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Dempsey Daniel R DR Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, - - 2014
Glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT) is a phase II metabolic detoxification enzyme for exogenous (xenobiotic) and endogenous carboxylic acids; consisting of fatty acids, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid. GLYAT catalyzes the formation of hippurate (N-benzoylglycine) from the corresponding glycine and benzoyl-CoA. Herein, we report the successful expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant ...
Ishida Shin-Ichiro SI Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 - - 2014
Protonation of meso-aryl [28]hexaphyrins(1.1.1.1.1.1) triggered conformational changes. Whereas protonation with trifluoroacetic acid led to the formation of monoprotonated Möbius aromatic species, protonation with methanesulfonic acid led to the formation of diprotonated triangular antiaromatic species. A peripherally hexaphenylated [28]hexaphyrin was rationally designed and prepared to undergo diprotonation to favorably afford a ...
Taha Ameer Y AY Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and ...
Romão B B BB School of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Uberlandia, Avenida João Naves de Ávila 2121, 38408-144, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil, - - 2014
Nowadays, hydrogen produced globally has been synthesized from fossil fuel with limited source. Therefore, research has been developed in order to explore biological H2 production by dark fermentation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of initial pH and ferrous sulfate and ammonium sulfate concentrations on the ...
Kondaveeti Stalin S Marine Biotechnology and Ecology Discipline, CSIR-Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat, - - 2014
A facile 6-aminoagarose (AA) mediated synthesis of new fluorogenic amides of agarose with nicotinic (AA-NA) and picolinic acids (AA-PA) employing carbodiimide chemistry have been described. 6-Amino agarose (AA) was synthesized in a facile Mitsunobu-inspired microwave mediated method involving the reaction of agarose with phthalimide in presence of diisopropyl azodicarboxylate and ...
Bonde Johan J Centre for Applied Life Sciences, Pure & Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00, Lund, Sweden, - - 2014
Amelogenin, a matrix protein involved in biomineralization of enamel, can self-assemble to form nanospheres in a pH-dependent manner. Nucleic acids (single-stranded, double-stranded, and plasmid DNA, as well as RNA) could be co-precipitated with amelogenin, demonstrating a strong binding of nucleic acids to amelogenin. The amounts of co-precipitated nucleic acids were ...
Wang Bing B Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, PR - - 2014
Cationic lipids have become an efficient type of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. In this Letter, four cationic lipids containing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) headgroup, glutamic/aspartic acid backbone and dioleyl tails were designed and synthesized. The TACN headgroup gives these lipids excellent pH buffering capacities, which were higher than branched 25kDa PEI. ...
Choi Kwon-Young KY Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 7523 Boelter Hall, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2014
The non-recyclable use of nitrogen fertilizers in microbial production of fuels and chemicals remains environmentally detrimental. Conversion of protein wastes into biofuels and ammonia by engineering nitrogen flux in Escherichia coli has been demonstrated as a method to reclaim reduced-nitrogen and curb its environmental deposition. However, protein biomass requires a ...
Zhao Hongyan - - 2014
To evaluate the potential utility of pretreatment of raw biomass with a complex microbial system, we investigated the degradation of rice straw by BMC-9, a lignocellulose decomposition strain obtained from a biogas slurry compost environment. The degradation characteristics and corresponding changes in the bacterial community were assessed. The results showed ...
Nagel Andreas A Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chair of Plant Foodstuff Technology, Hohenheim University , Garbenstrasse 25, 70599 Stuttgart, - - 2014
An HPAEC-PAD method was developed and validated to quantitate seven neutral sugars and two uronic acids of hydrolyzed pectic polysaccharides without postcolumn pH adjustment. Due to a short gradient phase minimizing the ion concentrations after equilibrating the CarboPac PA20 column with sodium acetate and hydroxide, subsequent isocratic separation of the ...
Chen Changlei C Key Lab of Applied Chemistry of Zhejiang Province, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310027, China. jfan@zju.edu.cn - - 2014
A thermal and hydrothermal stable mesoporous ceramic acid (mCA) was synthesized by uniform coating of a WZrOx layer onto the internal surface of extra-large mesoporous silica (EP-FDU-12). Its ordered mesoporous structure and strong Brönsted acid sites display excellent thermal (1000 °C, air, 5 h) and hydrothermal (water steam, 300 °C, ...
Pal Chowdhury Piyali P Department of Microbiology, Bose Institute, - - 2014
Burkholderia sp. strain BC1, a soil bacterium, isolated from naphthalene balls manufacturing waste disposal site, is capable of utilizing 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid and naphthalene individually as sole source of carbon and energy. To deduce the pathway for degradation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid, metabolites isolated from resting cell incubation were identified by a ...
