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Tang Lirong - - 2012
Esterified cellulose nanocrystals (E-CNCs) are cellulose derivatives that could be applied in biomedical and chemical industries. E-CNCs were prepared with cellulose pulp using a mixture of 17.5M acetic and 18.4M sulfuric acid with the aid of ultrasonication. The effects of esterification time (3-7h), ultrasonication time (with a frequency of 40kHz, ...
Passos Priscila Pereira - - 2012
Essential fatty acids play a crucial role in the activity of several neurotransmission systems, especially in the monoaminergic systems involved in cognitive and motor aspects of behavior. The present study investigated whether essential fatty acid dietary restriction over two generations could differentially affect dopaminergic cell populations located in the substantia ...
Martin Melanie A MA Integrative Anthropological Sciences, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-3210, USA. - - 2012
Breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition varies greatly among individual women, including in percentages of the long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFA) 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, AA) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), which are important for infant neurological development. It has been suggested that owing to wide variation in milk LCPUFA and low ...
Saga Linda C - - 2012
This study investigated data obtained from whole blood fatty acid (FA) composition of 3476 Norwegian and Swedish individuals, which provided background information including age, gender, nationality and self-motivated n-3 supplement consumption. The aim of this paper was to statistically relate this background information on the subjects to their whole blood ...
Yokota S - - 2012
The fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) (SCD) genes affect fatty acid composition. This study evaluated the contributions of polymorphisms of these genes on fatty acid composition in muscle in two different populations: 1189 and 1058 Japanese Black cattle from the Miyagi and the Yamagata populations respectively. We ...
Bi Hongkai - - 2012
Signal molecules of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family have been shown recently to be involved in regulation of pathogenesis and biofilm formation in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. DSF signals are reported to be active not only on their cognate bacteria, but also on unrelated bacteria and the pathogenic yeast, Candida ...
Wang Xiaoxu - - 2012
The transition period is a severe challenge to dairy cows. Glucose supply cannot meet demand and body fat is mobilized, potentially leading to negative energy balance (NEB), ketosis, or fatty liver. Propionate produces glucose by gluconeogenesis, which depends heavily on the number and species of microbes. In the present study, ...
Palacios-Chaves Leyre - - 2012
The brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens of mammals that are transmitted by contact with infected animals or contaminated materials. Several major lipidic components of the Brucella cell envelope are imperfectly recognized by innate immunity thus contributing to virulence. These components carry large proportions of acyl chains of lactobacillic acid, a ...
Molla Gianluca - - 2012
D: -Amino acids play several key roles and are widely diffused in living organisms, from bacteria (in which D: -alanine is a component of the cell wall) to mammals (where D: -serine is involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system). The study of the biological processes involving D: ...
Li Robert W - - 2012
The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty one phyla were identified in the rumen microbiota of ...
Wallace John L - - 2012
The mechanisms underlying the ability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to cause ulceration in the stomach and proximal duodenum are well understood, and this injury can largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion (mainly with proton pump inhibitors). In contrast, the pathogenesis of small intestinal injury induced by ...
Lanéelle Marie-Antoinette - - 2011
Corynebacterineae are characterized by the presence of long-chain lipids, notably mycolic acids (α-alkyl, β-hydroxy fatty acids), the structures of which are genus-specific. Mycolic acids from two environmental strains, Amycolicicoccus subflavus and Hoyosella altamirensis, were isolated and their structures established using a combination of mass spectrometry analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and chemical ...
Li Wen-Juan - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of ethanol-soluble acidic components (ESAC) from Ganoderma atrum as a novel source against bacteria and oxidation in food industry. The qualitative analysis of ESAC was based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and eight ganoderic acids were identified in ESAC. Its ...
Cui Yanhua - - 2011
The Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is of vital importance to the food industry, especially to the dairy industry. Two component systems (TCSs) are one of the most important mechanisms for environmental sensing and signal transduction in the majority of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A typical TCS consists of ...
Nyanga-Koumou Armand P - - 2011
Regulation of the cytoplasmic or internal pH (pHin) is a fundamental requirement for the survival and viability of bacteria. The optimum pHin for most bacteria is near the neutral point (pH 7.0). Therefore, bacteria may have some strategies to adapt themselves to the acidity or alkalinity of cytoplasm. As other ...
Wells A - - 2011
Aims:  To investigate the impact of acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid bound sulfur dioxide on wine lactic acid bacteria. Methods and Results:  Growth studies were performed where Oenococcus oeni, Pediococcus parvulus, P. damnosus, and Lactobacillus hilgardii were inoculated into media containing various concentrations of acetaldehyde or pyruvic acid and an equimolar ...
