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Results 301 - 350 of 1869
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Yaeno Takashi - - 2008
Salicylic acid (SA) is a primary factor responsible for exerting diverse immune responses in plants and is synthesized in response to attack by a wide range of pathogens. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sid2 mutant is defective in a SA biosynthetic pathway involving ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1) and consequently contains reduced levels ...
Zolman Bethany K - - 2008
Genetic evidence suggests that indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is converted to the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by removal of two side-chain methylene units in a process similar to fatty acid beta-oxidation. Previous studies implicate peroxisomes as the site of IBA metabolism, although the enzymes that act in this process are ...
Konsavage Wesley M WM - - 2008
The catalytic domain of all retroviral integrases contains an Asp,Asp-35-Glu (D,D-35-E) motif with precisely 35 amino acids between the second aspartate and the glutamate. We have now made several mutations designed to alter the length or flexibility of a mobile loop within this 35-amino-acid spacer region in full-length Rous sarcoma ...
Mikheenko I P - - 2008
Wild-type Desulfovibrio fructosivorans and three hydrogenase-negative mutants reduced Pd(II) to Pd(0). The location of Pd(0) nanoparticles on the cytoplasmic membrane of the mutant retaining only cytoplasmic membrane-bound hydrogenase was strong evidence for the role of hydrogenases in Pd(0) deposition. Hydrogenase activity was retained at acidic pH, shown previously to favor ...
Singh Vineet K - - 2008
Staphylococcus aureus is a major community and nosocomial pathogen. Its ability to withstand multiple stress conditions and quickly develop resistance to antibiotics complicates the control of staphylococcal infections. Adaptation to lower temperatures is a key for the survival of bacterial species outside the host. Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) is ...
Meleigy Samir A - - 2009
Gibberellic acid (GA) production from milk permeate was studied by 28 mutants of Fusarium moniliforme, among which mutant gamma-14 was selected as the best producer. Experiments were carried out in shaker flasks and fermentative process was analyzed with free and immobilized cells. Immobilization of mutant gamma-14 cells onto loofa sponge ...
Gupta Ankur - - 2008
Rice alpha-oxygenase (RalphaO) catalyzes the insertion of O2 into the Calpha-H bond of various fatty acids. The mechanism is thought to involve a tyrosyl radical as the oxidant on the basis of comparisons to the structurally homologous cyclooxygenase enzymes. Kinetic and spectroscopic results presented here for the wild-type RalphaO and ...
Briers Yves - - 2008
Gp181 (2237 amino acids) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage phiKZ (Myoviridae) is a structural virion protein, which bears a peptidoglycan hydrolase domain near its C-terminus. This protein is supposed to degrade the peptidoglycan locally during the infection process. Nine deletional mutants allowed delineation of the peptidoglycan hydrolase domain between amino acids ...
Morizumi Takefumi - - 2009
Rhodopsin is one of the members of the G protein-coupled receptor family that can catalyze a GDP-GTP exchange reaction on the retinal G protein transducin (Gt) upon photon absorption. There are at least two intermediate states, meta-Ib and meta-II, which exhibit direct interaction with Gt. Meta-Ib binds to GDP-bound Gt, ...
Liu Yi-han - - 2008
This paper provided further understanding of the relationships between acid resistance and structural features of different mutants in Bacillus licheniformis alpha amylase (BLA) due to the changes of two crucial positions Leu134 and Ser320. In order to investigate effect of the two positions on the acid stability, we described the ...
Koszelak-Rosenblum Mary M Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14203, - - 2008
Pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) oxygenates fatty acids into 2R-hydroperoxides. PIOX belongs to the fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase family, which exhibits homology to cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2). Although these enzymes share common catalytic features, including the use of a tyrosine radical during catalysis, little is known about other residues involved in the ...
Chen Ming - - 2008
Sphingolipids are structural components of endomembranes and function through their metabolites as bioactive regulators of cellular processes such as programmed cell death. A characteristic feature of plant sphingolipids is their high content of trihydroxy long-chain bases (LCBs) that are produced by the LCB C-4 hydroxylase. To determine the functional significance ...
