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Results 301 - 350 of 1857
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Tokunaga Hiroko - - 2008
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Halomonas sp. 593 (HaNDK) exhibits halophilic characteristics. Residues 134 and 135 in the carboxy-terminal region of HaNDK are Glu-Glu, while those of its homologous counterpart of non-halophilic Pseudomonas NDK (PaNDK) are Ala-Ala. The double mutation, E134A-E135A, in HaNDK results in the loss of the halophilic characteristics, ...
Wilding Timothy J - - 2008
RNA editing at the Q/R site in the GluR5 and GluR6 subunits of neuronal kainate receptors regulates channel inhibition by lipid-derived modulators including the cis-unsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Kainate receptor channels in which all of the subunits are in the edited (R) form exhibit strong inhibition ...
Wu Ji'en - - 2008
A common feature of the mupirocin and other gene clusters of the AT-less polyketide synthase (PKS) family of metabolites is the introduction of carbon branches by a gene cassette that contains a beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMC) homologue and acyl carrier protein (ACP), ketosynthase (KS) and two crotonase superfamily homologues. In ...
Gurvitz Aner - - 2008
We describe the physiological function of heterologously expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA during de novo lipoic acid synthesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondria. InhA, representing 2-trans-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and the target for the front-line antituberculous drug isoniazid, is involved in the activity of dissociative type 2 fatty acid synthase (FASII) ...
Guillemet Mélanie L - - 2008
The activity of amino acid-dependent acid resistance systems allows Escherichia coli to survive during prolonged incubation under phosphate (P(i)) starvation conditions. We show in this work that rpoS-null mutants incubated in the absence of any amino acid survived during prolonged incubation under aerobic, P(i) starvation conditions. Whereas rpoS(+) cells incubated ...
Jensen Rasmus O RO Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, - - 2008
Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus is regulated via agr-dependent quorum sensing in which an autoinducing peptide (AIP) activates AgrC, a histidine protein kinase. AIPs are usually thiolactones containing seven to nine amino acid residues in which the thiol of the central cysteine is linked to the alpha-carboxyl of the C-terminal amino ...
Barhoover Melissa A - - 2008
We have demonstrated that amino acids E (323), Y (324), E (330), and V (331) from the factor Va heavy chain are required for the interaction of the cofactor with factor Xa and optimum rates of prothrombin cleavage. We have also shown that amino acid region 332-336 contains residues that ...
Patana Anne-Sisko - - 2008
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the transfer of glucuronic acid from UDP-glucuronic acid to endo- and xenobiotics in our body. UGTs belong to the GT1 family of glycosyltransferases and many GT1s use a serine protease-like catalytic mechanism in which an Asp-His pair deprotonates a hydroxyl on the aglycone for nucleophilic attack on ...
Shabala Lana - - 2008
The physiological role of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) in acid stress resistance was studied by in situ microelectrode H+ flux measurements of Escherichia coli Frag1 and its isogenic CFA-deficient mutant JBM 1. After exposure to pH 4 for 16h, net H+ influx in JBM 1 was twice that of the ...
Boersma Ykelien L - - 2008
In directed evolution experiments, success often depends on the efficacy of screening or selection methods. Genetic selections have proven to be extremely valuable for evolving enzymes with improved catalytic activity, improved stability, or with altered substrate specificity. In contrast, enantioselectivity is a difficult parameter to select for. In this study, ...
Wübbeler Jan Hendrik - - 2008
The hitherto unstudied microbial degradation of the organic disulfide 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) was investigated with the recently described bacterium Tetrathiobacter mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T) (DSM 17166(T); LMG 22922(T)), which is able to use DTDP as the sole carbon source for growth. 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (3MP) and 3-sulfinopropionic acid (3SP) were detected in ...
Reineke Gavin - - 2008
Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the smut fungus Ustilago maydis is characterized by excessive host tumour formation. U. maydis is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) efficiently from tryptophan. To assess a possible connection to the induction of host tumours, we investigated the pathways leading to fungal IAA ...
