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Slotte Tanja - - 2010
Recent studies comparing genome-wide polymorphism and divergence in Drosophila have found evidence for a surprisingly high proportion of adaptive amino acid fixations, but results for other taxa are mixed. In particular, few studies have found convincing evidence for adaptive amino acid substitution in plants. To assess the generality of this ...
Braun S D - - 2010
The epiphyte Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 (Pss22d) produces the rare amino acid 3-methylarginine (MeArg), which is highly active against the closely related soybean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Since these pathogens compete for the same habitat, Pss22d is a promising candidate for biocontrol of P. syringae pv. glycinea. The ...
Seltmann Martin A - - 2010
Jasmonic acid and related oxylipins are controversially discussed to be involved in regulating the initiation and progression of leaf senescence. To this end, we analyzed profiles of free and esterified oxylipins during natural senescence and upon induction of senescence-like phenotypes by dark treatment and flotation on sorbitol in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis ...
Deng Lan - - 2010
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is one of the essential phospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have previously shown that a yeast strain, the endogenous PE synthesis of which was controllable, grew in the presence of PE containing decanoyl residues (diC10PE) when PE synthesis was repressed. In this study, we investigated the ...
Volkov Anton - - 2010
The myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein family is highly conserved among different bacterial species ranging from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria. Besides their ubiquitous occurrence, knowledge about the biochemical and physiological function of MCRA proteins is scarce. Here, we show that MCRA protein from Streptococcus pyogenes M49 is a FAD enzyme, ...
Sawada Kazunori - - 2010
To investigate primary effects of a pyruvate kinase (PYK) defect on glucose metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a pyk-deleted mutant was derived from wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. The mutant was then evaluated under glutamic acid-producing conditions induced by biotin limitation. The mutant showed an increased ...
Shivaji Renuka - - 2010
This study was conducted to determine if constitutive levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and other octadecanoid compounds were elevated prior to herbivory in a maize genotype with documented resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and other lepidopteran pests. The resistant inbred Mp708 had approximately 3-fold higher levels of jasmonic acid ...
Elisa Cilia - - 2010
36 mutants of the Sulfolobus solfataricus amidase were analyzed by comparing biochemical data to structural data obtained by a learning machine. The analysis shows that beside well known catalytic residues, amino acid residues Arg197, Lys209 and Asp228 are important for the catalytic activity of the signature thermophilic amidase.
van Maldegem Febe - - 2010
Recently, conflicting results were reported on the hypermutation activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) splice variants. With the generation of single point mutations, we studied the structure-function relationship of the amino acids that are commonly absent from all described splice variants. The results from this analysis pointed to several amino ...
Nakata Paul A - - 2010
Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene(s), a ...
Rodríguez Víctor M - - 2010
Levels of the enzymes that produce wound response mediators have to be controlled tightly in unwounded tissues. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid oxygenation up-regulated8 (fou8) mutant catalyzes high rates of alpha -linolenic acid oxygenation and has higher than wild-type levels of the alpha -linolenic acid-derived wound response mediator jasmonic ...
Martín-Acebes Miguel A - - 2010
The acid-dependent disassembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is required for viral RNA release from endosomes to initiate replication. Although the FMDV capsid disassembles at acid pH, mutants escaping inhibition by NH(4)Cl of endosomal acidification were found to constitute about 10% of the viruses recovered from BHK-21 cells infected with ...
Prabhu Ponnandy - - 2010
Bacillus licheniformis l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) is distinguished from other l-AIs by its high degree of substrate specificity for l-arabinose and its high turnover rate. A systematic strategy that included a sequence alignment-based first screening of residues and a homology model-based second screening, followed by site-directed mutagenesis to alter individual screened ...
Yang Chee-Hing - - 2010
Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) 2A protease exhibited strong transcriptional activity in yeast cells. The transcriptional activity of 2A protease was independent of its protease activity. EV71 2A protease retained its transcriptional activity after truncation of 40 amino acids at the N-terminus but lost this activity after truncation of 60 amino ...
Sangari Félix J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Urease is a virulence factor that plays a role in the resistance of Brucella to low pH conditions, both in vivo and in vitro. Brucella contains two separate urease gene clusters, ure1 and ure2. Although only ure1 codes for an active urease, ure2 is also transcribed, but its contribution ...
