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Zhou Zhengxiong - - 2011
The effects of temperature, agitation rate and medium composition, including concentrations of glucose, soybean peptone, and inorganic ions, on pellet formation and pellet diameter of Rhizopus delemar (Rhizopus oryzae) NRRL1526 during pre-culture were studied. Inorganic ions and soybean peptone had negative and positive effects on pellet formation, respectively. The initial ...
Véras Ilvania C - - 2011
This work aims to demonstrate the enzymatic production of fatty acid ethyl ester biodiesel from highly acidic feedstock in a single-step reaction, without co-solvents and avoiding the inhibition of the enzyme by ethanol and glycerol. Additionally, an empirical equation is proposed to predict the kinetics of the production reaction as ...
Forrest Andrea K - - 2011
The MixAlco™ process biologically converts biomass to carboxylate salts that may be chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. The process utilizes lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock (e.g., municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural residues), creating an economic basis for sustainable biofuels. This study provides a thermodynamic ...
Kim Hyun Jung - - 2011
Our previous study showed β-glucan with low molecular weight (MW, 1.56 × 10<sup>5</sup> g/mol) bound more bile acid and produced greater amounts of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) than did -glucan with high MW (Mn = 6.87 × 10<sup>5</sup> g/mol). In the current study, β-glucan extracted from oat flour was fractionated ...
Shi Zheng - - 2011
A visible-light activatable photoacid has been studied, which upon irradiation, changes from a weak acid, with a pKa of 7.8, to a strong acid, which achieves nearly complete proton dissociation. This process is reversible and the lifetime of the proton-dissociation state is ~70s. The long lifetime of the proton-dissociation state ...
Morita Tomotake - - 2011
Cryptococcus humicola JCM 1461 efficiently produced cellobiose lipids (CLs), bolaform biosurfactants. The main product was identified as 16-O-(2″,3″,4″,6'-tetra-O-acetyl-β-cellobiosyl)-2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. The production yield of CLs reached 13.1 g/L under the intermittent feeding of glucose. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the main product at pH 4.0 and 7.0 were 3.3×10(-5) M ...
Gao Chao - - 2011
Lactic acid, the most important hydroxycarboxylic acid, is now commercially produced by the fermentation of sugars present in biomass. In addition to its use in the synthesis of biodegradable polymers, lactic acid can be regarded as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Different potentially useful chemicals such ...
Liao Li - - 2011
A new agarase, AgaA(CN41), cloned from Vibrio sp. strain CN41, consists of 990 amino acids, with only 49% amino acid sequence identity with known β-agarases. AgaA(CN41) belongs to the GH50 (glycoside hydrolase 50) family but yields neoagarotetraose as the end product. AgaA(CN41) was expressed and characterized.
Hibi Makoto - - 2011
We determined the enzymatic characteristics of an industrially important biocatalyst, α-ketoglutarate-dependent l-isoleucine dioxygenase (IDO), which was found to be the enzyme responsible for the generation of (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine in Bacillus thuringiensis 2e2. Depending on the amino acid used as the substrate, IDO catalyzed three different types of oxidation reactions: hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, ...
Poureslami Reza - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The health benefits of n-3 fatty acids have led to much research on manipulating the fatty acid composition of animal-derived foods. In this study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction of dietary fatty acids on egg yolk fatty acid concentrations. In experiment I, 32 dietary treatments with ...
Berenjian Aydin - - 2011
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nutrients on the production of menaquinone-7 and determine the optimum conditions to achieve a high concentration of this product. Bacillus subtilis natto was fermented at 40°C for a period of six days. Design of experiments was used for screening ...
Blanco-Vega Dora - - 2011
Formation of wine pyranoanthocyanins in model wine was monitored by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, using red grape skin extracts and wine fermentation metabolites (acetaldehyde, pyruvic and acetoacetic acids, and diacetyl) and also hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acids). Pyruvic acid and acetaldehyde reacted fast, the first reaching high product yield and ...
Cao Y - - 2011
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beet pulp (BP) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal dry matter (DM) digestion of vegetable residues, including white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, and lettuce. Silage was prepared using a small-scale fermentation ...
Kurt S - - 2011
To determine the optimum meat mixture combination, the effects of different meat sources on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of cooked or stored meat patties were investigated using a response surface methodology mixture design. Meat patties were prepared using chicken, turkey, beef, and beef back fat. They were divided 2 ...
Ebrahimia Seyed Hadi - - 2011
The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) in combination with fumaric acid (FMA) may provide complementary effects to inhibit methanogens and enhance rumen's capacity for better utilisation of FMA towards propionate production. Three levels of AQ and four levels of FMA were tested ...
Caroprese M - - 2011
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of protection from solar radiation and whole flaxseed supplementation on milk yield and milk fatty acid profile in lactating ewes exposed to high ambient temperature. The experiment was conducted during summer and involved 40 ewes divided into 4 groups. The ...
Otto R A - - 2011
During mechanical fish processing, a substantial amount of protein is discarded as by-products. Isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) is a process that uses extreme pH shifts to solubilize and precipitate protein from by-products to recover previously discarded protein. Typically, strong acids are used for pH reduction, but these acids do ...