Yruela Guerrero, Inmaculada
The definitive version is available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00052736
Warby Simon C - - 2008
Proteolysis of mutant huntingtin is crucial to the development of Huntington disease (HD). Specifically preventing proteolysis at the capase-6 (C6) consensus sequence at amino acid 586 of mutant huntingtin prevents the development of behavioural, motor and neuropathological features in a mouse model of HD. However, the mechanism underlying the selective ...
Ryu Kang - - 2008
Lignin peroxidase (LiP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was shown to mineralize a variety of recalcitrant aromatic compounds and oxidize a number of polycyclic aromatic and phenolic compounds. The major problem of the wild type LiP is that it can be inactivated by excess H(2)O(2) and high concentrations of aromatic compounds. We ...
Chang Hung-Kuang - - 2008
The gene encoding m-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (mobA) was cloned from Comamonas testosteroni GZ39. MobA converts m-hydroxybenzoate and to a lesser extent p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate. To explore the structural and functional relationships in phenolic acid monooxygenases, MobA was subjected to in vitro mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and the mutant MobAs were screened ...
Kwon Na Ra - - 2008
A novel indigo-producing oxygenase gene, designated ipoA (1,197 bp) was characterized from Rhodococcus sp. strain T104. Three indigo-negative mutations (A58V, P59L, and G251D) were obtained through random mutagenesis using an E. coli mutator strain. Subsequent saturation mutagenesis resulted in the identification of nine and three amino acid substitutions that restore ...
João Silva Maria M Unidade de Biologia Molecular e Biopatologia Experimental, Centro de Patogénese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003, Lisboa, - - 2009
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is an intramitochondrial multienzyme system, which plays a key role in aerobic glucose metabolism by catalysing the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Genetic defects in the PDHc lead to lactic acidemia and neurological abnormalities. In the majority of the cases, the defect appears to ...
Chen Chiung-Kuang J - - 2008
CYP102A1 is a highly active water-soluble bacterial monooxygenase that contains both substrate-binding heme and diflavin reductase subunits, all in a single polypeptide that has been called a "self-sufficient enzyme." Several years ago we developed a procedure called "scanning chimeragenesis," where we focused on residues 73-82 of CYP102A1, which contact approximately ...
Numata Tomohiro - - 2008
TRPM7 is a divalent cation-permeable channel that is ubiquitously expressed. Recently, mouse TRPM7 has been shown to be sensitive to, and even permeable to, protons when heterologously expressed. Here we have demonstrated that human TRPM7 expressed either heterologously or endogenously also exhibits proton conductivity. The gene silencing of TRPM7 by ...
Yamada Chiaki - - 2008
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) is an important material in the production of semisynthetic cephalosporins, which are the best-selling antibiotics worldwide. 7-ACA is produced from cephalosporin C via glutaryl-7-ACA (GL-7-ACA) by a bioconversion process using d-amino acid oxidase and cephalosporin acylase (or GL-7-ACA acylase). Previous studies demonstrated that a single amino acid ...
Dudek Nichole L - - 2008
There is evidence suggesting that transglutaminase (TG) 2 plays a role in stabilizing monomeric and aggregated huntingtin, thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of Huntington disease. Calmodulin (CaM) regulates TG2 cross-linking of N-terminal mutant huntingtin in cells and colocalizes with TG and huntingtin in inclusions in Huntington disease cortex. The current ...
Melin Petter - - 2008
Weak-acid preservatives such as sorbic acid are added to foods to prevent fungal spoilage. The modes of action of weak-acid preservatives are only partially understood and, in this paper, further insight is presented into the mechanisms by which weak acids inhibit the growth of fungi. Uridine-requiring strains of Aspergillus niger ...
Hakozaki Hirokazu - - 2008
The 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS) II is a fatty-acid-related enzyme which catalyzes the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. The fatty acid biosynthesis 1-1 (fab1-1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is partially deficient in its activity of Arabidopsis thaliana 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase 2 (AtKAS2), and its phenotype has been ...
Dunning Daniel W - - 2008
Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of human dental caries, grows as a biofilm on the tooth surface, where it metabolizes dietary carbohydrates and generates acid byproducts that demineralize tooth enamel. A drop in plaque pH stimulates an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) in this oral pathogen that allows it to ...
Less Hadar - - 2008
Using a bioinformatics analysis of public Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data, we propose here a novel regulatory program, combining transcriptional and posttranslational controls, which participate in modulating fluxes of amino acid metabolism in response to abiotic stresses. The program includes the following two components: (1) the terminal enzyme of the ...