Zhou Gang G Department of Chemical Research, Merck Research Laboratories, 126 E. Lincoln Ave., Rahway, NJ 07065, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Herein we report the design and synthesis of a series of novel bicyclic DGAT1 inhibitors with a carboxylic acid moiety. The optimization of the initial lead compound 7 based on in vitro and in vivo activity led to the discovery of potent indoline and quinoline classes of DGAT1 inhibitors. The ...
Ji Bo B University of - - 2014
Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate fat and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive model for studies of human obesity. We previously demonstrated that short term (five hour) fasting rapidly upregulated pathways of fatty acid oxidation in broiler chickens and proposed that activation of these pathways may ...
Torrinha A A REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, - - 2014
The most consumed squid species worldwide were characterized regarding their concentrations of minerals, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamin E. Interspecific comparisons were assessed among species and geographical origin. The health benefits derived from squid consumption were assessed based on daily minerals intake and on nutritional lipid quality indexes. Squids contribute ...
Kamzolova Svetlana V SV G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Nauki 5, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia, 142290, - - 2014
The process of succinic acid (SA) production represents the combination of microbial synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid from rapeseed oil by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2412 and subsequent decarboxylation of α-ketoglutaric acid by hydrogen peroxide to SA that leads to the production of 69.0 g l(-1) of SA and 1.36 g l(-1) of acetic acid. ...
Melek F R FR Chemistry of Natural Compound Department, National Research Center, Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
Seven bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named caspicaosides E-K, were isolated from the methanolic fruit extract of Gleditsia caspica Desf. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised echinocystic acid or oleanolic acid as the aglycone and ...
He Zhi-Tao ZT Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry of Natural Substances, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032, - - 2014
The Cu-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate hydroboration reaction of β-substituted α-dehydroamino acid derivatives has been established, affording enantioenriched syn- and anti-β-boronate-α-amino acid derivatives with excellent combined yields (83-99%, dr ≈ 1:1) and excellent enantioselectivities (92-98% ee). The hydroboration products were expediently converted into valuable β-hydroxy-α-amino acid derivatives, which were widely used in ...
Radovanovic Natasa N Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2M9, - - 2014
With 45 % or more oil content that contains more than 55 % alpha linolenic (LIN) acid, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of this essential fatty acid. Fatty acid desaturases 2 (FAD2) and 3 (FAD3) are the main enzymes responsible for the Δ12 and Δ15 desaturation ...
Grausem B B IBMP-ULP-CNRS UPR 2357 Département Réponse Métabolique à l'Environnement Biotique, 28 Rue Goethe, F-67083 Strasbourg Cedex, - - 2014
Cutin and suberin represent lipophilic polymers forming plant/environment interfaces in leaves and roots. Despite recent progress in Arabidopsis, there is still a lack on information concerning cutin and suberin synthesis, especially in crops. Based on sequence homology we isolated two cDNA clones of new cytochrome P450s, CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 from ...
An Chun-Ai CA School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, 130022, People's Republic of - - 2014
Three ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids of 3,3'-(4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-1), 4,4',4″-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4,5-triyl)tribenzoic acid (Tz-2), and 4,4'-(4-(4'-carboxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-3) were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by the (1)H NMR, the IR absorption spectra, and the X-ray single crystal diffraction. It was found that Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3 could give out the ultraviolet photoluminescent ...
Su Mong Huai MH Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to examine the fatty acid (FA) composition and levels in seeds of twelve native Camellia species collected in different populations of major producing regions in Taiwan. The constituents of FAs varied within and among populations. Oleic acid (OA) was found to be the predominant ...
Woldegiorgis Ashagrie Z AZ Center for Food Science and Nutrition, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Two cultivated (P. ostreatus and L. edodes) and five wild (L. sulphureus, A. campestris, T. clypeatus, T. microcarpus and T. letestui) edible mushrooms were analyzed for their antioxidant activities, total phenolics, total flavonoids, phenolic profile and ergothioneine content. Results showed that A. campestris had the greatest antioxidant activity in all ...
Paudel Liladhar L School of Chemistry, University of Manchester , Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, United - - 2014
Black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This ...
Menegazzo Mariana Lara ML Laboratory of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS, - - 2014
In this study, crude oil was extracted by heating and filtering of the residual fat obtained from the processing of mechanically separated meats of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and hybrid sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans×P. fasciatum) for protein concentrate obtaining. The crude oil was refined by the following steps: degumming with 85% ...
