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Poulsen Morten - - 2011
Methane emission from livestock, ruminants in particular, contributes to the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Therefore the focus on methane emission from ruminants has increased. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms for methanogenesis in a rumen fluid-based in vitro fermentation system as a consequence of ...
Franco Wendy - - 2012
Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and ...
Lux Stefanie - - 2011
It is proven that nuts contain essential macro- and micronutrients, e.g. fatty acids, vitamins and dietary fibre (DF). Fermentation of DF by the gut microflora results in the formation of SCFA which are recognised for their chemopreventive potential, especially by influencing cell growth. However, little is known about cellular response ...
Chen Ye - - 2011
Dilute acid pretreatment is a leading pretreatment technology for biomass to ethanol conversion due to the comparatively low chemical cost and effective hemicellulose solubilization. The conventional dilute acid pretreatment processes use relatively large quantities of sulfuric acid and require alkali for pH adjustment afterwards. Significant amounts of sulfate salts are ...
Gursoy Oguz - - 2011
Pickle white cheeses were produced from whole milk with five different probiotic cultures (Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus paracasei, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of cheeses ranged from 3.52 to 3.92 mg/g. Probiotic differences and storage process have not affected the CLA contents of the samples ...
Panesar Parmjit S - - 2011
Whey, the liquid remaining after milk fat and casein have been separated from whole milk, is one of the major disposal problems of the dairy industry, and demands simple and economical solutions. In view of the fast developments in biotechnological techniques, alternatives of treating whey by transforming lactose present in ...
Huang Jitao T - - 2011
The successful prediction of protein-folding rates based on the sequence-predicted secondary structure suggests that the folding rates might be predicted from sequence alone. To pursue this question, we directly predict the folding rates from amino acid sequences, which do not require any information on secondary or tertiary structure. Our work ...
Grzenia David L - - 2011
Acid-pretreated biomass contains various compounds (acetic acid, etc.) that are inhibitory to fermentative microorganisms. Removing or deactivating these compounds using detoxification methods such as overliming or ammonium hydroxide conditioning (AHC) improves sugar-to-ethanol yields. In this study, we treated the liquor fraction of dilute-acid-pretreated corn stover using AHC and a new ...
Liu Jun-Xian - - 2011
The monosodium glutamate (MSG) wastewater as a medium was treated by Lipomyces starkeyi to produce microbial lipid in the study. The effect of related factors (initial glucose concentration, inoculation concentration, initial culture pH, and cultivation time) on biomass, lipid production and lipid content was discussed, respectively. According to the experiments, ...
Graebin Natália G - - 2011
A new biocatalyst of lipase B from Candida antarctica (MCI-CALB) immobilized on styrene-divinylbenzene beads (MCI GEL CHP20P) was compared with the commercial Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase) in terms of their performances as biocatalysts for the esterification of acetic acid and n-butanol. The effects of experimental conditions on reaction rates differed ...
Kasankala Ladislaus - - 2011
Silver carp fish pastes inoculated with or without a douchi starter culture containing live Aspergillus oryzae were fermented for 30 days to produce two different fermented products, designated as CulF and ConF, respectively. Protein degradation and flavor compound production during the course of fermentation were monitored. Proteolytic activity, generally higher ...
Wu Chongde - - 2011
Lactobacillus casei has traditionally been recognized as a probiotic and frequently used as an adjunct culture in fermented dairy products, where acid stress is an environmental condition commonly encountered. In the present study, we carried out a comparative physiological and proteomic study to investigate lactic-acid-induced alterations in Lactobacillus casei Zhang ...
Nishino Naoki - - 2011
Aims:  Acetic acid is considered an important preservative in tropical grass ensiling. The objective of the current experiments was to follow the ensiling fermentation of low DM tropical grass as a model to study changes in bacterial communities during acetic acid fermentation. Methods and Results:  Direct-cut and wilted guinea grass ...
Pujol Laure - - 2012
Preservative factors act as hurdles against microorganisms by inhibiting their growth; these are essential control measures for particular food-borne pathogens. Different combinations of hurdles can be quantified and compared to each other in terms of their inhibitory effect ("iso-hurdle"). We present here a methodology for establishing microbial iso-hurdle rules in ...
Higgins Trefor - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias together form the most common genetic disease in the world. Double heterozygosity, in which there is a hemoglobin variant, in both the α- and non-α globin chains, is very unusual. A novel double heterozygosity of the α chain variant HbQ India with the non-α chain HbD ...
Povolo Milena - - 2011
The determination of the geographical origin of dairy products is still an on-going issue. In this paper the effects of botanical diversity of two pastures on the hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of cheese fat were studied, over two years of experimentation. Two areas in the Italian South-Western Alpine region, ...
Al-Shorgani Najeeb Kaid Nasser - - 2011
Rice bran (RB) and de-oiled rice bran (DRB) have been treated and used as the carbon source in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The results showed that pretreated DRB produced more ABE than pretreated RB. Dilute sulfuric acid was the most suitable treatment method among the various pretreatment ...