Silber Martina V - - 2008
The peripheral light-harvesting complex, LH2, of Rhodobacter sphaeroides consists of an assembly of membrane-spanning alpha and beta polypeptides which assemble the photoactive bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid molecules. In this study we systematically investigated bacteriochlorophyll-protein interactions and their effect on functional bacteriochlorophyll assembly by site-directed mutations of the LH2 alpha-subunit. The amino ...
Shang Liang - - 2008
The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 glycoprotein is critical for its biological activity. Previous C-terminal truncation studies have predicted an almost invariant core structure of 12 amino acid residues flanked by basic amino acids in the HIV-1 MSD that function to anchor the ...
Schroeder Amy C - - 2008
Tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to p-coumaric acid using a 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazole-4-one (MIO) prosthetic group. In bacteria, TAL is used for production of the photoactive yellow protein chromophore and for caffeic acid biosynthesis in certain actinomycetes. Here we biochemically examine wild-type and mutant forms of TAL from ...
Ikeda Shino - - 2008
Prion protein (PrP) contains two N-linked glycosylation sites. It is unknown which amino acid substitution contributes most efficiently to the abolishment of N-linked glycosylations. To define the influence of amino acid substitution at the N-linked glycosylation sites on the conversion efficiency of mouse PrP, we tested each of all 19 ...
Maeda Toshinari - - 2008
The large subunit (HycE, 569 amino acids) of Escherichia coli hydrogenase 3 produces hydrogen from formate via its Ni-Fe-binding site. In this paper, we engineered HycE for enhanced hydrogen production by an error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR) using a host that lacked hydrogenase activity via the hyaB hybC hycE mutations. ...
Singh Birendra - - 2008
We describe an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that mediates the uptake of glutamate and aspartate. The system (AatJMQP, for acidic amino acid transport) is encoded by an operon involving genes PP1071-PP1068. A deletion mutant with inactivated solute-binding protein (KTaatJ) failed to grow on Glu and Gln ...
Khantwal Chandra M - - 2008
We report the involvement of transmembrane domain 4 (TM4) of hASBT in forming the putative translocation pathway, using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis in conjunction with solvent-accessibility studies using the membrane-impermeant, sulfhydryl-specific methanethiosulfonate reagents. We individually mutated each of the 21 amino acids in TM4 to cysteine on a fully functional, MTS-resistant C270A-hASBT ...
Das Akash - - 2008
Targeted deletion of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) (A2), especially in the liver, protects hyperlipidemic mice from diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, whereas the deletion of ACAT1 (A1) is not as effective, suggesting ACAT2 may be the more appropriate target for treatment of atherosclerosis. Among the numerous ACAT inhibitors known, pyripyropene A ...
Musumeci Matías A - - 2008
Ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) are ubiquitous flavoenzymes that deliver NADPH or low-potential one-electron donors (ferredoxin, flavodoxin, adrenodoxin) to redox-based metabolic reactions in plastids, mitochondria and bacteria. Plastidic FNRs are quite efficient reductases. In contrast, FNRs from organisms possessing a heterotrophic metabolism or anoxygenic photosynthesis display turnover numbers 20- to 100-fold ...
Choi Myung-Min - - 2008
Human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2) differ markedly in their inhibition by GTP. These regulatory preferences must arise from amino acid residues that are not common between hGDH isozymes. We have constructed chimeric enzymes by reciprocally switching the corresponding amino acid segments 390-465 in hGDH isozymes that are located ...
Verma Malkhey - - 2008
AKR1B10 is an aldose reductase (AR) homologue overexpressed in liver cancer and various forms of that enzyme in carcinomas catalyze the reduction of anticancer drugs, potential cytostatic drug, and dl-glyceraldehyde but do not catalyze the reduction of glucose. Kinetic parameters for wild-type and C299S mutant AKR1B10 indicate that substitution of ...
Iwahashi Akihiro - - 2008
Comparison of the amino acid sequence of yeast type 2 ADP/ATP carrier (yAAC2) with that of bovine type 1 AAC (bAAC1) revealed that the N- and C-terminus of yAAC2 are 15- and 6-amino acids longer, respectively, than those of bAAC1. In the present study, we focused on the difference in ...