Shobharani P P Department of Food - - 2014
The current investigation was carried out with an objective of determining the structural characteristic of polysaccharides extracted from fermented Sargassum sp. to be used as potent natural heparin substitute anticoagulant compound. Sargassum sp. fermented with marine lactic acid bacteria was initially subjected to ethanol precipitation for the recovery of bioactive ...
Gong Ting T a State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines , Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College , Beijing 100050 , - - 2014
Microbial transformation of the oleanolic acid (1) using Trichothecium roseum (pers.) Link (M 95.56) has resulted in the isolation of two new hydroxylated type metabolites, characterized as 15α-hydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and 7β,15α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (3). The structure elucidation of these metabolites was based primarily on HR-EIMS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR ...
Neely Jamie M JM Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University , Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, United - - 2014
α,β-Unsaturated carboxylic acids undergo Rh(III)-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling with α,β-unsaturated O-pivaloyl oximes to provide substituted pyridines in good yield. The carboxylic acid, which is removed by decarboxylation, serves as a traceless activating group, giving 5-substituted pyridines with very high levels of regioselectivity. Mechanistic studies rule out a picolinic acid intermediate, and ...
Guo Fajin F CAS Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266101, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR - - 2014
Both filamentous microalgae Tribonema and unicellular microalgae Nanochloropsis are promising feedstock for biodiesel production. Nitrogen starvation increased lipid content in Nannochloropsis but decreased that in Tribonema. In this study, biochemical responses of Tribonema under different levels of nitrogen (0N, 0.05N, 0.1N and 1N-BG11) were investigated. 1N-BG11 was sufficient during 15-day-cultivation, ...
Glad Trine T Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, - - 2014
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) may include large proportions of lichens in their winter diet. These dietary lichens are rich in phenolic secondary compounds, the most well-known being the antimicrobial usnic acid. Previous studies have shown that reindeer host rumen bacteria resistant to usnic acid and that usnic acid is quickly ...
Khan Asma Yasmeen AY Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700 032, - - 2014
The interaction of phenazinium dyes, safranine O and phenosafranine with single stranded polyadenylic acid was studied using spectroscopic viscometric and calorimetric techniques. Both dyes bind to polyadenylic acid strongly with association constant of the order of 10(5)M(-1). Safranine O showed higher affinity over phenosafranine. The binding induced conformational changes in ...
Frommeyer Maja M Institut für Molekulare Mikrobiologie und - - 2014
Soluble cyanobacterial granule polypeptide (CGP), especially isolated from recombinant Escherichia coli strains, consists of aspartic acid, arginine and an increased amount of lysine in contrast to insoluble CGP isolated from cyanobacteria or various other recombinant bacteria. In vitro guanidination of lysine side chains of soluble CGP with o-methylisourea (OMIU) yielded ...
Miladinović Bojana B Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacy, Univ. of Niš, Blvd Dr Zoran Đinđić 81, 18000, Niš, - - 2014
The aim of this article was to determine the chemical composition (anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents, total phenols, and tannins), and the antioxidative, and antimicrobial activities of the juices and methanol extracts of 4 varieties-Tenah, Triton, Ben Sarek, and Ometa. The juices were made during 2008, 2009, and 2010 from ...
Lueth Christopher A CA Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, - - 2014
We perform atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of melts of four precise acid copolymers, two poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEAA) copolymers, and two poly(ethylene-co-sulfonic acid) (PESA) copolymers. The acid groups are spaced by either 9 or 21 carbons along the polymer backbones. Hydrogen bonding causes the acid groups to form aggregates. These aggregates ...
Wilkins Stewart - - 2014
In-situ functionalization of polar (c-plane) and nonpolar (a-plane) gallium nitride (GaN) was performed by adding (3-bromopropyl)bromopropyl) phosphonic acid or propyl phosphonic acid to a phosphoric acid etch. The target was to modulate GaN's emission properties and oxide formation, which was explored through surface characterization with atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray ...
Ostash Bohdan B Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Ivan Franko National University, Lviv, 4 Hrushevskoho st, Lviv, 79005, - - 2014
The cell wall of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor M145 has recently been shown to contain the novel glycopolymer teichulosonic acid. The major building block of this polymer is 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (Kdn), suggesting initial clues about the genetic control of biosynthesis of this cell wall component. Here, through genome mining ...
Venditti A A a Dipartimento di Chimica , Università di Roma "La Sapienza" , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma , - - 2014
In this study, the iridoidic content of two accessions of Crucianella maritima L., one from Sardinia and the second from Latium, was examined and compared. From a qualitative point of view, the iridoidic pattern of the two samples was similar, since the same compounds (asperuloside, asperulosidic acid and deacetyl asperulosidic ...