Habe Hiroshi - - 2010
To prevent dihydroxyacetone (DHA) by-production during glyceric acid (GA) production from glycerol using Gluconobacter frateurii, we used a G. frateurii THD32 mutant, ΔsldA, in which the glycerol dehydrogenase subunit-encoding gene (sldA) was disrupted, but ΔsldA grew much more slowly than the wild type, growth starting after a lag of 3 ...
Masayama Atsushi - - 2010
In Bacillus subtilis, the germination-related lipase LipC is located in the spore coat, and mutant spores are defective in L-alanine-stimulated germination. To determine the physiological role of LipC, the recombinant LipC expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and characterized. The enzyme hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl ester substrates with various acyl-chain lengths. Thin-layer ...
Kage-Nakadai Eriko - - 2010
In multicellular organisms, the surface barrier is essential for maintaining the internal environment. In mammals, the barrier is the stratum corneum. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) is a key factor involved in forming the stratum corneum barrier. Mice lacking Fatp4 display early neonatal lethality with features such as tight, ...
Hunt Emma - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the amino acid permease gene AAP6 in regulating phloem amino acid composition and then to determine the effects of this altered diet on aphid performance. A genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) was produced in which the function of the ...
Prell Jurgen - - 2010
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae mutants unable to transport branched-chain amino acids via the two main amino acid ABC transport complexes AapJQMP and BraDEFGC produce a nitrogen starvation phenotype when inoculated on pea (Pisum sativum) plants [1], [2]. Bacteroids in indeterminate pea nodules have reduced abundance and a lower chromosome number. ...
Li Chia-Cheng - - 2010
Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates the active transport and accumulation of iodide from the blood into the thyroid gland. His-226 located in the extracellular region of NIS has been demonstrated to be critical for iodide transport in our previous study. The conserved charged amino acid residues in the extracellular region of ...
Gagné Steve J - - 2009
The FAD2-like desaturases comprise a group of membrane-bound oxygenases involved in the modification of fatty acyl groups in plants and fungi. This group includes typical oleate desaturases which introduce a Delta12 cis double bond and more unusual enzymes such as Crep1, an acetylenase from the plant Crepis alpina, which introduces ...
Mitsuki Motoaki - - 2010
Siglec-7, a sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin, predominantly transduces inhibitory signals through cytosolic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Here, we report that clustering of Siglec-7 with a specific F(ab')(2) elicited cell death. Interestingly, a truncated Siglec-7 lacking the cytosolic ITIM domain still induced the cell death, suggesting that the ITIMs ...
Roumelioti Katerina - - 2010
In Aspergillus nidulans the fbaA1013 mutation results in reduced or total loss of growth on glycolytic and gluconeogenic carbon sources, respectively. It also negatively affects growth on several amino acids (including L-proline, L-glutamate or L-aspartate) that the fungus can use as nitrogen source on glycolytic carbon sources. Complementation of the ...
Mavraganis Ioannis - - 2010
Claviceps purpurea, the fungal pathogen that causes the cereal disease ergot, produces glycerides that contain high levels of ricinoleic acid [(R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid] in its sclerotia. Recently, a fatty acid hydroxylase (C. purpurea FAH [CpFAH]) involved in the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid was identified from this fungus (D. Meesapyodsuk and X. ...
Kim Jin Hyun - - 2010
Recent large-scale sequence analyses revealed 'signature' amino acids at specific positions in viral proteins that distinguish human influenza viruses from avian viruses. To determine the role of these host lineage-specific amino acids in the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses, we generated mutant viruses possessing signature amino acids in the ...
Chua Pong Kian - - 2010
Previously, a charge balance hypothesis was proposed to explain hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid stability, assembly, RNA encapsidation, and DNA replication. This hypothesis emphasized the importance of a balanced electrostatic interaction between the positive charge from the arginine-rich domain (ARD) of the core protein (HBc) and the negative charge from ...
Raza Ghulam - - 2009
The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), gamma-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17) of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95/16, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of ...
Steinhauer Josefa - - 2009
Enzymes of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family add fatty acyl chains to a diverse range of protein and lipid substrates. A chromosomal translocation disrupting human MBOAT1 results in a novel syndrome characterized by male sterility and brachydactyly. We have found that the Drosophila homologues of MBOAT1, Oysgedart (Oys), Nessy (Nes), ...
Linkies Ada - - 2009
The micropylar endosperm cap covering the radicle in the mature seeds of most angiosperms acts as a constraint that regulates seed germination. Here, we report on a comparative seed biology study with the close Brassicaceae relatives Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana showing that ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulate seed germination ...