Nemoto Hideyuki - - 2011
The aim of this study is to investigate the prebiotic effects of brown rice fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) on the intestinal environment in vitro and in healthy adults. Methods: Fresh fecal slurries from six healthy adults were incubated with FBRA to confirm prebiotic potentials of FBRA. Another thirty-six healthy ...
Lindquist Birgitta - - 2011
Lindquist B, Lingström P, Fändriks L, Birkhed D. Influence of five neutralizing products on intra-oral pH after rinsing with simulated gastric acid. Eur J Oral Sci 2011; 119: 301-304. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci The aetiology of dental erosion may be of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. The aim ...
Jang Sung-Hee - - 2011
Samples of breast milk were collected at postpartum weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 from 104 Korean mothers who had delivered infants at less than 34 weeks or weighing less than 1.8 kg to investigate changes in fatty acid (FAs). Full-term breast milk (FBM) collected at the end ...
Alonso Saúl - - 2011
Lactobionic acid finds applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and medicine. The production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens was studied in shake-flasks and in a bioreactor. Shake-flask experiments showed that lactobionic acid was a non-growth associated product. A two-stage pH-shift bioconversion strategy with a pH-uncontrolled above ...
Zhang Zi-Xing - - 2011
1,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-8-(N-hydroxysuccinimidyl butyric ester)difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (TMBB-Su), a new BODIPY-based fluorescent probe, was designed and synthesized for the labeling of amino compounds. It was used as a pre-column derivatizing reagent for determination of amino acid neurotransmitters by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fluorescence quantum yield in acetonitrile increased from 0.84 to 0.95 when ...
Chen Ling-Yan - - 2011
Binaphthyl based chiral sulfonimide (CSI) is demonstrated for the first time to be an efficient strong Brønsted acid in asymmetric organocatalysis. A series of CSIs were synthesized and screened in asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with imines. Good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities have been achieved. It also proved that ...
Rimaux T - - 2011
The genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei 23K has revealed that the species L. sakei harbors several genes involved in the catabolism of energy sources other than glucose in meat, such as glycerol, arginine, and nucleosides. In this study, a screening of 15 L. sakei strains revealed that arginine, inosine, and ...
Lefeber Timothy - - 2011
Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.
Freiding Simone - - 2012
Branched chain aminotransferases (IlvE/BcaT), specific for leucine, isoleucine, and valine initialize the formation of methyl-branched volatiles, which are strongly linked to the typical aroma of cured meat products. Lactobacillus sakei, one of the dominating lactic acid bacteria species for meat fermentations and commonly used as starter lacks this enzyme, whereas ...
Chen Yigen - - 2011
The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results ...
Li Zhu - - 2011
The parameters of intracellular acidic compartments are altered in apoptosis, autophagy, cancer metastasis, etc. Low background and selective staining of lysosomes and autophagosomes was achieved with N-(rhodamine 6G)-lactam-ethylenediamine (R6G-EDA) which fluoresces in acidic vesicles via pH mediated ring opening of the intramolecular lactam. Long retention time of R6G-EDA in lysosomes ...
Bryant David N - - 2011
Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is routinely used in yeast and mammalian fermentations to quantitatively monitor viable biomass through the inherent capacitance of live cells; however, the use of DS to monitor the enzymatic break down of lignocellulosic biomass has not been reported. The aim of the current study was to examine ...
Gao Yun - - 2011
Corn steep liquor (CSL) is one of the main raw materials in 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG) fermentation by Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus megaterium. Due to its natural origin, and variations in the manufacturing process, unpredicted and uncontrolled variability of CSL have a great influence on the 2-KLG production, however, conventional quality ...
Alarcón P - - 2011
d-Lactic acidosis occurs in ruminants, such as cattle, with acute ruminal acidosis caused by ingestion of excessive amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates. Affected animals show clinical signs similar to those of septic shock, as well as acute laminitis and liver abscesses. It has been proposed that the inflammatory response and ...
Sinz Quirin - - 2012
The microbial degradation of proteins, peptides and amino acids generates volatiles involved in the typical flavor of dry fermented sausage. The ability of three Lactobacillus sakei strains to form aroma compounds was investigated. Whole resting cells were fermented in phosphate buffer with equimolar amounts of substrates consisting of dipeptides, tetrapeptides ...
Garde Sonia - - 2011
In the manufacture of model cheeses, ovine milk was deliberately contaminated with spores of Clostridium beijerinckii INIA 63, a wild isolate from Manchego cheese with late blowing defect, and inoculated with nisin- and lacticin 481-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 as starter, to test its potential to prevent the ...
Kashiwakura Shunsuke - - 2011
Coal fly ash emitted from coal-fired electric power stations generally contains environmentally regulated trace elements. In particular, boron, arsenic, and selenium have been recognized as troublesome trace elements because elutions from the fly ash contain them. In order to design an effective removal process for these trace elements, we have ...
