Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1866
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Walter Jens - - 2007
The dlt operon of Gram-positive bacteria encodes proteins required for the incorporation of D-alanine esters into cell wall-associated teichoic acids (TA). D-alanylation of TA has been shown to be important for acid tolerance, resistance to antimicrobial peptides, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence of a variety of pathogenic organisms. The aim ...
Roy Sébastien - - 2007
We have taken advantage of the intrinsic fluorescence properties of chitosanases to rapidly and quantitatively evaluate the protective effect of chitosan against thermal denaturation of chitosanases. The studies were done using wild type chitosanases N174 produced by Streptomyces sp. N174 and SCO produced by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). In addition, two ...
Neu Daniel - - 2007
Amidase 1 (AMI1), a specific indole-3-acetamide amidohydrolase, is an Arabidopsis thaliana amidase signature enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetamide. Amidase signature family members catalyze a diverse range of enzymatic reactions and are found widespread in nature, for instance in bacteria, mammals, and plants. At the protein ...
Begic Sanela - - 2007
Serratia marcescens is a nosocomial bacterium with natural resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, making treatment challenging. One factor contributing to this natural antibiotic resistance is reduced outer membrane permeability, controlled in part by OmpF and OmpC porin proteins. To investigate the direct role of these porins in the ...
Delker Carolin - - 2007
Jasmonic acid (JA) is an important regulator of plant development and stress responses. Several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of JA from alpha-linolenic acid have been characterized. The final biosynthesis steps are the beta-oxidation of 12-oxo-phytoenoic acid. We analyzed JA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis mutants pex6, affected in peroxisome biogenesis, ...
Butler Avigdor - - 2007
Acid sphingomyelinase knockout mice are a model of the inherited human disorder types A and B Niemann-Pick disease. Herein, we show that heterozygous (ASMKO(+/-)) mice have two distinct sperm populations resembling those found in normal and mutant animals, respectively, and that these two populations could be distinguished by their morphology, ...
Chen Shawn - - 2007
We have previously described methodology that makes it possible to genetically encode a wide array of unnatural amino acids in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Here, we report the systematic optimization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system for the production of mutant proteins containing unnatural amino acids. Modifications include significant ...
Shibata Hiroko - - 2007
We have previously produced two bioactive lysine-deficient mutants of TNF-alpha (mutTNF-K90R,-K90P) and found that these mutants have bioactivity superior to wild-type TNF (wtTNF). Because these mutants contained same amino acid except for amino acid 90, it is unclear which amino acid residue is optimal for showing bioactivity. We speculated that ...
Gregori Christa - - 2007
Exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to weak organic acids such as the food preservatives sorbate, benzoate and propionate leads to the pronounced induction of the plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, Pdr12p. This protein mediates efflux of weak acid anions, which is essential for stress adaptation. Recently, we identified ...
Schmidt Roberto - - 2007
The development of seeds depends on the import of carbohydrates and amino acids supplied by the maternal tissue via the phloem. Several amino acid transporters have been reported to be expressed during seed and silique development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Here we show that mutants lacking the high affinity ...
Matsuo Takashi - - 2007
Despite its morphological similarity to the other species in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex, D. sechellia has evolved distinct physiological and behavioral adaptations to its host plant Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Tahitian Noni. The odor of the ripe fruit of M. citrifolia originates from hexanoic and octanoic acid. D. ...
Footitt Steven - - 2007
COMATOSE (CTS) encodes a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter required not only for beta-oxidation of storage lipids during germination and establishment, but also for biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and conversion of indole butyric acid to indole acetic acid. cts mutants exhibited reduced fertilization, which was rescued by genetic complementation, but not ...
Lemaitre Thomas - - 2007
NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is a tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme that produces 2-oxoglutarate, an organic acid required by the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle to assimilate ammonium. Three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IDH mutants have been characterized, corresponding to an insertion into a different IDH gene (At5g03290, idhv; At4g35260, idhi; At2g17130, idhii). ...
Nobuta K K Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-7107, - - 2007
The pbs3-1 mutant, identified in a screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants exhibiting enhanced susceptibility to the avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pathogen DC3000 (avrPphB), also exhibits enhanced susceptibility to virulent P. syringae strains, suggesting it may impact basal disease resistance. Because induced salicylic acid (SA) is a critical mediator of basal ...
