtained using a peak and trough sampling scheme for 102 Korean epileptic patients who were not taking concurrent antiepileptic medication. Three hundred and fifty-four serum concentrations ...
Narita Naoko - - 2002
Autism is defined as a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder in which serotonergic dysfunction may be involved in its pathogenesis. One of the characteristic laboratory findings in autistic patients is hyperserotonemia, although its mechanism has not been elucidated to date because of difficulties in studying human patients. Recent reports have demonstrated that ...
Shaked Gideon M - - 2002
PrP(Sc), the only identified component of the prion, is an aberrant isoform of PrP(C), a glycoprotein of unknown function. In this study, it was shown that valproic acid, a widely used antiepileptic drug, can cause an increase of several orders of magnitude in the accumulation of PrP(C) in normal neuroblastoma ...
- - 2002
Pamidronic acid is the standard diphosphonate for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy. Zoledronic acid, a more recent drug, was compared with pamidronic acid in two clinical trials, but the results are unconvincing because of the unusually poor performance of pamidronic acid. Safety of zoledronic acid is uncertain, owing to ...
Furrer Gerhard - - 2002
About 240,000 square kilometers of Earth's surface is disrupted by mining, which creates watersheds that are polluted by acidity, aluminum, and heavy metals. Mixing of acidic effluent from old mines and acidic soils into waters with a higher pH causes precipitation of amorphous aluminum oxyhydroxide flocs that move in streams ...
Wood Jeanette - - 2002
Bisphosphonate drugs inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption and are widely used to treat skeletal complications in patients with tumor-induced osteolysis. We now show that zoledronic acid, a new generation bisphosphonate with a heterocyclic imidazole substituent, is also a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. In vitro, zoledronic acid inhibits proliferation of human endothelial ...
Blaheta Roman A - - 2002
The branched-chain fatty acid valproic acid (VPA) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug for treating generalized epilepsy. Although originally considered to be of low toxicity, VPA has proved to possess considerable teratogenic potential when applied to the pregnant epileptic women. During the last few years, it has become evident ...
Manjunath G - - 2002
Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a potent anti-fibrinolytic agent that is used in the treatment of excessive bleeding resulting from a systemic fibrinolytic state. It can also be used to treat hematuria through its action on decreasing urinary fibrinolysis. A broad range of renal complications has been ascribed to EACA. Although ...
MacLean Joanna E - - 2002
Lymphangiectasia is a congenital or acquired disorder characterized by abnormal, dilated lymphatics with a variable age of presentation. We describe a case of lymphangiectasia with intestinal and pulmonary involvement in an adolescent female, who presented with many of the classic features including chylous pleural effusions, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobinemia, and a protein-losing ...
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