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Zhang Fuzhong - - 2011
Production of biofuels from renewable resources such as cellulosic biomass provides a source of liquid transportation fuel to replace petroleum-based fuels. This endeavor requires the conversion of cellulosic biomass into simple sugars, and the conversion of simple sugars into biofuels. Recently, microorganisms have been engineered to convert simple sugars into ...
Nassu R T - - 2011
This study was conducted to investigate changes in fatty acid profiles of beef cows fed grass hay or barley silage based diets, with or without flaxseed supplementation. Both flaxseed and hay feeding increased levels of α-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3) in longissimus thoracis and backfat (P<0.001). A forage type by flaxseed ...
He Fang - - 2011
The influence of three alkaline amino acids, l-lysine (L-Lys), l-arginine (L-Arg) and l-histidine (L-His), on the aggregation behaviour of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, was studied at 25 °C. The fluorescence probe technique based on pyrene was employed to determine accurately the critical aggregation concentration (cac), polarity of ...
Dos-Santos Noelia - - 2011
We characterize differences in cell wall material and polysaccharide structures, due to the quantitative trait loci associated with higher flesh firmness in a non-climacteric near-isogenic line (NIL) SC7-2, and with the climacteric behavior of the NIL SC3-5-1, using their non-climacteric inbred parentals, "Piel de Sapo" (PS) and PI 161375 (SC). ...
Skeberdis Vytenis A VA Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Institute of Cardiology, 17 Sukilėliųu Avenue, Kaunas 50009, - - 2011
Gap junction (GJ) channels formed from connexin (Cx) proteins provide a direct pathway for electrical and metabolic cell–cell communication exhibiting high sensitivity to intracellular pH (pH(i)). We examined pH(i)-dependent modulation of junctional conductance (g(j)) of GJs formed of Cx26, mCx30.2, Cx36, Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, Cx46, Cx47 and Cx50 by reagents ...
Afoakwa Emmanuel Ohene - - 2011
Changes in acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp preconditioning (pod storage or PS) and fermentation were investigated. Non-volatile acidity, pH, proteolysis, sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) and FFAs concentrations were analysed using standard methods. Increasing PS consistently decreased the ...
Pfleger Andrea - - 2011
Use of a wheat growth bio assay after 7 days in research on homeopathic dilutions of gibberellic acid. Grains of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, Capo variety) were observed under the influence of extremely diluted gibberellic acid (10(-30)) prepared by stepwise dilution and agitation according to a protocol derived from homeopathy ...
Liu Yifan - - 2011
Chiral bisboronic acid chemosensors based on ethynylated carbazole were prepared. The chiral chemosensors show red-shifted emission than the chemosensors with unsubstituted carbazole fluorophore. a-PET effect was found for the chemosensors, which is different from our previous observation of the d-PET effect for boronic acid chemosensors based on carbazole. Enantioselective recognition ...
Wang Hui-Er - - 2011
Fermented soybean liquid (FSL) has been well cited for its broad spectrum of biological effects, yet its documented gastropeptic ulcer (GPU) ameliorating effect is still lacking. It was hypothesized that to avoid the injury exerted by gastric fluid, HP has to be sheltered in chyme emulsions immediately on infection. The ...
Zhong Runsheng - - 2011
The physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs including floc size, strength, regrowth, fractal structure and settling velocity were investigated by in situ particle image velocimetry technique at different humic acid concentration. Jar-test experimental results showed that the adsorbed humic acid had a significant influence on the coagulation process for ...
Ciosek Patrycja - - 2011
The analysis of amino acids and oligopeptides as important bioanalytes is a significant task in medical diagnostics and proteomic research and currently it is based on chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. In this paper, an approach based on sensor array coupled with titration is proposed for effective recognition of 5 amino ...
Rudolph Wolfram W - - 2011
Aqueous solutions of sodium tribromoacetate (NaCBr(3)CO(2)) and its corresponding acid (CBr(3)COOH) have been studied using Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The spectra of the species in solution were assigned according to symmetry C(s). Characteristic bands of CBr(3)CO(2)(-)(aq) and the tribromoacetic acid, CBr(3)COOH(aq), are discussed. For the hydrated anion, the CO(2) group, ...