Fischer Carol L - - 2012
There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations ...
Wang Jifu - - 2011
We report novel robust resin acid-derived antimicrobial agents that exhibit excellent antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of bacteria (6 Gram-positive and 7 Gram-negative) with selective lysis of microbial membranes over mammalian membranes. Our results indicate that hydrophobicity and unique structures of resin acids can be determining factors in dictating ...
Estrada J D - - 2011
Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate ...
Li Ming - - 2011
An urgent need exists for HIV-1 microbicides. Here, we describe the in vivo testing of lactic acid bacteria bioengineered to secrete cyanovirin-N. We fed pigtail macaques a yogurt formulation that used bioengineered strains as a starter culture. Cyanovirin-N expression could be detected in the rectal vault during and immediately after ...
Yu Bo - - 2011
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a type of probiotic bacteria with industrial potential for L-lactic acid production. We announce the draft genome sequence of L. rhamnosus CASL (2,855,156 bp with a G+C content of 46.6%), which is an efficient producer of L-lactic acid from cheap, nonfood substrate cassava with a high production ...
Quévrain Elodie - - 2011
The fatty acid composition of the temperate calcareous marine sponge Leuconia johnstoni Carter 1871 (Calcaronea, Calcarea) was characterized for the first time in specimens collected off the Brittany coast of France over four years from October 2005 to September 2008. Forty-one fatty acids (FA) with chain lengths ranging from C(14) to ...
de Carvalho Carla C C R - - 2011
Bioremediation of contaminated sites is rarely performed in nature under ideal growth conditions for bacteria. Extremophiles can grow at extreme values of temperature, pH, ionic strength and metal concentrations, etc., but it may be difficult to find and isolate those possessing the required metabolic activities. In the present work, Rhodococcus ...
Rizzello Carlo G - - 2011
This study aimed to exploit the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release lunasin during fermentation of cereal and nonconventional flours. The peptidase activities of a large number of sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened using synthetic substrates. Selected lactic acid bacteria were used as sourdough starters to ferment ...
Stafford G G Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. - - 2012
Periodontal pathogens, like any other human commensal or pathogenic bacterium, must possess both the ability to acquire the necessary growth factors and the means to adhere to surfaces or reside and survive in their environmental niche. Recent evidence has suggested that sialic acid containing host molecules may provide both of ...
Hoyle Parks A R - - 2011
Growth of pathogenic organisms such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. can be inhibited in ground beef though addition of certain lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51, Lactobacillus crispatus NP35, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis). This study evaluated the effects of LAB inclusion on the ...
Hino Shingo - - 2011
We evaluated the ameliorating effects of short-chain inulin-like fructans (SIF) with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the healing stage of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. The rats were assigned to 3 groups 10 d after the colitis induction, and fed for 24 d on a control diet ...
Dupuis Stephanie N - - 2011
Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 is recognized for the production of chloramphenicol and the jadomycin family of natural products. The jadomycins are angucycline natural products containing a unique oxazolone ring incorporating an amino acid present in the minimal culture media. Substitution of different amino acids results in products of varying biological activity. ...
Zanet Caio Gorgulho - - 2011
Acid erosion is a superficial loss of enamel caused by chemical processes that do not involve bacteria. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as the presence of acid substances in the oral cavity, may cause a pH reduction, thus potentially increasing acid erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...
Romano Ariel A - - 2012
Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing (QS). An important class of quorum sensing molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). It was recently discovered that a degradation product of the QS molecule 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone, the tetramic acid ...
Huang Xiang-Feng - - 2011
Considering that the surface properties of demulsifying cells correlate with their demulsification efficiency, the demulsifying bacteria Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1 with various surface properties were obtained using different vegetable oils as carbon sources. The results show that better performance was achieved with demulsifying bacteria S-XJ-1 possessing a relatively high cell surface ...
Ranilla Lena Gálvez - - 2011
The potential of water extracts of the Amazon medicinal plant Chancapiedra (Phyllanthus niruri L.) from Ecuador and Peru for antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori and different strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. H. pylori was inhibited by both water extracts ...
Lebeer Sarah - - 2011
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) mutants of lactobacilli suppress inflammation in animal models of experimental colitis. The fact that a single mutation of an administered Lactobacillus strain can result in enhanced probiotic efficacy is surprising given the genetic diversity and complexity of the intestinal niche, but at the same time exciting from ...
Rezanka Tomáš - - 2011
Novel rhamnolipid-producing strains of three thermophilic bacteria, Thermus sp., T. aquaticus and Meiothermus ruber were identified that have not been previously described as rhamnolipid producers. Rhamnolipids were extracted from supernatant and further purified by thin-layer chromatography. Mass spectrometry with negative electrospray ionization revealed 77 rhamnolipid homologues varying in chain length ...