Huigen Marleen C D G - - 2007
HIV-1 isolates harbouring an insertion in the beta3-beta4 loop of reverse transcriptase (RT) confer high-level resistance to nucleoside analogues. We have identified a novel 5-amino-acid insertion (KGSNR amino acids 66-70) in a patient on prolonged nucleoside combination therapy (didanosine and stavudine) and investigated which factors were responsible for its outgrowth. ...
Risatti G R - - 2007
We have previously reported [Risatti, G.R., Borca, M.V., Kutish, G.F., Lu, Z., Holinka, L.G., French, R.A., Tulman, E.R., Rock, D.L. 2005a. The E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus is a virulence determinant in swine. J. Virol. 79, 3787-3796] that chimeric virus 319.1v containing the E2 glycoprotein gene from Classical ...
Itsko Mark - - 2007
In an attempt to endow Cyt1Ca with Cyt1Aa-like antibacterial activity, both derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, two amino acids were replaced, E117V and N125A, so as to raise the hydrophobicity of the corresponding region, considered to be the membrane-active motif. The clones obtained included multiple repeats of VIEVLKSLLGIALA, corresponding ...
Cushman Kenneth A - - 2007
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are thought to trigger some forms of acid-induced pain and taste, and to contribute to stroke-induced neural damage. After activation by low extracellular pH, different ASICs undergo desensitization on time scales from 0.1 to 10 s. Consistent with a substantial conformation change, desensitization slows dramatically when ...
Alexandre Michele D - - 2007
Tight junctions (TJ) constitute paracellular diffusion channels regulating the passage of ions and solutes across epithelia. We recently demonstrated that overexpression of the TJ membrane protein claudin-7 in LLC-PK1 cells decreases paracellular permeability to Cl(-) and increases paracellular permeability to Na(+). To investigate the effect of charged amino acid residues ...
Gerisch Birgit - - 2007
Broad aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans life history, including larval developmental timing, arrest at the dauer diapause, and longevity, are regulated by the nuclear receptor DAF-12. Endogenous DAF-12 ligands are 3-keto bile acid-like steroids, called dafachronic acids, which rescue larval defects of hormone-deficient mutants, such as daf-9/cytochrome P450 and daf-36/Rieske oxygenase, ...
Parish Tanya - - 2007
Mycolic acids are a key component of the mycobacterial cell wall, providing structure and forming a major permeability barrier. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolic acids are synthesized by type I and type II fatty acid synthases. One of the enzymes of the type II system is encoded by fabG1. We demonstrate ...
Futahashi Yuko - - 2007
The C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the metastatic potentiator CXCR4 regulates its function and spatiotemporal expression. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying constitutive internalization of CXCR4 compared to internalization mediated by its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1alpha)/CXCL12. We established a system to analyze the role of the CXCR4 ...
Segall Mark L - - 2007
Thr(93), Ser(94), Thr(140), and Ser(306) are conserved in all adenylosuccinate lyases (ASL) and are close to other amino acids previously identified by mutagenesis as being in the active site. To test their involvement in the enzyme's function, each of these amino acids was replaced by alanine. All the mutants exhibit ...
Blanchet Jonathan - - 2007
The voltage-sensing domain of voltage-gated ion channels is characterized by specific, conserved, charged residues. Positively charged residues on segment S4 are the main contributors to voltage-sensing and negatively charged residues on the S2 and S3 segments are believed to participate to the process. However, their function in the voltage sensor ...
Verslues Paul E - - 2007
Plant responses to abiotic stress are determined both by the severity of the stress as well as the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key component in integrating these various signals and controlling downstream stress responses. By screening for plants with decreased RD29A:LUC expression, we isolated ...
Richmond Gregory S - - 2007
Phospholipase A(1) activities have been detected in most cells where they have been sought and yet their characterization lags far behind that of the phospholipases A(2), C and D. The study presented here details the first cloning and characterization of a cytosolic PLA(1) that exhibits preference for phosphatidylcholine (GPCho) substrates. ...