Tokunaga Hiroko - - 2008
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Halomonas sp. 593 (HaNDK) exhibits halophilic characteristics. Residues 134 and 135 in the carboxy-terminal region of HaNDK are Glu-Glu, while those of its homologous counterpart of non-halophilic Pseudomonas NDK (PaNDK) are Ala-Ala. The double mutation, E134A-E135A, in HaNDK results in the loss of the halophilic characteristics, ...
Wilding Timothy J - - 2008
RNA editing at the Q/R site in the GluR5 and GluR6 subunits of neuronal kainate receptors regulates channel inhibition by lipid-derived modulators including the cis-unsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Kainate receptor channels in which all of the subunits are in the edited (R) form exhibit strong inhibition ...
Wu Ji'en - - 2008
A common feature of the mupirocin and other gene clusters of the AT-less polyketide synthase (PKS) family of metabolites is the introduction of carbon branches by a gene cassette that contains a beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMC) homologue and acyl carrier protein (ACP), ketosynthase (KS) and two crotonase superfamily homologues. In ...
Gurvitz Aner - - 2008
We describe the physiological function of heterologously expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA during de novo lipoic acid synthesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondria. InhA, representing 2-trans-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and the target for the front-line antituberculous drug isoniazid, is involved in the activity of dissociative type 2 fatty acid synthase (FASII) ...
Guillemet Mélanie L - - 2008
The activity of amino acid-dependent acid resistance systems allows Escherichia coli to survive during prolonged incubation under phosphate (P(i)) starvation conditions. We show in this work that rpoS-null mutants incubated in the absence of any amino acid survived during prolonged incubation under aerobic, P(i) starvation conditions. Whereas rpoS(+) cells incubated ...
Jensen Rasmus O RO Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, - - 2008
Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus is regulated via agr-dependent quorum sensing in which an autoinducing peptide (AIP) activates AgrC, a histidine protein kinase. AIPs are usually thiolactones containing seven to nine amino acid residues in which the thiol of the central cysteine is linked to the alpha-carboxyl of the C-terminal amino ...
Barhoover Melissa A - - 2008
We have demonstrated that amino acids E (323), Y (324), E (330), and V (331) from the factor Va heavy chain are required for the interaction of the cofactor with factor Xa and optimum rates of prothrombin cleavage. We have also shown that amino acid region 332-336 contains residues that ...
Patana Anne-Sisko - - 2008
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the transfer of glucuronic acid from UDP-glucuronic acid to endo- and xenobiotics in our body. UGTs belong to the GT1 family of glycosyltransferases and many GT1s use a serine protease-like catalytic mechanism in which an Asp-His pair deprotonates a hydroxyl on the aglycone for nucleophilic attack on ...
Shabala Lana - - 2008
The physiological role of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) in acid stress resistance was studied by in situ microelectrode H+ flux measurements of Escherichia coli Frag1 and its isogenic CFA-deficient mutant JBM 1. After exposure to pH 4 for 16h, net H+ influx in JBM 1 was twice that of the ...
Boersma Ykelien L - - 2008
In directed evolution experiments, success often depends on the efficacy of screening or selection methods. Genetic selections have proven to be extremely valuable for evolving enzymes with improved catalytic activity, improved stability, or with altered substrate specificity. In contrast, enantioselectivity is a difficult parameter to select for. In this study, ...
Wübbeler Jan Hendrik - - 2008
The hitherto unstudied microbial degradation of the organic disulfide 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) was investigated with the recently described bacterium Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T) (DSM 17166(T); LMG 22922(T)), which is able to use DTDP as the sole carbon source for growth. 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (3MP) and 3-sulfinopropionic acid (3SP) were detected in ...
Reineke Gavin - - 2008
Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the smut fungus Ustilago maydis is characterized by excessive host tumour formation. U. maydis is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) efficiently from tryptophan. To assess a possible connection to the induction of host tumours, we investigated the pathways leading to fungal IAA ...
Yruela Guerrero, Inmaculada
The definitive version is available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00052736
Warby Simon C - - 2008
Proteolysis of mutant huntingtin is crucial to the development of Huntington disease (HD). Specifically preventing proteolysis at the capase-6 (C6) consensus sequence at amino acid 586 of mutant huntingtin prevents the development of behavioural, motor and neuropathological features in a mouse model of HD. However, the mechanism underlying the selective ...