Lemaire Sandrine - - 2011
Finafloxacin, an 8-cyano-substituted fluoroquinolone, expresses enhanced activity at acidic pH and is less susceptible to several fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. In this study, we compared finafloxacin and ciprofloxacin for (i) activity against ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus as well as wild-type and Lde efflux-positive (Lde+) Listeria monocytogenes, (ii) accumulation in THP-1 ...
Lee Jae-Won - - 2011
Building on our laboratory-scale optimization, oxalic acid was used to pretreat corncobs on the pilot-scale. The hydrolysate obtained after washing the pretreated biomass contained 32.55g/l of xylose, 2.74g/l of glucose and low concentrations of inhibitors. Ethanol production, using Scheffersomyces stipitis, from this hydrolysate was 10.3g/l, which approached the predicted value ...
Zhao Jinyang - - 2011
β-Glucans obtained from barley, seaweed, bacteria, and mushroom sclerotia were incubated with pure cultures of Bifidobacterium infantis , Bifidobacterium longum , and Bifidobacterium adolescentis for a 24 h batch fermentation to evaluate their bifidogenic effect with inulin as the positive control. The pH value in all culture media was decreased ...
Makhutova Olesia N - - 2011
We studied the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of ten zoobenthic species of several taxonomic groups from different freshwater bodies. Special attention was paid to essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6); and the n-3/n-6 and DHA/ARA ratios, which ...
Plasson Raphaël - - 2011
A good comprehension of the reactivity of peptides in aqueous solution is fundamental in prebiotic chemistry, namely for understanding their stability and behavior in primitive oceans. Relying on the stereoselectivity of the involved reactions, there is a huge interest in amino acid derivatives for explaining the spontaneous emergence of homochirality ...
Kairenius Piia - - 2011
The abundance of 20- to 24-carbon fatty acids in omasal digesta of cows fed grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0 (Control) and 250 g/day of fish oil (FO) was examined to investigate the fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen. Complimentary argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis of ...
Marcotullio G - - 2011
Starting from the results achieved in a previous work on the effects of Cl(-) ions on furfural formation in aqueous acid solution [Marcotullio, G. et al., Green Chem.2010, 12, 1739], the general effect of different halides is addressed. Experimental results show the halides to influence at least two distinct steps ...
Endo Satoshi - - 2011
Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B14, a rat ortholog of mouse androgen-dependent vas deferens protein (AKR1B7), is involved in the synthesis of prostaglandin F(2α) and detoxification of 4-oxononenal formed by lipid peroxidation. The NADPH-linked reductase activity of AKR1B14 was activated by various bile acids. Although the activation was increased by decreasing pH ...
Huang Hongzhi - - 2011
Compounds inhibitory to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation are generated from neutral steam exploded corn stover in the process of producing bio-ethanol. In this study, weak acids were identified as main yeast inhibitors, while phenols and aldehyde contribute to the inhibition to a lower degree. Main weak acids in hydrolysates are ...
Guo Peng - - 2011
The effects of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, aqueous ammonia, sodium hydroxide, and steam explosion pretreatments of corn stalk on organic acid production by a microbial consortium, MC1, were determined. Steam explosion resulted in a substrate that was most favorable for microbial growth and organic acid productions. The total amounts of ...
Jiang T - - 2011
The objective was to determine the impact of increasing levels of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n3) on beef palatability. Two commercial supplements of EPA and DHA were added to 85% lean ground beef patties (176.2±3.76g) with different levels (0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 1% ...
Bílková Eliška - - 2011
The acylation of prednisolone 20-hydrazone with star poly(ethylene glycol) tetracarboxylic acid (M=20,000) has been used to prepare the corresponding pH-sensitive conjugate. With α-cyclodextrin, this conjugate forms a polypseudorotaxane, which was characterised by means of (1)H NMR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction patterns and STM microscopy. The rate of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of ...