Barre Lydia - - 2007
The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms UGT2B4 and UGT2B7 play a major role in the detoxification of bile acids, steroids and phenols. These two isoforms present distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, sharing common substrates such as the bile acid hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) and catechol-estrogens. Here, we show that in UGT2B4, substitution ...
Zhu Yingbo - - 2007
Genetic alterations of carbon flux into the acetoin biosynthesis pathway as a possible means to reduce acid accumulation were investigated in the riboflavin-producing Bacillus subtilis during growth on glucose. The lower rates of cell growth and riboflavin production were found in the pta-disrupted mutant while the rate of acetate formation ...
Elizabeth Sarita V - - 2007
SUMMARY The phytotoxin coronatine (COR) contributes to the virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 on Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. However, little is known regarding the role of COR in the virulence of DC3000 on cultivated Brassica spp. In this study, the role of COR and its precursors, ...
El-Sharoud Walid M - - 2007
Ribosome modulation factor (RMF) was shown to have an influence on the survival of Escherichia coli under acid stress during stationary phase, since the viability of cultures of a mutant strain lacking functional RMF decreased more rapidly than that of the parent strain at pH 3. Loss of ribosomes was ...
Sinlapadech Taksina - - 2007
Sinapoylmalate is a major phenylpropanoid that is accumulated in Arabidopsis. Its presence causes the adaxial surface of leaves to fluoresce blue under UV light, and mutations that lead to lower levels of sinapoylmalate decrease UV-induced leaf fluorescence. The Arabidopsis bright trichomes 1 (brt1) mutant was first identified in a screen ...
Wang Xuelu - - 2007
A quantitative trait locus has previously been identified in maize (Zea mays L.) that influences the level of free amino acids in the endosperm, especially those from the aspartate pathway: lysine, threonine, methionine, leucine, and isoleucine. Because this locus occurs in a region of the genome containing ask2, a monofunctional ...
Rey Pascal - - 2007
The 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins (2-Cys-Prxs) are antioxidants that reduce peroxides through a thiol-based mechanism. During catalysis, these ubiquitous enzymes are occasionally inactivated by the substrate-dependent oxidation of the catalytic cysteine to the sulfinic acid (-SO2H) form, and are reactivated by reduction by sulfiredoxin (Srx), an enzyme recently identified in yeast and ...
Wang Qi - - 2007
Correlated amino acid mutation analysis has been widely used to infer functional interactions between different sites in a protein. However, this analysis can be confounded by important phylogenetic effects broadly classifiable as background linkage disequilibrium (BLD). We have systematically separated the covariation induced by selective interactions between amino acids from ...
Goytia Maira - - 2007
The first eukaryotic proline racemase (PRAC), isolated from the human Trypanosoma cruzi pathogen, is a validated therapeutic target against Chagas' disease. This essential enzyme is implicated in parasite life cycle and infectivity and its ability to trigger host B-cell nonspecific hypergammaglobulinemia contributes to parasite evasion and persistence. Using previously identified ...
Seo In-Ra - - 2006
Imperatoxin A (IpTxa), a 3.7 kDa peptide from the African scorpion Pandinus imperator, is an agonist of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1). In order to study the structure of the toxin and its effect on RyR1, IpTxa cDNA was PCR-amplified using 3 pairs of primers, and the toxin was ...
Maeda Yukiko - - 2007
Oxolinic acid (OA) resistance in field isolates of Burkholderia glumae, a causal agent of bacterial grain rot, is dependent on an amino acid substitution at position 83 in GyrA (GyrA83). In the present study, among spontaneous in vitro mutants from the OA-sensitive B. glumae strain Pg-10, we selected OA-resistant mutants ...
Oka Takuji - - 2007
UDP-L-rhamnose is required for the biosynthesis of cell wall rhamnogalacturonan-I, rhamnogalacturonan-II, and natural compounds in plants. It has been suggested that the RHM2/MUM4 gene is involved in conversion of UDP-D-glucose to UDP-L-rhamnose on the basis of its effect on rhamnogalacturonan-I-directed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. RHM2/MUM4-related genes, RHM1 and RHM3, can ...