Potturi Hima K - - 2011
Aliphatic or aromatic N,N-disubstituted nitrosamine was generated in fair to excellent yield from the reaction of a secondary or tertiary amine with o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) or o-iodosylbenzoic acid (IBA)/R4NX (X = halide) and nitromethane. The product yield was strongly influenced by both the halide of R4NX and iodanes. IBX gave ...
Wang Changhui - - 2011
Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids ...
Li Jianqing - - 2011
In the presence of AlMe(3), amines can be directly coupled with acids through dimethylaluminum amide intermediates to form the corresponding amides. A wide range of amines and acids including less nucleophilic amines, bulky amines, unprotected secondary amino acids, and acids with poor solubility were coupled smoothly to give the desired ...
Sawai Hideki - - 2011
This report describes the production of highly optically pure D-lactic acid by the continuous fermentation of Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus and S. inulinus, using a membrane-integrated fermentation (MFR) system. The optical purity of D-lactic acid produced by the continuous fermentation system was greater than that produced by batch fermentation; the maximum value ...
Kim Hee Taek - - 2011
A sugar platform equipped with acetic acid, multiple agarases and neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH) converted recalcitrant agar polysaccharide into monosugars, which was evaluated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The sugar platform was divided into chemical liquefaction and enzymatic saccharification. The chemical liquefaction was carried out in mild conditions (using a ...
Jung Ji Young - - 2011
Kimchi fermentation usually relies upon the growth of naturally-occurring various heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This sometimes makes it difficult to produce kimchi with uniform quality. The use of Leuconostoc mesenteroides as a starter has been considered to produce commercial fermented kimchi with uniform and good quality in Korea. In ...
Xia En-Qin - - 2011
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main bioactive compounds in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antimutagenic and anticancer properties. In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from L. lucidum Ait was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several ...
Andrés-Barrao Cristina - - 2011
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic microorganisms that show a unique resistance to ethanol (EtOH) and acetic acid (AcH). Members of the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera are capable of transforming EtOH into AcH via the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes and are used for the ...
Willamil Joseane - - 2011
The main objective of this work was to investigate the potential of a microencapsulated mixture of organic acids (formic and lactic acid) added to the feed of fattening pigs to reduce the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella when arriving to the abattoir. Two trials were performed. In Trial 1, 24 ...
Chandra Behera Gobinda - - 2011
A novel solid acid catalyst has been extensively used for the esterification reaction. Herein, tungstate promoted vanadium phosphate material is fabricated from its precursor, VOHPO(4)·0.5H(2)O and its catalytic activities and structure are investigated in detail. This kind of catalyst is, for the first time, applied for the effective production of ...
Rink Franziska - - 2011
The bacteria of the intestine have to cope with varying osmotic conditions in their ecosystem. In this in vitro study, the modified Hohenheim gas test (HGT) was used to determine fermentation activity and bacterial composition of pig's faecal microbial inoculum, when fermenting different carbohydrates (inulin, corn starch, potato starch, cellulose, ...
Zhang Dan-Feng - - 2011
An L<sub>16</sub> (4<sup>5</sup>) orthogonal experimental design was used to evaluate combination effects of nitroethane (0-15 mM), 2-nitroethanol (0-15 mM), 2-nitro-1-propanol (0-15 mM), pyromellitic diimide (0-0.07 mM) and 2-bromoethanesulfonate (0-0.05 mM) on in vitro ruminal fermentation of a grain-rich feed. In vitro dry matter disappearance was adversely affected by these inhibitors, ...
Posada John A - - 2011
Glycerol has become an ideal feedstock for producing fuels and chemicals. Here, five technological schemes for optically pure D: -lactic acid production from raw glycerol were designed, simulated, and economically assessed based on five fermentative scenarios using engineered Escherichia coli strains. Fermentative scenarios considered different qualities of glycerol (pure, 98 wt.%, ...
Cimini Donatella - - 2011
This review provides an overview of the properties, different biosynthetic machineries, and biotechnological production processes of four microbially derived glucuronic acid-based polysaccharides that are of interest for diverse biomedical purposes. In particular, the utilization of hyaluronic acid and heparin sulfate in high-value medical applications is already well established, whereas chondroitin ...
Bretz Karlheinz - - 2011
The aim of this work was the development of a feed-control for a succinic acid production fed-batch process. The performed batch trials indicated a correlation between succinic acid production and base consumption pH control. Based on the metabolism of A. succiniciproducens, a theoretical correlation between base consumption and glucose feed ...
Zhao Xuebing - - 2011
Sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed with 0.4-5wt.% sulfuric acid at 97-126°C. A novel kinetic model was proposed to describe glycan solubilization and formation of monosaccharides. Based on the multilayered structure of plant cell wall, the concept of "potential hydrolysis degree" (h(d))? was introduced into kinetic models for the hydrolysis of biomass ...
Jamalzadeh Elaheh - - 2012
Microbial production of C(4) dicarboxylic acids from renewable resources has gained renewed interest. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a robust microorganism and is able to grow at low pH, which makes it a suitable candidate for biological production of organic acids. However, a successful metabolic engineering approach for ...
Mraz Jan - - 2011
There is evidence that n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for human health, especially for the cardiovascular system. The sources of n-3 HUFA, including EPA and DHA, are scarce in diet consumed by the Czech population. Thus, it would ...