Valladão A B G - - 2011
The hydrolysis of effluent from a poultry slaughterhouse containing 800mg oil and grease (O&G)/L was conducted with 1% (w/v) of an enzymatic pool obtained by solid-state fermentation with the fungus Penicillium restrictum. The chromatographic evaluation of the lipid profile during hydrolysis indicated a higher concentration of acids after 4h of ...
Nassar Nashaat N - - 2011
This study investigates the effect of surface acidity and basicity of aluminas on asphaltene adsorption followed by air oxidation. Equilibrium batch adsorption experiments were conducted at 25°C with solutions of asphaltenes in toluene at concentrations ranging from 100 to 3000g/L using three conventional alumina adsorbents with different surface acidity. Data ...
Velmurugan Rajendran - - 2011
In this study, the production of sugar monomers from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by sono-assisted acid hydrolysis was performed. The SCB was subjected to sono-assisted alkaline pretreatment. The cellulose and hemicellulose recovery observed in the solid content was 99% and 78.95%, respectively and lignin removal observed during the pretreatment was about ...
Yemiş Oktay - - 2011
Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose and xylan to furfural by microwave-assisted reaction was investigated at selected ranges of temperature (140-190°C), time (1-30min), substrate concentration (1:5-1:200 solid:liquid ratio), and pH (2-0.13). We found that a temperature ...
Scerra M - - 2011
Forty male Italian Merino lambs were used to study the effects of four feeding systems on muscle fatty acids composition: S group-ten lambs were kept indoors, and fed with concentrate for all experimental period (89days); P group-ten lambs were allowed to graze a pasture for all experimental period; PS37 group-ten ...
Shen Jiacheng - - 2011
Pretreatment of corn stover in 0.5% sulfuric acid at 160°C for 40min realized a maximum monomeric plus oligomeric xylose yield of 93.1% compared to a maximum of only 71.5% for hydrothermal (no added mineral acid) pretreatment at 180°C for 30min. To explain differences in dilute acid and hydrothermal yields, a ...
Salon Jozef - - 2011
It is challenging to effectively deprotect hydroxyl groups of acid-or-base sensitive bio-macromolecules without causing even minor defects and compromising high quality of final products. We report here a mild detritylation strategy in mildly acidic buffers to remove the DMTr protection from the 5'-hydroxyl groups of synthetic nucleic acids. The DMTr-groups ...
Abdel-Nour Nicolas - - 2011
Quantification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is an important aspect in quality control of designer eggs. Prediction of these fatty acids would be of value for egg grading stations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to classify the eggs according ...
Nayak Anjali - - 2011
Ibuprofen-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates (PEG-Ibu) were prepared and their potential as a prolonged release system was investigated. Two PEG-Ibu conjugates were synthesized from Ibuprofen and PEG with two different molecular weights by esterification in the presence of DCC and DMAP. The PEG-Ibu conjugates were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, Mass ...
Zargar Atanaz - - 2011
Abstract Background: Dietary fish oil supplements are increasingly used as an alternative to prescription-grade omega-3 fatty acids (P-OM3) for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in these supplement products varies widely and may result in a suboptimal response. The aim of this ...
Hristov Georgi - - 2011
In the search for new and effective prodrugs against the herpes simplex virus, a series of acyclovir analogues with a thiazole ring containing amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, leucine) has been investigated. The chemical stability of some of the compounds containing different residues was studied at pH 1 and pH ...
Di Cagno Raffaella - - 2011
Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sp. and Lactobacillus pentosus were variously identified from blackberries, prunes, kiwifruits, papaya and fennels by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. Representative isolates from each plant species were screened based on the kinetics of growth on fruit juices. A protocol for processing and storage of red ...
Cao Yang - - 2011
Total mixed ration (TMR) silage in different seasons was prepared with apple refuse, orchardgrass hay, orchardgrass silage, corn silage and a commercial compound feed in Tohoku, Japan, and with tofu cake, brewers' grains, tall fescue hay, Sudangrass hay, timothy hay, alfalfa hay and a commercial compound feed in Shikoku, Japan, ...
