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Gioiello Antimo A Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via del Liceo 1, I-06122 Perugia (Italy). - - 2014
Bile acids are a peculiar class of steroidal compounds that never cease to amaze. From being simple detergents with a primary role in facilitating the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, bile acids are now widely considered as crucial hormones endowed with genomic and non-genomic functions that are mediated by ...
Upadhyaya Bikram P BP Center for Bioprocessing Research & Development, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City 57701, SD, USA; Biomedical Engineering Program, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City 57701, SD, - - 2014
Metabolic engineering is a powerful biotechnological tool that finds, among others, increased use in constructing microbial strains for higher lactic acid productivity, lower costs and reduced pollution. Engineering the metabolic pathways has concentrated on improving the lactic acid fermentation parameters, enhancing the acid tolerance of production organisms and their abilities ...
Yan Pu-Cha PC Zhejiang Jiuzhou Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 99 Waisha Road, Jiaojiang District, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province 318000, P. R. China. - - 2014
A new efficient and highly enantioselective direct asymmetric hydrogenation of α-keto acids employing the Ir/SpiroPAP catalyst under mild reaction conditions has been developed. This method might be feasible for the preparation of a series of chiral α-hydroxy acids on a large scale.
Shaik Firdose Begum FB Department of Zoology, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, 516 003, AP, - - 2014
The aim of this paper is to review the developments of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) biology, its ligands, and various functions, in particular we discuss the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic role in chronic inflammatory diseases. FXR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The accrued data ...
Liu Xiandong X State Key Laboratory for Mineral Deposits Research, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China. - - 2014
We report a first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) study of surface acid chemistry of the two growth surfaces of quartz, (101[combining macron]0) (including Alpha and Beta terminations) and (101[combining macron]1) facets. The interfacial hydration structures are characterized in detail and the intrinsic pKas of surface silanols are evaluated using the ...
Liu Yan Y School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China). - - 2014
Two chiral carboxylic acid functionalized micro- and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by the stepwise assembly of triple-stranded heptametallic helicates with six carboxylic acid groups. The mesoporous MOF with permanent porosity functions as a host for encapsulation of an enantiopure organic amine catalyst by combining carboxylic acids and chiral ...
Wu Jing J Food and Biobased Research, Wageningen University and Research Center, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG, Wageningen (The Netherlands); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (The Netherlands); Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), P.O. Box 902, 5600 AX, Eindhoven (The - - 2014
New carbohydrate-based polyesters were prepared from isoidide-2,5-dimethanol (extended isoidide, XII) through melt polymerization with dimethyl esters of terephthalic acid (TA) and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), yielding semi-crystalline prepolymers. Subsequent solid-state post-condensation (SSPC) gave high molecular weight (Mn =30 kg mol(-1) for FDCA) materials, the first examples of high Mn , semi-aromatic homopolyesters containing ...
Vasudevan Sukumaran - - 2014
The theoretical estimation of the dissociation constant, or pKa, of weak acids continues to be a challenging field. Here we show that ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with metadynamics calculations of the free energy profile of the dissociation reaction provide reasonable estimates of the pKa value. Water ...
Zhou Yige - - 2014
The electrochemical detection of nucleic acids using an electrocatalytic reporter system and nanostructured microelectrodes is a powerful approach to ultrasensitive biosensing. In this report we systematically studied for the first time the behavior of an electrocatalytic redox pair at electrodes with varying structures and sizes. We found that the electrode ...
Lee En-Shiun - - 2014
The large influx of biological sequences poses the importance of identifying and correlating conserved regions in homologous sequences to acquire valuable biological knowledge. These conserved regions contain statistically significant residue associations as sequence patterns. Thus, patterns from two conserved regions co-occurring frequently on the same sequences are inferred to have ...
Mondal Buddhadeb B Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, India. - - 2014
Primary amino acids are found to be good enantioselective catalysts for the direct asymmetric Mannich reaction between 2-amino acetophenone and aldehydes. The 2-aryl-2,3-dihydro-4-quinoline products are obtained in moderate to good yields and good to high enantioselectivities with 10 mol% of the primary amino acid catalyst under mild reaction conditions.
Knaus Tanja T Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK. - - 2014
Ene-reductases (ERs) are flavin dependent enzymes that catalyze the asymmetric reduction of activated carbon-carbon double bonds. In particular, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (e.g. enals and enones) as well as nitroalkenes are rapidly reduced. Conversely, α,β-unsaturated esters are poorly accepted substrates whereas free carboxylic acids are not converted at all. The only ...