Young Douglas D - - 2011
The site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins in bacteria is made possible by the evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that selectively recognize and aminoacylate the amino acid of interest. Recently we have discovered that some of the previously evolved aaRSs display a degree of polyspecificity and are capable ...
Perez Gutierrez Rosa Martha - - 2011
Three new isopimarane diterpenes 7β-hydroxy-19α-methylmalonyloxy-isopimara-8(14),15-diene (1), 7β-hydroxy-14-oxo-isopimara-8(9),15-dien-19oic acid (2), and 7β-hydroxy-14-oxo-19α-methylmalonyloxy-isopimara-9(11),15-diene (3) in addition to the known compounds isopimaric acid (4), 7oxo-13-epi-pimara-14,15-dien-18oic acid (5), 7oxo-13-epi-pimara-8,15-dien-18oic acid (6), and 6β-hydroxyisopimaric acid (7) were isolated from the hexane extract of Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum. The structures of compounds 1-7 were established by 1D and ...
Gustaw Waldemar - - 2011
Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com-pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe-cific beneficial (probiotic) gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented ...
Bohorquez Laura C - - 2011
The microbial community of a Colombian high mountain hot spring, El Coquito, was analyzed using three different culture-independent assessments of 16S ribosomal RNA genes: clone libraries, pyrosequencing of the V5-V6 hypervariable region, and microarray. This acidic spring had a diverse community composed mainly of Bacteria that shared characteristics with those ...
Isabella Vincent M - - 2011
Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic ...
Bilgili Mehmet Sinan - - 2011
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leachate recirculation and aeration on volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in aerobic and anaerobic landfill leachate samples. In this study, two aerobic (A1, A2) and two anaerobic (AN1, AN2) reactors with (A1, AN1) and without (A2, AN2) leachate ...
Kyung Kyu Hang - - 2011
The antimicrobial activity of Allium species has long been recognized, with allicin, other thiosulfinates, and their transformation products having antimicrobial activity. Alliums are inhibitory against all tested microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Alliums inhibit multi-drug-resistant microorganisms and often work synergistically with common antimicrobials. Allium-derived antimicrobial compounds inhibit ...
Sánchez-Maldonado Alma F - - 2011
Aims:  To determine structure-function relationships of antibacterial phenolic acids and their metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Methods and Results:  Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 6 hydroxybenzoic and 6 hydroxycinnamic acids were determined with Lactobacillus plantarum, L. hammesii, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis as indicator strains. The antibacterial activity ...
de Vos Willem M - - 2011
Lactic acid bacteria are among the powerhouses of the food industry, colonize the surfaces of plants and animals, and contribute to our health and well-being. The genomic characterization of LAB has rocketed and presently over 100 complete or nearly complete genomes are available, many of which serve as scientific paradigms. ...
Garneau Josiane E - - 2011
Every biotechnology process that relies on the use of bacteria to make a product or to overproduce a molecule may, at some time, struggle with the presence of virulent phages. For example, phages are the primary cause of fermentation failure in the milk transformation industry. This review focuses on the ...
Parsons Joshua B - - 2011
The rationale for the pursuit of bacterial type 2 fatty acid synthesis (FASII) as a target for antibacterial drug discovery in Gram-positive organisms is being debated vigorously based on their ability to incorporate extracellular fatty acids. The regulation of FASII by extracellular fatty acids was examined in Staphylococcus aureus and ...
Parsons Joshua B - - 2011
The emergence of resistance against most current drugs emphasizes the need to develop new approaches to control bacterial pathogens, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is one such target that is being actively pursued by several research groups to develop anti-Staphylococcal agents. Recently, the wisdom of this approach has ...
Wu Jia Jia - - 2012
Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic ...
Spangenberg L - - 2011
MOTIVATION: We present a method that identifies associations between amino acid changes in potentially significant sites in an alignment (taking into account several amino acid properties) with phenotypic data, through the phylogenetic mixed model. The latter accounts for the dependency of the observations (organisms). It is known from previous studies ...
Craig Jeffrey W - - 2011
Clones that encode the biosynthesis of long-chain N-acyl amino acids are frequently recovered from activity-based screens of soil metagenomic libraries. Members of a diverse set of enzymes referred to as N-acyl amino acid synthases are responsible for the production of all metagenome-derived N-acyl amino acids characterized to date. Based on ...
Barzantny H - - 2011
During the past few decades, there has been an increased interest in the essential role of commensal skin bacteria in human body odour formation. It is now generally accepted that skin bacteria cause body odour by biotransformation of sweat components secreted in the human axillae. Especially, aerobic corynebacteria have been ...
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