Höfer Philipp - - 2011
Discussion on and use of methanol as chemical feedstock and as alternative fuel has gained momentum during the past years. Consequently, microorganism and product design based on ''methylotrophism'' is in vogue as reflected by increasing research and development activities in methanol-related areas. A recent example of microorganism and product development ...
Cho Do-Yeon DY Division of Rhinology, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, - - 2011
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a misfunctional CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, which is believed to contributes to the regulation of the airway surface liquid (ASL) pH. This study investigated acid and base secretion in freshly excised human nasal tissues from CF patients homozygous for the ΔF508 mutation. ...
Rajanarayanan S - - 2011
The present study was carried out to identify the urinary sex pheromones of buffaloes and their role in relation to bull reproductive behaviour. Urinary samples were collected from 12 buffalo heifers at four different phases of estrous cycles. Fourteen compounds were identified throughout the cycle, which included phenol, ketone, alkane, ...
Papalexandratou Zoi - - 2011
To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and ...
Butts Ian Anthony Ernest - - 2011
Our objectives were to compare spermatozoa activity, morphology, and seminal plasma (SP) biochemistry between wild and cultivated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Swimming velocities of wild cod spermatozoa were significantly faster than those of cultivated males. Wild males had a significantly larger spermatozoa head area, perimeter, and length, while cultivated males ...
Knobloch Tobias - - 2011
New ansamitocin derivatives were prepared by feeding aminobenzoic acid derivatives to cultures of Actinosynnema pretiosum HGF073, a mutant strain blocked in the biosynthesis of the required 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA) starter unit. Use of several aminobenzoic acids as precursors led to a spectrum of products, reflecting the sequence of post-PKS tailoring ...
Kühnel Stefan - - 2011
Biomass use for the production of bioethanol or platform chemicals requires efficient breakdown of biomass to fermentable monosaccharides. Lignocellulosic feedstocks often require physicochemical pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis can begin. The optimal pretreatment can be different for different feedstocks, and should not lead to biomass destruction or formation of toxic products. ...
Verma Madan Lal - - 2011
Selective production of fragrance fatty acid ester from isopropanol and acetic acid has been achieved using silica-immobilized lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372. A purified thermoalkalophilic extracellular lipase was immobilized by adsorption onto the silica. The effects of various parameters like molar ratio of substrates (isopropanol and acetic acid; 25 ...
Ning Meiying - - 2011
Preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of vinpocetine (VIN) elementary osmotic pump (EOP) formulations were investigated. A method for the preparation of VIN elementary osmotic pump tablet was obtained by adding organic acid additives to increase VIN solubility. VIN was used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient, lactose and ...
Okumura Haruo - - 2011
The stability of sucrose fatty acid monoesters toward hydrolysis under acidic and basic conditions was evaluated. Mass spectrometric analysis of hydrolysates showed that the glycosidic bond was preferentially hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, whereas the ester bond was selectively hydrolyzed under basic conditions. Under both conditions, the rate of hydrolysis depended ...
Neji Soumaya Bouguerra - - 2011
Tunisian acid activated clay was investigated as catalyst in the esterification of stearic acid with ethyl alcohol, carried out in a semi-continuous reactor. Kinetic study shows that the reaction is first order with respect to acid concentration. The activation energy found was 21 kJ/mol. This result suggests that the reaction ...
Terbouche Achour - - 2011
The adsorption capacities of new humic acids isolated from Yakouren forest (YHA) and Sahara (Tamenrasset: THA) soils (Algeria) and commercial humic acid (PFHA) on polyaniline emeraldine base (PEB) were studied at pH 6.6. Also the adsorption of heavy metals such as Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ on humic acid-polyaniline systems (HA-PEB) ...
Habe Hiroshi - - 2011
Previously, Lešová et al. reported the isolation and identification of metabolite OR-1, showing antitrypsin activity, produced during fermentation by Penicillium funiculosum. The structure of OR-1 was a mixture of glyceric acid (GA), esterified with C(14)-C(18) fatty acids, and oleic acid (C18:1) as the most predominant fatty acid (Folia Microbiol. 46, ...
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