Wang Qian Q Institute of Molecular Functional Materials, and Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, P. R. China. - - 2014
The oxidation of ascorbic acid (H2A) by [Ru(VI)(N)(L)(MeOH)](+) in aqueous acidic solutions has the following stoichiometry: 2[Ru(VI)(N)] + 3H2A → 2[Ru(III)(NH2-HA)](+) + A. Mechanisms involving HAT/N-rebound at low pH (≤2) and nucleophilic attack at the nitride at high pH (≥5) are proposed.
Heberlig Graham W GW Department of Chemistry, Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa , Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, - - 2014
Zearalenone and radicicol are highly related resorcylic acid lactones with the rare property of having opposite stereochemical configurations of the secondary alcohol involved in lactone formation. The ability of the thioesterases from the zearalenone and radicicol biosynthetic pathways to macrocyclize both d and l configured synthetic substrate analogs was biochemically ...
Jensen Anders A AA Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark. Electronic address: - - 2014
The five excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1-5) mediating the synaptic uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate are differently expressed throughout the CNS and at the synaptic level. Although EAATs are crucial for normal excitatory neurotransmission, explorations into the physiological functions mediated by the different transporter subtypes and their respective ...
Yang Kin S - - 2014
A general, asymmetric synthesis of amino acid derivatives is reported. Masked acyl cyanide (MAC) reagents are shown to be effective umpolung synthons for enantioselective additions to N-Boc-aldimines. The reactions are catalyzed by a modified cinchona alkaloid, which can function as a bifunctional, hydrogen bonding catalyst, and afford adducts in excellent ...
Pararasa Chathyan C School of Life and Health Science and Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK, - - 2014
A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic ...
Nithyanand Paramasivam P School of Chemical & Biotechnology, Centre for Research on Infectious Diseases (CRID), SASTRA University, Tirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur, 613401, Tamil Nadu, India, - - 2014
Group A Streptococci (GAS) are involved in a number of life threatening diseases and biofilm formation by these pathogens are considered as an important virulence determinant as it mediates antibiotic resistance among them. In the present study, we have explored the ability of (+)-usnic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite, as ...
Bekdeşer Burcu - - 2014
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS), non-radical, and taking part in physiological processes concerned with the defense of the organism, but there has been limited information regarding its scavenging by polyphenols. This study was designed to examine the HOCl scavenging activity of several polyphenols and microwave ...
Schellart Nico A M NA Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Schellart NAM. Free fatty acids do not influence venous gas embolism in divers. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:1086-91. Decompression sickness is caused by bubbles of inert gas predominantly found in the venous circulation. Bubbles may exist longer when covered by a surfactant layer reducing surface tension. Surfactant candidates, based ...
Crisma Marco M Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Padova Unit, CNR, 35131, Padova, - - 2014
The preferred helical screw senses of chiral α-amino acids with a C(α) -tetrasubstituted α-carbon atom, as determined in the crystal state by X-ray diffraction analyses on derivatives and peptides, are reviewed. This survey covers C(α) -methylated and C(α) -ethylated α-amino acids, as well as α-amino acids cyclized on the α-carbon, ...
Cornum Rhonda L RL United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, Zachary Taylor Building (NC3), 2530 Crystal Drive, Suite 5122, Arlington,VA - - 2014
The first day of this conference reviewed the literature on the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, in all forms, around the world. Clinical trials using omega-3 fatty acids for a variety of pathological conditions, and studies examining omega-3 supplementation in nonclinical populations, were examined. Finally, the basic science describing possible ...
Davis Betty A BA Performance Optimization Research Team, Department of Defense Combat Feeding Directorate, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, 15 Kansas Street, Natick, MA - - 2014
Increasingly, private and military consumers are becoming aware of the positive benefits of a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) as health claims range from reducing inflammation to improving mood. The number of positive scientific articles supporting these claims is rapidly increasing, leading the military to examine the possibility ...
Hibbeln Joseph R JR Section of Nutritional Neurosciences, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, Room 3N-07, MSC 9410, Bethesda, MD - - 2014
The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort ...