Zarate Sonia I - - 2007
The basal defenses important in curtailing the development of the phloem-feeding silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci type B; SLWF) on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were investigated. Sentinel defense gene RNAs were monitored in SLWF-infested and control plants. Salicylic acid (SA)-responsive gene transcripts accumulated locally (PR1, BGL2, PR5, SID2, EDS5, PAD4) and systemically ...
Wang Guang-Zhong - - 2007
Although the context dependence of nucleotide mutation has been supported by accumulating theoretical and experimental evidence, whether this effect can be extended to amino acid mutation remains obscure. As the amino acid doublets (20 x 20) are much more diverse than their nucleotide counterparts (4 x 4), any attempt to ...
Di Marco Barbara - - 2007
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a 137 amino acid protein, rapidly induced by treatment with glucocorticoids (GC), characterized by a leucine zipper (LZ) domain (76-97 amino acids), an N-terminal domain (1-75 amino acids) and a C-terminal PER domain (98-137 amino acids) rich in proline and glutamic acid residues. We have ...
Fujiwara Maki - - 2007
Fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (FOD-F) from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (NBRC 9972) is the enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deglycation of fructosyl-amino acids such as N(epsilon)-fructosyl N(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-lysine (FZK) and fructosyl valine (FV), which are model compounds of the glycated proteins in blood. Wild-type FOD-F has high activities toward both substrates. We ...
Gaisberger Richard - - 2007
(R)-2-chloromandelic acid represents a key pharmaceutical intermediate. Its production on large scale was hampered by low turnover rates and moderate enantiomeric excess (ee) using enzyme as well as metal catalysts. The cloning and heterologous overexpression of an (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Prunus amygdalus opened a way to large-scale production of this ...
Ramírez Melissa A - - 2007
The interaction between Candida albicans and cells of the innate immune system is a key determinant of disease progression. Transcriptional profiling has revealed that C. albicans has a complex response to phagocytosis, much of which is similar to carbon starvation. This suggests that nutrient limitation is a significant stress in ...
Amako Katsumi - - 2006
The molecular aspects and physiological significance of NADP(+)-dependent D-arabinose dehydrogenase (ARA), which is thought to function in the biosynthesis of an analog of ascorbic acid, D-erythroascorbic acid in yeasts, were examined. A large subunit of ARA, Ara1p produced in E. coli, was purified as a homodimer, some of which was ...
Joshi Vijay - - 2006
Amino acids are not only fundamental protein constituents but also serve as precursors for many essential plant metabolites. Although amino acid biosynthetic pathways in plants have been identified, pathway regulation, catabolism, and downstream metabolite partitioning remain relatively uninvestigated. Conversion of Thr to Gly and acetaldehyde by Thr aldolase (EC 4.1.2.5) ...
Furutani Yuji - - 2006
Many fungal rhodopsins, eukaryotic structural homologues of the archaeal light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, have been discovered in the course of genome sequencing projects. Recently, two fungal rhodopsins were characterized in vitro and exhibited very different photochemical behavior. Neurospora rhodopsin possesses a slow photocycle and shows no ion transport, reminiscent of ...
Louie Gordon V GV Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Jack H. Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2006
Aromatic amino acid ammonia-lyases catalyze the deamination of L-His, L-Phe, and L-Tyr, yielding ammonia plus aryl acids bearing an alpha,beta-unsaturated propenoic acid. We report crystallographic analyses of unliganded Rhodobacter sphaeroides tyrosine ammonia-lyase (RsTAL) and RsTAL bound to p-coumarate and caffeate. His 89 of RsTAL forms a hydrogen bond with the ...
Boselli Angelo - - 2007
D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is a flavoprotein that catalyzes stereospecifically the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. The wild-type DAAO is mainly active on neutral D-amino acids, while basic D-amino acids are poor substrates and the acidic ones are virtually not oxidized. To present a comprehensive picture of how the active ...
Anderle Christine - - 2007
Clorobiocin is an aminocoumarin antibiotic containing a 5-methylpyrrolyl-2-carboxyl moiety, attached by an ester bond to a deoxysugar. This pyrrolyl moiety is important for the binding of the antibiotic to its biological target, the B subunit of gyrase. Inactivation experiments had shown that two putative acyl carrier proteins, CloN5 and CloN1, ...
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