Salgado José Manuel - - 2011
This study develops a system for the efficient valorisation of hemicellulosic hydrolysates of vineshoot trimmings. By connecting two reactors of 2L and 10L, operational conditions were set up for the sequential production of lactic acid and xylitol in continuous fermentation, considering the dependence of the main metabolites and fermentation parameters ...
Zhu J Y - - 2011
Native aspen (Populus tremuloides) was pretreated using sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite (SPORL) and dilute sulfuric acid alone (DA). Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted at 18% solids using commercial enzymes with cellulase loadings ranging from 6 to 15FPU/g glucan and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5. Compared with DA pretreatment, ...
Kheng Tee Yei - - 2011
BACKGROUND: A series of physico-chemical quality (peel and pulp colours, pulp firmness, fruit pH, sugars and acids content, respiration rate and ethylene production) were conducted to study the optimum harvest periods (either week 11 or week 12 after emergence of the first hand) of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) based ...
de Beer Dalene - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The effects of citric and ascorbic acids on the stability of aspalathin in rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) ready-to-drink (RTD) formulations containing fermented rooibos extract (FR), aspalathin-enriched green rooibos extract (GR) and aspalathin-enriched green rooibos extract ascorbic acid solubilisate (GR-solubilisate) were investigated during storage (12 weeks at 25 °C). RESULTS: Storage ...
Baig M N - - 2011
Supercritical fluids offer environmental advantages over chemical solvents, while providing enhanced separation and chemical selectivity. The use of supercritical fluids for the recovery of products from biomass and the transformation of selected molecules (to add value) was studied. Free fatty acids were bio-catalytically transformed to fatty acid esters using lipase ...
Zhao Xuebing - - 2011
The enzymatic digestibility of alkali/peracetic acid (PAA)-pretreated bagasse was systematically investigated. The effects of initial solid consistency, cellulase loading and addition of supplemental β-glucosidase on the enzymatic conversion of glycan were studied. It was found the alkali-PAA pulp showed excellent enzymatic digestibility. The enzymatic glycan conversion could reach about 80% ...
Zhang Bo - - 2011
The use of aquatic plant cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails was studied using a Dionex accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) varying acid concentration (0.1-1%), treatment temperature (140-180°C), and residence time (5-10min). The ...
Orozco Angela M - - 2011
The visibility of using municipal bio-waste, wood shavings, as a potential feedstock for ethanol production was investigated. Dilute acid hydrolysis of wood shavings with H(3)PO(4) was undertaken in autoclave parr reactor. A combined severity factor (CSF) was used to integrate the effects of hydrolysis times, temperature and acid concentration into ...
Fuentes-Grünewald C - - 2011
Two different strains of microalgae, one raphidophyte and one dinoflagellate, were tested under different abiotic conditions with the goal of enhancing lipid production. Whereas aeration was crucial for biomass production, nitrogen deficiency and temperature were found to be the main abiotic parameters inducing the high-level cellular accumulation of neutral lipids. ...
Valle-Rodríguez Juan Octavio - - 2011
This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing ...
Li Zhaosheng - - 2011
High production cost is a major obstacle to the extensive use of microalgae biodiesel. To cut the cost and achieve higher biomass productivity, Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341 was cultured under photoheterotrophic conditions. With the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of 26.37, 2.61 and 0.03gL(-1)d(-1) respectively, a maximum biomass productivity of 1.78gL(-1)d(-1) ...
Devesa-Rey R - - 2011
Wine production generates huge amounts of waste. Before the 1990s, the most economical option for waste removal was the payment of a disposal fee usually being of around 3000 Euros. However, in recent years the disposal fee and fines for unauthorized discharges have increased considerably, often reaching 30,000-40,000 Euros, and ...
Burseg Kerstin Martha Mensien - - 2011
Upon stimulation with continuously alternating (pulsatile) taste concentrations, humans report higher average taste intensities than for continuous stimulation with the same average tastant concentration. We investigated the effect of the magnitude of concentration changes (concentration contrast) and the effect of taste quality changes (quality contrast) between alternating tastants on sweet ...
Sun Jingfeng - - 2011
The effect of phosphatidylcholine on the molecular weight properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) was studied in batch culture of Streptococcus zooepidemicus by adding phosphatidylcholine at the early stage of exponential phase. With the addition of 80 mg/L of phosphatidylcholine, maximum HA yield (2.47 g/L) and weight-average molecular weight (902.60 KDa) were achieved, ...
Zhang Dong-Hao - - 2011
Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TLIM)-catalyzed esterification of L: -ascorbic acid was studied. It was suggested that Lipozyme TLIM was a suitable biocatalyst for enzymatic esterification of L: -ascorbic acid. Three solvents were investigated for the reaction, and acetone was found to be a suitable reaction medium. Furthermore, it was found ...
Lorenzo José M - - 2011
The changes in the physico-chemical, microbiological, textural and sensory attributes of foal salchichón were followed during ripening. Foal salchichón samples were taken at 0days (mix before stuffing), and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49days of ripening. The final a(w) was 0.82, whereas pH values stayed around their ...
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