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Results 201 - 250 of 2322
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Lee Vivian Chi Yan - - 2011
BACKGROUNDThe pharmacokinetics of vaginal misoprostol as a dry tablet or as a tablet moistened with normal saline or with acetic acid were studied.METHODSFor this study, 42 women requesting termination of pregnancy at gestational age of <12 weeks were recruited and received 400 µg vaginal misoprostol tablets. They were randomized into ...
Neilands J - - 2011
In this study we evaluated the effect of chitosan nanoparticles on the acid tolerance response (ATR) of adhered Streptococcus mutans. An ATR was induced by exposing S. mutans to pH 5.5 for 2 h and confirmed by exposing the acid-adapted cells to pH 3.5 for 30 min, with the majority ...
Liu Liming - - 2011
In the two-step fermentative production of vitamin C, its precursor 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG) was synthesized by Ketogulonicigenium vulgare through co-culture with Bacillus megaterium. The reconstruction of the amino acid metabolic pathway through completed genome sequence annotation demonstrated that K. vulgare was deficient in one or more key enzymes in the ...
Umakoshi Motoki - - 2011
Corynebacterium glutamicum is known as a host species for amino acid production. This microorganism was recently noticed as a host that produces secreted proteins. In this study, we performed (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) on a recombinant C. glutamicum strain that secretes a heterologous transglutaminase (TGase) to improve TGase secretion. ...
Nakata Kenya - - 2011
(R)-(+)-N-Methylbenzoguanidine ((R)-NMBG) was found to function as an efficient acyl-transfer catalyst for the kinetic resolution of racemic secondary benzylic alcohols in the presence of achiral carboxylic acids and pivalic anhydride. The use of a tertiary amine in this reaction is not necessary to attain good chemical yields of the products. ...
Masiak Wioletta - - 2011
The technique of 24-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring combined with pH-metry (MII-pH) is currently considered to be the golden standard in the diagnostics of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The technique allows for differentiation of gas and liquid reflux as well as detection of non-acid reflux, which cannot be detected ...
Ercan D - - 2011
Characterization of traditional cheeses is important for the protection of diversity of tradition and contributing baseline data for further research and quality control. Sepet cheese is a traditional cheese and specific to the Aegean region of Turkey. In this study, 52 Sepet cheese samples were analyzed to characterize the physicochemical, ...
Richter Joel E - - 2011
The following on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and chemoprevention in relation to Barrett's esophagus includes commentaries on 48-h pH monitoring, pH-impedence, bile acid testing, dyspepsia, long/short segment Barrett's esophagus, nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), functional heartburn, dual-release delivery PPIs, immediate-release PPIs, long-term PPI use, prokinetic agents, obesity, baclofen, nocturnal acid breakthrough, ...
McIntosh Lawrence P - - 2011
NMR-monitored pH titration curves of proteins provide a rich source of structural and electrostatic information. Although relatively straightforward to measure, interpreting pH-dependent chemical shift changes to obtain site-specific acid dissociation constants (pK (A) values) is challenging. In order to analyze the biphasic titrations exhibited by the side chain (13)C(γ) nuclei ...
Klein C M - - 2011
Pathways of docosahexaenoic (DHA) biohydrogenation are not known; however, DHA is metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. The addition of DHA to the rumen alters the fatty acid profile of the rumen and milk and leads to increased trans-18:1 isomers, particularly trans-11 18:1. This study included 2 in vitro experiments to identify ...
Azócar Laura - - 2011
One major problem in the lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is the high acidity of the product, mainly caused by water presence, which produces parallel hydrolysis and esterification reactions instead of transesterification to FAME. Therefore, the use of reaction medium in absence of water (anhydrous ...
Thiru Meikandhan - - 2011
The objective of the current report is process optimization for economical production of lipids by the well known oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and conversion of the lipids to biodiesel. A high cell density fed-batch cultivation on low cost substrate viz. crude glycerol resulted in a dry biomass and oil yield ...