Besteiro Sébastien S Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology and Division of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, - - 2008
Lysosomal function is crucial for the differentiation and infectivity of the parasitic protozoon Leishmania major. To study lysosomal biogenesis, an L. major mutant deficient in the delta subunit of the adaptor protein 3 (AP3 delta) complex was generated. Structure and proteolytic capacity of the lysosomal compartment were apparently unaffected in ...
Mo SangJoon - - 2008
The red gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor directs production of undecylprodiginine. Here we report that this gene cluster also directs production of streptorubin B and show that 2-undecylpyrrole (UP) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of undecylprodiginine and streptorubin B. The redPQRKL genes are involved in UP biosynthesis. RedL and ...
Poulsen Peter - - 2008
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae integral membrane protein Ssy1p functions with Ssy5p and Ptr3p to sense extracellular amino acids. Signal transduction leads to processing and nuclear localization of Stp1p and Stp2p, transcriptional activators of many amino acid transporter genes. Ssy1p is structurally related to amino acid permeases, but unable to transport amino ...
Liu Zhanfeng - - 2009
A new method for synthesizing the labeled L-tryptophan is described in this work. L-tryptophan, labeled with 98% (15)N at position 1 was synthesized from the labeled anthranilic acid using Candida utilis mutants. The conversion ratio of (15)N of 50% was achieved. The labeled anthranilic acid was synthesized by [(15)N] phthalimide ...
Picon Antonia - - 2008
Lactococcus lactis strain AMP2I expresses OppA(D471R), a mutant oligopeptide binding OppA protein in which the aspartyl residue at position 471 was replaced by arginine. As a consequence of a different peptide transport in this strain, experimental Hispánico cheese made with Lc. lactis AMP2I had a higher content of total free ...
Reid Anne N - - 2008
In order to cause disease, the food- and waterborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni must face the extreme acidity of the host stomach as well as cope with pH fluctuations in the intestine. In the present study, C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was grown under mildly acidic conditions mimicking those encountered in the ...
Takahashi Azusa - - 2008
A C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) is a modulator of claudin-4. We previously found that upon deletion of the C-terminal 16 amino acids, C-CPE lost its ability to modulate claudin-4. Tyrosine residues in the 16 amino acids were involved in the modulation of claudin-4. In the present study, ...
Strader Lucia C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In Arabidopsis, INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID RESPONSE5 (IBR5), a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase, is a positive regulator of auxin response. Mutations in IBR5 result in decreased plant height, defective vascular development, increased leaf serration, fewer lateral roots, and resistance to the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. However, the pathways through which ...
MiciaƂkiewicz Arkadiusz - - 2008
The Swc4p protein, encoded by an essential gene, is shared by two chromatin-remodeling complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells: NuA4 (nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4) and SWR1. The SWR1 complex catalyzes ATP-dependent exchange of the nucleosomal histone H2A for H2AZ (Htz1p). The activity of NuA4 is responsible mainly for the acetylation of ...
Li Shu Ying - - 2008
His296 of Zymomonas mobilis levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) is crucial for the catalysis of the transfructosylation reaction. The three-dimensional structures of levansucrases revealed the His296 is involved in the substrate recognition and binding. In this study, nine mutants were created by site-directed mutagenesis, in which His296 was substituted with amino acids ...
Le Roy Katrien - - 2008
The hydrolytic plant enzymes of family 32 of glycoside hydrolases (GH32), including acid cell wall type invertases (EC 3.2.1.26), fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH; EC 3.2.1.153) and fructan 6-exohydrolases (6-FEH; EC 3.2.1.154), are very similar at the molecular and structural levels, but are clearly functionally different. The work presented here aims at ...
Hwang Bum-Yeol - - 2008
A putative aminotransferase gene, cc3143 (aptA), from Caulobacter crescentus was screened by bioinformatical tools and overexpressed in E. coli, and the substrate specificity of the aminotransferase was investigated. AptA showed high activity for short-chain beta-amino acids. It showed the highest activity for 3-amino-n-butyric acid. It showed higher activity toward aromatic ...
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