Panagos Charalampos G CG EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The lumpsucker, Cyclopterus lumpus, a cottoid teleost fish found in the cold waters of the North Atlantic, and North Pacific, was identified as a possible source of GAGs. The GAGs present in the C. lumpus dorsal hump and body wall tissue were isolated and purified. Two fractions were analysed by ...
Jie Weiguang W State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; Department of Food and Environment Engineering, East University of Heilongjiang, Harbin 150086, - - 2014
This study aimed at exploring a new approach for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from excess sludge (ES). Two representative alkali-tolerant bacteria (HIT-01 and HIT-02) were isolated from ES, and inoculated separately or jointly into ES to investigate their effects on VFAs accumulation, soluble organic compounds concentrations, and bacterial community ...
Tanaka Keijitsu K Tsukuba Research and Technology Center, SDS Biotech K.K., Midorigahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2646, - - 2014
Two new cyclic lipopeptides (3 and 4) were isolated from the culture filtrate of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SD-32, together with two known metabolites, iso-C15 and iso-C16 bacillomycin D (1 and 2). Spectroscopic and chemical analyses identified the structures of the new compounds 3 and 4 as anteiso-C17 bacillomycin D, cyclic ...
Kimura Koji K Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Education, Shiga - - 2014
The neutral glycosphingolipids, mono-, di-, tri- and tetraglycosylceramides (GL-1, GL-2, GL-3, GL-4a and GL-4b), were identified from whole tissues of the marine crab Erimacrus isenbeckii by successive column chromatography with ion exchange Sephadex (QAE-Sephadex), magnesium silicate (Florisil) and silicic acid (Iatrobeads) resins. Through component analysis, sugar analysis, methylation studies, exoglycosidase ...
Viktorova Ekaterina G EG Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, - - 2014
Genome replication of positive strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes is universally associated with specialized membranous structures referred to as replication organelles. Accumulating evidence show that new membrane synthesis is important for the development of the replication organelles of diverse picornaviruses and likely for other positive strand RNA viruses as well. ...
Huang Haofei H College of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (P.R. China); Department of Chemistry and Nanosciences, Ewha Womans University, Daehyun-dong 11-1, Seoul 120-750 (Korea), Fax: - - 2014
The hydroxyphenyl chiral ketone, (S)-3, reacts with D-amino acids bearing hydrophobic side chains exclusively over the L-amino acids in a two-phase liquid-liquid extraction, and thus acts as a highly stereoselective extractant. Calculations for the energy-minimized structures for the imine diastereomers and the comparison of the selectivities with other phenyl ketones, ...
Gu Hanqi H State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, - - 2014
Industrial waste corncob residues (CCR) are rich in cellulose and can be hydrolyzed directly without pretreatment. However, a poor fermentation performance was frequently observed in the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) of CCR, although the furans and organic acid inhibitors were very low. In this study, the high level ...
Youn Kumju K 1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University , Saha-gu, Busan, - - 2014
Abstract In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane ...
Grecco Simone dos S Sdos - - 2014
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of the aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to identification of two cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic and ferulic acids), two flavones (hispidulin and pectolinaringenin) and a mixture of three chlorogenic acids (3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids), which displayed in vitro anti-trypanosomal ...
Petreus Tudor T Gr.T.Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi, 16 Universitatii Str., 700115, Iasi, Romania, - - 2014
Chemical modification of cellulose by phosphorylation enhances its bioactivity and provides new derivatives and materials with specific end uses. In the present study, cellulose derivatized with phosphorous acid was obtained using the reaction of microcrystalline cellulose with phosphorous acid-urea mixture, in molten state, in comparison with others methods that used ...
Platero Ana Isabel AI Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo, Universidad Pablo de Olavide/Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/Junta de Andalucía, and Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Universidad Pablo de - - 2014
The Pseudomonas sp. ADP plasmid pADP-1 encodes the activities involved in the hydrolytic degradation of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine. Here we explore the presence of a specific transport system for the central intermediate of the atrazine utilization pathway, cyanuric acid, in Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Growth in fed-batch cultures containing limiting ...
Singh Pradeep Pratap PP a Bio-Organic Laboratory, Department of Chemistry , University of Delhi , Delhi 110007 , - - 2014
An activity-guided isolation and purification process was used to identify the l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging components of the food plant (Terminalia arjuna) of Antheraea mylitta. Dry leaves of T. arjuna were extracted with different solvents and tested for their antioxidant activity against DPPH(•). The acetone-water (8:2) extract expressed strong DPPH ...
Filannino P P Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, I-70126 Bari - - 2014
Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ) and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representative of other ecosystems. The growth rate and ...
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