Bailes Julian E JE NorthShore Neurological Institute, NorthShore University Health System, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, 2650 Ridge Avenue, Kellogg 3rd Floor, Evanston, IL - - 2014
Scientific knowledge of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) has grown in the last decade to a greater understanding of their mechanisms of action and their potential therapeutic effects. Omega-3 FAs have shown therapeutic potential with respect to hyperlipidemia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and mild cognitive impairment. Laboratory evidence and clinical interest ...
Muldoon Matthew F MF Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Old Engineering Hall, Room 506, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA - - 2014
Low consumption of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenonic acids, is linked to delayed brain development and, in late life, increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. The current review focuses on cognitive functioning during midlife and summarizes available scientific evidence relevant to the hypothesis that adequate dietary consumption of the ...
Innis Sheila M SM Nutrition Research Program, Child and Family Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, University of British Columbia, 950 West 28th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4, - - 2014
The possibility that western diets poor in omega-3 and rich in omega-6 fatty acids contribute to the increasing burden of chronic diseases including neurological problems is becoming recognized. Modern, westernized diets provide 80 to 90% of polyunsaturated fatty acids as omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) and are depleted in omega-3 fatty ...
Lands Bill B American Society for Nutrition, American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, 6100 Westchester Park Drive, College Park, MD - - 2014
Serious food-related health disorders may be prevented by recognizing the molecular processes that connect the dietary intake of vitamin-like fatty acids to tissue accumulation of precursors of potent hormone-like compounds that cause harmful tissue responses. Conversion of dietary 18-carbon omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids to tissue 20- and 22-carbon ...
Khorsan Raheleh R Samueli Institute, 2101 East Coast Highway, Suite 300, Corona del Mar, CA - - 2014
Previous studies of omega-3 fatty acids report improved outcomes where inflammation is a key factor. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate effects of omega-3s on inflammatory biomarkers. Randomized clinical studies that measured the influence of omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory biomarkers were identified using a comprehensive search. ...
Fleming Jennifer A JA Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, - - 2014
Our understanding of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefits of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) has advanced markedly during the past decade. It is now evident that ALA benefits CVD risk. The expansion of the ALA evidence base has occurred in parallel with ongoing research on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic ...
Luan Yi Y School of Materials Science and Engineering University of Science and Technology Beijing 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing, 100083 (P. R. - - 2014
A novel Brønsted acid/Lewis acid dual catalyst system has been developed to promote an efficient C-C bond formation between a range of oxocarbenium precursors derived from chromene acetals and ethyl diazoacetate. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and is tolerant of common functionalized 2H-chromene and isochromene acetals. In addition, an ...
Pawlak Michal M European Genomic Institute for Diabetes (EGID), FR 3508, F-59000 Lille, France; Université Lille 2, F-59000 Lille, France; Inserm UMR 1011, F-59000 Lille, France; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59000 Lille, - - 2014
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging, together with PPARγ and PPARβ/δ, to the NR1C nuclear receptor subfamily. Many PPARα target genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism in tissues with high oxidative rates such as muscle, heart and liver. PPARα activation, in combination with PPARβ/δ ...
Gomathi Duraisamy D Food Analyst, Post Harvest Technology Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, - - 2014
AMany oxidative stress-related diseases occur as a result of the accumulation of free radicals in the body. Free radicals are generated by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions, or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for appropriate physiological function. A lot of studies ...
Boas Ulrik U The National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark . Department of Immunology and Vaccinology, Bülowsvej 27, DK-1870, Frederiksberg, - - 2014
Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of other functional groups. ...
Minami Tsuyoshi T Research Center for Organic Electronics (ROEL), Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510, Japan. - - 2014
Saccharides in water are detected electrically using an extended-gate type organic field effect transistor (OFET) functionalised by a phenylboronic acid monolayer. The response patterns of the monosaccharides are significantly different, suggesting that OFET devices can successfully read out the saccharide recognition behaviour of boronic acids and be potentially applied to ...
Beld Joris J Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0358, USA. - - 2015
Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds ...
Suzuki Rina R Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo , 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2014
The isolation and structural determination of new marine ladder-frame polyethers, brevisulcatic acids-1 (1) and -4 (2) are reported. Brevisulcatic acids were isolated from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevisulcata, which was identified as the causative species of a major red tide event in New Zealand in 1998. The ether ring composition and ...
Di Tommaso Devis - - 2014
We present a density functional theory [M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p)] study of the structures and free energies of formation of oligomers of four carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, tetrolic acid and benzoic acid) in water, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Solvation effects were treated using the SMD continuum solvation model. The low-lying energy ...