Ryu Kang - - 2008
Lignin peroxidase (LiP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was shown to mineralize a variety of recalcitrant aromatic compounds and oxidize a number of polycyclic aromatic and phenolic compounds. The major problem of the wild type LiP is that it can be inactivated by excess H(2)O(2) and high concentrations of aromatic compounds. We ...
Chang Hung-Kuang - - 2008
The gene encoding m-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (mobA) was cloned from Comamonas testosteroni GZ39. MobA converts m-hydroxybenzoate and to a lesser extent p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate. To explore the structural and functional relationships in phenolic acid monooxygenases, MobA was subjected to in vitro mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and the mutant MobAs were screened ...
Kwon Na Ra - - 2008
A novel indigo-producing oxygenase gene, designated ipoA (1,197 bp) was characterized from Rhodococcus sp. strain T104. Three indigo-negative mutations (A58V, P59L, and G251D) were obtained through random mutagenesis using an E. coli mutator strain. Subsequent saturation mutagenesis resulted in the identification of nine and three amino acid substitutions that restore ...
João Silva Maria M Unidade de Biologia Molecular e Biopatologia Experimental, Centro de Patogénese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003, Lisboa, - - 2009
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is an intramitochondrial multienzyme system, which plays a key role in aerobic glucose metabolism by catalysing the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Genetic defects in the PDHc lead to lactic acidemia and neurological abnormalities. In the majority of the cases, the defect appears to ...
Chen Chiung-Kuang J - - 2008
CYP102A1 is a highly active water-soluble bacterial monooxygenase that contains both substrate-binding heme and diflavin reductase subunits, all in a single polypeptide that has been called a "self-sufficient enzyme." Several years ago we developed a procedure called "scanning chimeragenesis," where we focused on residues 73-82 of CYP102A1, which contact approximately ...
Numata Tomohiro - - 2008
TRPM7 is a divalent cation-permeable channel that is ubiquitously expressed. Recently, mouse TRPM7 has been shown to be sensitive to, and even permeable to, protons when heterologously expressed. Here we have demonstrated that human TRPM7 expressed either heterologously or endogenously also exhibits proton conductivity. The gene silencing of TRPM7 by ...
Yamada Chiaki - - 2008
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) is an important material in the production of semisynthetic cephalosporins, which are the best-selling antibiotics worldwide. 7-ACA is produced from cephalosporin C via glutaryl-7-ACA (GL-7-ACA) by a bioconversion process using d-amino acid oxidase and cephalosporin acylase (or GL-7-ACA acylase). Previous studies demonstrated that a single amino acid ...
Dudek Nichole L - - 2008
There is evidence suggesting that transglutaminase (TG) 2 plays a role in stabilizing monomeric and aggregated huntingtin, thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of Huntington disease. Calmodulin (CaM) regulates TG2 cross-linking of N-terminal mutant huntingtin in cells and colocalizes with TG and huntingtin in inclusions in Huntington disease cortex. The current ...
Hakozaki Hirokazu - - 2008
The 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS) II is a fatty-acid-related enzyme which catalyzes the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. The fatty acid biosynthesis 1-1 (fab1-1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is partially deficient in its activity of Arabidopsis thaliana 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase 2 (AtKAS2), and its phenotype has been ...
Dunning Daniel W - - 2008
Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of human dental caries, grows as a biofilm on the tooth surface, where it metabolizes dietary carbohydrates and generates acid byproducts that demineralize tooth enamel. A drop in plaque pH stimulates an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) in this oral pathogen that allows it to ...
Melin Petter P School of Biology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, UK. - - 2008
Weak-acid preservatives such as sorbic acid are added to foods to prevent fungal spoilage. The modes of action of weak-acid preservatives are only partially understood and, in this paper, further insight is presented into the mechanisms by which weak acids inhibit the growth of fungi. Uridine-requiring strains of Aspergillus niger ...
Less Hadar - - 2008
Using a bioinformatics analysis of public Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data, we propose here a novel regulatory program, combining transcriptional and posttranslational controls, which participate in modulating fluxes of amino acid metabolism in response to abiotic stresses. The program includes the following two components: (1) the terminal enzyme of the ...