El-Alfy Taha S - - 2011
A chemical study of the red type of the seeds of Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter (Poaceae) led to the isolation of seven compounds from its ethanol extract, namely β-sitosterol (1), β-amyrin-3-O-(2'-acetyl(glucoside (2), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (3), naringenin (4), naringenin-4'-methoxy-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (5), eriodictyol-3',7-dimethoxy-4'-O-β-D-glucoside (6) and isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside (7), which are reported for the first time ...
Bartowsky Eveline J - - 2011
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is the bacterially driven decarboxylation of L: -malic acid to L: -lactic acid and carbon dioxide, and brings about deacidification, flavour modification and microbial stability of wine. The main objective of MLF is to decrease wine sourness by a small increase in wine pH via the metabolism ...
Babu R Suresh - - 2011
A novel amperometric sensor for the determination of uric acid was fabricated using room temperature ionic liquid and nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle composite which was immobilized on paraffin wax impregnated graphite electrode. The nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior ...
Fu Jing - - 2011
The specificities of carboxypeptidases from Actinomucor elegans were investigated by determining enzymatic activities at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0 with 16 Z-dipeptides and three Z-tripeptides as substrates. The debittering effect was evaluated and the free amino acid compositions of the soybean protein hydrolysates were analyzed before and after treatment with A. elegans ...
Yu Kyung Ok - - 2011
The high price of petroleum-based diesel fuel has led to the development of alternative fuels, such as ethanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically engineered to utilize glycerol as a substrate for ethanol production. For the synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by engineered S. cerevisiae that utilize glycerol as substrate, ...
Yuan Zhimin - - 2011
CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in an aqueous solution using various mercaptocarboxylic acids, such as 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and thioglycolic acid (TGA), as stabilizing agents. The experimental result indicated that these stabilizing agents played an important role for the properties of the QDs. Although both TGA and MPA-capped CdTe ...
Qureshi Mohd Shadbar - - 2011
Lactic acid produced by fermentation process mostly contains a number of aliphatic carboxylic acids as impurities. In this work, carboxylic acid impurities in lactic acid samples from a number of sources were determined at ppm levels. A simple HPLC method was developed that utilized a new generation polar embedded reverse ...
Jaworska G - - 2011
This study provides a qualitative comparison of blackcurrant and blackcurrant-whey beverages over a 12-month storage period. The amount of extract in the beverages was established as 12%, of which 25% was blackcurrant concentrate. Acid whey was used for the production of blackcurrant-whey beverages. In comparison to blackcurrant-whey beverages, blackcurrant beverages ...
Lemaire Arnaud - - 2011
A simple synthesis pathway has been developed for the design of hierarchically structured spongy or spherical voids assembled meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content on the basis of the aqueous polymerisation of new stabilized alkoxy-bridged single molecular precursors. The intimate mixing of an aluminosilicate ester (sec-BuO)(2)-Al-O-Si(OEt)(3) and a silica ...
Teichert Sarah A - - 2011
Stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) is a plant source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Solvent-free enzymatic interesterification was used to produce structured lipids (SLs) in a 1 L stir-batch reactor with a 1:2 substrate mole ratio of SDASO to tripalmitin, at 65<sup>o</sup>C for 18 h. Two SLs were ...
Zhou Zhengxiong - - 2011
The effects of temperature, agitation rate and medium composition, including concentrations of glucose, soybean peptone, and inorganic ions, on pellet formation and pellet diameter of Rhizopus delemar (Rhizopus oryzae) NRRL1526 during pre-culture were studied. Inorganic ions and soybean peptone had negative and positive effects on pellet formation, respectively. The initial ...
Véras Ilvania C - - 2011
This work aims to demonstrate the enzymatic production of fatty acid ethyl ester biodiesel from highly acidic feedstock in a single-step reaction, without co-solvents and avoiding the inhibition of the enzyme by ethanol and glycerol. Additionally, an empirical equation is proposed to predict the kinetics of the production reaction as ...