Milne Ginger L GL Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2014
Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are prostaglandin-like molecules generated independent of the cyclooxygenase (COX) by the free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid. The first isoprostane species discovered were isomeric to prostaglandin F2α and were thus termed F2-IsoPs. Since the initial discovery of the F2-IsoPs, IsoPs with differing ring structures have been identified as ...
Amado André M AM Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Saint Paul, MN, 55455, USA, - - 2014
Photochemical and bacterial degradation are important pathways to carbon mineralization and can be coupled in dissolved organic matter (DOM) decomposition. However, details of several mechanisms of the coupled photochemical and biological processing of DOM remain too poorly understood to achieve accurate predictions of the impact of these processes on DOM ...
Taniguchi Yoshimasa - - 2014
The resins from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which add the bitter taste to beer, are classified into two main sub-fractions; namely soft and hard resins. α-Acids and β-acids in soft resin and their transformation during the wort boiling process are well-studied, however, other constituents in resins, especially hard resin, have ...
Pei Supeng S School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 201418 Shanghai, - - 2014
A facile one-pot method to fabricate photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) was developed by the hydrothermal treatment of amino acids at mild temperatures. Derived from three different kinds of amino acids including serine, histidine, and cystine, the resultant CDs show uniform spherical morphology with the diameters in the range of ∼2.5-4.7nm. ...
Li Zhaodong - - 2014
We report herein an efficient and general method for the deboronofluorination of alkylboronates. Thus with the catalysis of AgNO3, the reactions of various alkylboronic acids or their pinacol esters with Selectfluor reagent in acidic aqueous solution afforded the corresponding alkyl fluorides under mild conditions. A broad substrate scope and wide ...
Horn Anselm H C AH Bioinformatik, Institut für Biochemie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Fahrstr. 17, 91054, Erlangen, Germany, - - 2014
Isolated amino acids play an important role in biochemistry and are therefore an interesting object of study. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide a high-resolution picture of the dynamic features of these species, especially in their biological environment. Unfortunately, most standard force field packages lack libraries for isolated amino ...
Kallemeijn Wouter W WW University of Amsterdam, - - 2014
Retaining β-exoglucosidases operate by a mechanism in which the key amino acids driving the glycosidic bond hydrolysis act as catalytic acid/base and nucleophile. Recently we designed two distinct classes of fluorescent cyclophellitol-type activity-based probes (ABPs) that exploit this mechanism to covalently modify the nucleophile of retaining β-glucosidases. Whereas β-epoxide ABPs ...
Dang Cuong Cao - - 2014
Amino acid replacement rate matrices are a crucial component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Ideally, the rate matrix reflects the mutational behavior of the actual data under study; however, estimating amino acid replacement rate matrices requires large protein alignments and ...
Mostarda Serena S Laboratory of Medicinal and Advanced Synthetic Chemistry (Lab MASC), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via del Liceo 1, I-06123 Perugia, Italy. - - 2014
An efficient method for the C3-glucuronidation of bile acids is developed under flow conditions. A modular mesoreactor assisted flow set-up was combined with statistical design of experiments to speed up the optimization of the Koenigs-Knorr reaction in terms of yield, regioselectivity, costs, as well as technical and practical standpoints. Using ...
Meng Xiangkun X Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests (Ministry of Education), College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, - - 2014
Chemical insecticides are still primary methods to control rice planthoppers in China, which not only cause environmental pollution, insecticide residue and insecticide resistance, but also have negative effects on natural enemies, such as Pardosa pseudoannulata (the pond wolf spider), an important predatory enemy of rice planthoppers. Neonicotinoids insecticides, such as ...
Chen Ning - - 2014
Detection of brain gliomas at the earliest stage is of great importance to improve the outcomes but remains the most challenging task. In this study, oleic acid capped manganese oxide (MnO) NPs were prepared by the thermal decomposition of manganese oleate precursors and then transformed to water-dispersible MnO NPs by ...
Deshlahra Prashant P Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California , Berkeley, California 94720, United - - 2014
Reactivity descriptors describe catalyst properties that determine the stability of kinetically relevant transition states and adsorbed intermediates. Theoretical descriptors, such as deprotonation energies (DPE), rigorously account for Brønsted acid strength for catalytic solids with known structure. Here, mechanistic interpretations of methanol dehydration turnover rates are used to assess how charge ...
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