Silber Martina V - - 2008
The peripheral light-harvesting complex, LH2, of Rhodobacter sphaeroides consists of an assembly of membrane-spanning alpha and beta polypeptides which assemble the photoactive bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid molecules. In this study we systematically investigated bacteriochlorophyll-protein interactions and their effect on functional bacteriochlorophyll assembly by site-directed mutations of the LH2 alpha-subunit. The amino ...
Shang Liang - - 2008
The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 glycoprotein is critical for its biological activity. Previous C-terminal truncation studies have predicted an almost invariant core structure of 12 amino acid residues flanked by basic amino acids in the HIV-1 MSD that function to anchor the ...
Schroeder Amy C - - 2008
Tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to p-coumaric acid using a 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazole-4-one (MIO) prosthetic group. In bacteria, TAL is used for production of the photoactive yellow protein chromophore and for caffeic acid biosynthesis in certain actinomycetes. Here we biochemically examine wild-type and mutant forms of TAL from ...
Ikeda Shino - - 2008
Prion protein (PrP) contains two N-linked glycosylation sites. It is unknown which amino acid substitution contributes most efficiently to the abolishment of N-linked glycosylations. To define the influence of amino acid substitution at the N-linked glycosylation sites on the conversion efficiency of mouse PrP, we tested each of all 19 ...
Maeda Toshinari - - 2008
The large subunit (HycE, 569 amino acids) of Escherichia coli hydrogenase 3 produces hydrogen from formate via its Ni-Fe-binding site. In this paper, we engineered HycE for enhanced hydrogen production by an error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR) using a host that lacked hydrogenase activity via the hyaB hybC hycE mutations. ...
Singh Birendra - - 2008
We describe an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that mediates the uptake of glutamate and aspartate. The system (AatJMQP, for acidic amino acid transport) is encoded by an operon involving genes PP1071-PP1068. A deletion mutant with inactivated solute-binding protein (KTaatJ) failed to grow on Glu and Gln ...
Khantwal Chandra M - - 2008
We report the involvement of transmembrane domain 4 (TM4) of hASBT in forming the putative translocation pathway, using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis in conjunction with solvent-accessibility studies using the membrane-impermeant, sulfhydryl-specific methanethiosulfonate reagents. We individually mutated each of the 21 amino acids in TM4 to cysteine on a fully functional, MTS-resistant C270A-hASBT ...
Das Akash - - 2008
Targeted deletion of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) (A2), especially in the liver, protects hyperlipidemic mice from diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, whereas the deletion of ACAT1 (A1) is not as effective, suggesting ACAT2 may be the more appropriate target for treatment of atherosclerosis. Among the numerous ACAT inhibitors known, pyripyropene A ...
Musumeci Matías A - - 2008
Ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) are ubiquitous flavoenzymes that deliver NADPH or low-potential one-electron donors (ferredoxin, flavodoxin, adrenodoxin) to redox-based metabolic reactions in plastids, mitochondria and bacteria. Plastidic FNRs are quite efficient reductases. In contrast, FNRs from organisms possessing a heterotrophic metabolism or anoxygenic photosynthesis display turnover numbers 20- to 100-fold ...
Choi Myung-Min - - 2008
Human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2) differ markedly in their inhibition by GTP. These regulatory preferences must arise from amino acid residues that are not common between hGDH isozymes. We have constructed chimeric enzymes by reciprocally switching the corresponding amino acid segments 390-465 in hGDH isozymes that are located ...
Verma Malkhey - - 2008
AKR1B10 is an aldose reductase (AR) homologue overexpressed in liver cancer and various forms of that enzyme in carcinomas catalyze the reduction of anticancer drugs, potential cytostatic drug, and dl-glyceraldehyde but do not catalyze the reduction of glucose. Kinetic parameters for wild-type and C299S mutant AKR1B10 indicate that substitution of ...
Iwahashi Akihiro - - 2008
Comparison of the amino acid sequence of yeast type 2 ADP/ATP carrier (yAAC2) with that of bovine type 1 AAC (bAAC1) revealed that the N- and C-terminus of yAAC2 are 15- and 6-amino acids longer, respectively, than those of bAAC1. In the present study, we focused on the difference in ...
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