Forrest Andrea K - - 2011
The MixAlco™ process biologically converts biomass to carboxylate salts that may be chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. The process utilizes lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock (e.g., municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural residues), creating an economic basis for sustainable biofuels. This study provides a thermodynamic ...
Kim Hyun Jung - - 2011
Our previous study showed β-glucan with low molecular weight (MW, 1.56 × 10<sup>5</sup> g/mol) bound more bile acid and produced greater amounts of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) than did -glucan with high MW (Mn = 6.87 × 10<sup>5</sup> g/mol). In the current study, β-glucan extracted from oat flour was fractionated ...
Shi Zheng - - 2011
A visible-light activatable photoacid has been studied, which upon irradiation, changes from a weak acid, with a pKa of 7.8, to a strong acid, which achieves nearly complete proton dissociation. This process is reversible and the lifetime of the proton-dissociation state is ~70s. The long lifetime of the proton-dissociation state ...
Morita Tomotake - - 2011
Cryptococcus humicola JCM 1461 efficiently produced cellobiose lipids (CLs), bolaform biosurfactants. The main product was identified as 16-O-(2″,3″,4″,6'-tetra-O-acetyl-β-cellobiosyl)-2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. The production yield of CLs reached 13.1 g/L under the intermittent feeding of glucose. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the main product at pH 4.0 and 7.0 were 3.3×10(-5) M ...
Gao Chao - - 2011
Lactic acid, the most important hydroxycarboxylic acid, is now commercially produced by the fermentation of sugars present in biomass. In addition to its use in the synthesis of biodegradable polymers, lactic acid can be regarded as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Different potentially useful chemicals such ...
Liao Li - - 2011
A new agarase, AgaA(CN41), cloned from Vibrio sp. strain CN41, consists of 990 amino acids, with only 49% amino acid sequence identity with known β-agarases. AgaA(CN41) belongs to the GH50 (glycoside hydrolase 50) family but yields neoagarotetraose as the end product. AgaA(CN41) was expressed and characterized.
Hibi Makoto - - 2011
We determined the enzymatic characteristics of an industrially important biocatalyst, α-ketoglutarate-dependent l-isoleucine dioxygenase (IDO), which was found to be the enzyme responsible for the generation of (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine in Bacillus thuringiensis 2e2. Depending on the amino acid used as the substrate, IDO catalyzed three different types of oxidation reactions: hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, ...
Poureslami Reza - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The health benefits of n-3 fatty acids have led to much research on manipulating the fatty acid composition of animal-derived foods. In this study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction of dietary fatty acids on egg yolk fatty acid concentrations. In experiment I, 32 dietary treatments with ...
Berenjian Aydin - - 2011
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nutrients on the production of menaquinone-7 and determine the optimum conditions to achieve a high concentration of this product. Bacillus subtilis natto was fermented at 40°C for a period of six days. Design of experiments was used for screening ...
Blanco-Vega Dora - - 2011
Formation of wine pyranoanthocyanins in model wine was monitored by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, using red grape skin extracts and wine fermentation metabolites (acetaldehyde, pyruvic and acetoacetic acids, and diacetyl) and also hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acids). Pyruvic acid and acetaldehyde reacted fast, the first reaching high product yield and ...
Cao Y - - 2011
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beet pulp (BP) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal dry matter (DM) digestion of vegetable residues, including white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, and lettuce. Silage was prepared using a small-scale fermentation ...
Kurt S - - 2011
To determine the optimum meat mixture combination, the effects of different meat sources on physical, chemical, and sensory properties of cooked or stored meat patties were investigated using a response surface methodology mixture design. Meat patties were prepared using chicken, turkey, beef, and beef back fat. They were divided 2 ...
Ebrahimia Seyed Hadi - - 2011
The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) in combination with fumaric acid (FMA) may provide complementary effects to inhibit methanogens and enhance rumen's capacity for better utilisation of FMA towards propionate production. Three levels of AQ and four levels of FMA were tested ...