Zhao Guang - - 2011
In this study, fermentation liquor from rice straw was used to produce bioflocculants during a dry fermentation process. Acetic acid and butyric acid were the predominant VFAs during the process. A compound bioflocculant producing inoculum, F(+) was inoculated into compound media in which fermentation liquor and conventional bioflocculants medium at ...
Zhou Xu - - 2011
Conventional Alamo switchgrass and its transgenic counterparts with reduced/modified lignin were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment for improved sugar production. At 150°C, the effects of acid concentration (0.75%, 1%, 1.25%) and residence time (5, 10, 20, 30min) on sugar productions in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated, with the ...
Teichert Sarah A - - 2011
Structured lipids (SLs) from stearidonic acid (SDA) soybean oil pre-enriched with palmitic acid (PA) at the sn-2 position with Novozym 435 (NSL) or Lipozyme TL IM (LSL) from our previous research were further enriched with γ-linolenic acid (GLA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Small scale acidolysis reactions with Lipozyme TL IM ...
Gopinath Vipin - - 2011
Corynebacterium glutamicum, the industrial microbe traditionally used for the production of amino acids, proved its value for the fermentative production of diverse products through genetic/metabolic engineering. A successful demonstration of the heterologous expression of arabinose and xylose utilization genes made them interesting biocatalysts for pentose fermentation, which are the main ...
Redwood Mark D - - 2011
Electrodialysis, an electrochemical membrane technique, was found to prolong and enhance the production of biohydrogen and purified organic acids via the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Through the design of a model electrodialysis medium using cationic buffer, pH was precisely controlled electrokinetically, i.e. by the regulated extraction of ...
Kim Sooyeon - - 2011
The investigation on the self-assembly of polydeoxyadenylic acid (poly(dA)) is of high importance to fully understand its biological function and for the nano-machine application. Using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique, we report investigations for the self-assembly of adenine oligomers induced by pH and coralyne binding at the single-molecule ...
Ben Bacha Abir G - - 2011
We purified to homogeneity and characterized a heat stable thioredoxin which catalyzes thiol/disulfide exchange reaction, for the first time from dromedary pancreas. The purification involved heat and acidic treatment (90 °C; pH 2.5), precipitation by ammonium sulphate and ethanol, respectively followed by sequential column chromatography reverse HPLC column, and it resulted ...
Max Belén - - 2011
4-Vinyl guaiacol (3-methoxy 4-hydroxystyrene) can be obtained by decarboxylation of ferulic acid by the strain Streptomyces setonii ATCC 39116. The formation of this metabolite was favoured by microaerobic conditions and the culture medium employed, increasing progressively the product concentration from 543.3 up to 885.1 mg/l when aeration level was diminished, reaching ...
Gao Chao - - 2011
(R)-2-Hydroxybutyric acid ((R)-2-HBA) is an important building block for azinothricin family of antitumour antibiotics and biodegradable poly(2-hydroxybutyric acid). However, optically active (R)-2-HBA could not be produced through microbial fermentation or chemical synthesis. Several biocatalytic methods have been reported for the production of (R)-2-HBA. Those processes used expensive and scarce substrates ...
Ye Chunhong - - 2011
We demonstrate the assembly of extremely robust and pH-responsive thin shell LbL microcapsules from silk fibroin counterparts modified with poly(lysine) and poly(glutamic) acid, which are based on biocompatible silk ionomer materials in contrast with usually exploited synthetic polyelectrolytes. The microcapsules are extremely stable in an unusually wide pH range from ...
Bardhan Karna Dev - - 2012
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is mediated principally by acid. Today, we recognise reflux reaches beyond the esophagus, where pepsin, not acid, causes damage. Extraesophageal reflux occurs both as liquid and probably aerosol, the latter with a further reach. Pepsin is stable up to pH 7 and regains activity after reacidification. The ...
Depauw S - - 2011
As wild felids are obligate carnivores, it is likely that poorly enzymatically digestible animal tissues determine hindgut fermentation, instead of plant fibre. Therefore, faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, including branched-chain fatty acids, BCFA), indole and phenol were evaluated in 14 captive cheetahs, fed two different diets differing in ...
Al-Khusaibi Mohammed M Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, - - 2012
Frozen par-fried French fries are finish-fried either by using the same type of oil used for par frying, or a different type. The nutritive quality of the final oil contained in the product depends on the relative amounts and the fatty acid (FA) composition of the oils used for par ...
Wang Yingcai - - 2011
We have previously reported that optimization of a series of phenylacetic acid derivatives led to the discovery of CRTH2 and DP dual antagonists, such as AMG 009 and AMG 853. During the optimization process, we discovered that minor structural modifications also afforded potent and selective CRTH2 or DP antagonists. Here ...
Ossenkopp Klaus-Peter - - 2011
Propionic acid, an enteric bacterial fermentation product, has received recent attention in regards to satiety and obesity in humans. The possibility that propionic acid might produce internal aversive cues was investigated in two experiments using conditioned taste avoidance and place avoidance procedures to index the potential aversive nature of systemic ...
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