Caroprese M - - 2011
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of protection from solar radiation and whole flaxseed supplementation on milk yield and milk fatty acid profile in lactating ewes exposed to high ambient temperature. The experiment was conducted during summer and involved 40 ewes divided into 4 groups. The ...
Otto R A - - 2011
During mechanical fish processing, a substantial amount of protein is discarded as by-products. Isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) is a process that uses extreme pH shifts to solubilize and precipitate protein from by-products to recover previously discarded protein. Typically, strong acids are used for pH reduction, but these acids do ...
Nemoto Hideyuki - - 2011
The aim of this study is to investigate the prebiotic effects of brown rice fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) on the intestinal environment in vitro and in healthy adults. Methods: Fresh fecal slurries from six healthy adults were incubated with FBRA to confirm prebiotic potentials of FBRA. Another thirty-six healthy ...
Lindquist Birgitta - - 2011
Lindquist B, Lingström P, Fändriks L, Birkhed D. Influence of five neutralizing products on intra-oral pH after rinsing with simulated gastric acid. Eur J Oral Sci 2011; 119: 301-304. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci The aetiology of dental erosion may be of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. The aim ...
Jang Sung-Hee - - 2011
Samples of breast milk were collected at postpartum weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 from 104 Korean mothers who had delivered infants at less than 34 weeks or weighing less than 1.8 kg to investigate changes in fatty acid (FAs). Full-term breast milk (FBM) collected at the end ...
Alonso Saúl - - 2011
Lactobionic acid finds applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and medicine. The production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens was studied in shake-flasks and in a bioreactor. Shake-flask experiments showed that lactobionic acid was a non-growth associated product. A two-stage pH-shift bioconversion strategy with a pH-uncontrolled above ...
Zhang Zi-Xing - - 2011
1,3,5,7-Tetramethyl-8-(N-hydroxysuccinimidyl butyric ester)difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (TMBB-Su), a new BODIPY-based fluorescent probe, was designed and synthesized for the labeling of amino compounds. It was used as a pre-column derivatizing reagent for determination of amino acid neurotransmitters by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fluorescence quantum yield in acetonitrile increased from 0.84 to 0.95 when ...
Chen Ling-Yan - - 2011
Binaphthyl based chiral sulfonimide (CSI) is demonstrated for the first time to be an efficient strong Brønsted acid in asymmetric organocatalysis. A series of CSIs were synthesized and screened in asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with imines. Good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities have been achieved. It also proved that ...
Rimaux T - - 2011
The genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei 23K has revealed that the species L. sakei harbors several genes involved in the catabolism of energy sources other than glucose in meat, such as glycerol, arginine, and nucleosides. In this study, a screening of 15 L. sakei strains revealed that arginine, inosine, and ...
Lefeber Timothy - - 2011
Among various lactic acid bacterial strains tested, cocoa-specific strains of Lactobacillus fermentum were best adapted to the cocoa pulp ecosystem. They fermented glucose to lactic acid and acetic acid, reduced fructose to mannitol, and converted citric acid into lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol.
Freiding Simone - - 2012
Branched chain aminotransferases (IlvE/BcaT), specific for leucine, isoleucine, and valine initialize the formation of methyl-branched volatiles, which are strongly linked to the typical aroma of cured meat products. Lactobacillus sakei, one of the dominating lactic acid bacteria species for meat fermentations and commonly used as starter lacks this enzyme, whereas ...
Chen Yigen - - 2011
The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results ...
Li Zhu - - 2011
The parameters of intracellular acidic compartments are altered in apoptosis, autophagy, cancer metastasis, etc. Low background and selective staining of lysosomes and autophagosomes was achieved with N-(rhodamine 6G)-lactam-ethylenediamine (R6G-EDA) which fluoresces in acidic vesicles via pH mediated ring opening of the intramolecular lactam. Long retention time of R6G-EDA in lysosomes ...
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