Bofill Cristina - - 2010
Growth of Pseudomonas sp. 42A2 on oleic acid releases polymerized hydroxy-fatty acids as a result of several enzymatic conversions that could involve one or more lipases. To test this hypothesis, the lipolytic system of strain Pseudomonas sp. 42A2 was analyzed, revealing the presence of at least an intracellular carboxylesterase and ...
Matsuo Taisuke - - 2010
Liver- and heart/muscle-type isozymes of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L- and M-CPTI, respectively) show a certain similarity in their amino acid sequences, and mutation studies on the conserved amino acids between these two isozymes often show essentially the same effects on their enzymatic properties. Earlier mutation studies on C305 in ...
Gu Liping - - 2010
An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant was identified as having increases in 12 of 20 free proteogenic amino acids in seeds. Because these metabolites are produced from multiple, seemingly unrelated biosynthetic networks, it was not possible to use a candidate gene approach to discover the enzyme defect responsible for this complex syndrome. ...
Maersch Stephan - - 2010
Therapeutic gene transfer by adeno-associated virus of serotype 2 (AAV-2) vectors is hampered in patients with pre-existing immunity. Molecular engineering was recently used to identify key immunogenic amino acid residues of the viral capsid and generate mutants with decreased antibody recognition. Here we explored the importance of finely tuning amino ...
Shioya Kouki - - 2010
The lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 is an antimicrobial peptide containing unusual amino acids such as lanthionine and dehydrobutyrine. The nukacin ISK-1 prepeptide (NukA) undergoes posttranslational modifications, such as the dehydration and cyclization reactions required to form the unusual amino acids by the modification enzyme NukM. We have previously constructed a system ...
Kimura Jun - - 2010
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a causative agent of food poisoning, is a pore-forming toxin disrupting the selective permeability of the plasma membrane of target cells, resulting in cell death. We previously identified claudin as the cell surface receptor for CPE. Claudin, a component of tight junctions, is a tetratransmembrane protein ...
Landete José María - - 2010
Lactobacillus casei can metabolize L-malic acid via malolactic enzyme (malolactic fermentation [MLF]) or malic enzyme (ME). Whereas utilization of L-malic acid via MLF does not support growth, the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on L-malic acid. In this work, we have identified in the genomes of L. casei ...
Mitra Anurag - - 2010
Eppin (epididymal protease inhibitor [SPINLW1]) is present in a protein complex on the human sperm surface that contains lactotransferrin, clusterin, and semenogelin (SEMG1). During ejaculation the presence of semenogelin inhibits sperm progressive motility until semenogelin is hydrolyzed by prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Although eppin binds all three components in its protein ...
Vicedo Begonya - - 2009
We have demonstrated that root treatment with hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea. Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was blocked in the jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutant jai1 (a coi1 homolog) and in the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant flacca (flc). Upon infection, the LoxD gene as well as the oxylipin ...
Yomantas Yurgis A V - - 2010
The isolation of auxotrophic mutants, which is a prerequisite for a substantial genetic analysis and metabolic engineering of obligate methylotrophs, remains a rather complicated task. We describe a novel method of constructing mutants of the bacterium Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 that are auxotrophic for aromatic amino acids. The procedure begins with ...
Campeotto Ivan - - 2009
The structure of a mutant variant of Escherichia coli N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid lyase (NAL), E192N, in complex with pyruvate has been determined in a new crystal form. It crystallized in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 78.3, b = 108.5, c = 148.3 angstrom. Pyruvate has been trapped in ...
Ogawa Ai - - 2010
G2A is a G protein-coupled receptor that can be induced by various stressors. G2A is reported to have proton-sensing activity that mediates intracellular inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation with decreasing pH. We previously showed that G2A is also activated by some oxidized free fatty acids such as 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE). In ...
Li Congran - - 2010
A unique D-to-L racemization of arginine by coupled arginine dehydrogenases DauA and DauB encoded by the dauBAR operon has been recently reported as a prerequisite for D-arginine utilization as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen through L-arginine catabolic pathways in P. aeruginosa. In this study, enzymic properties of the ...
Wardenga Rainer - - 2010
Aminoacylase-1 from pig kidney (pAcy1) catalyzes the highly stereoselective acylation of amino acids, a useful conversion for the preparation of optically pure N-acyl-l-amino acids. The kinetic of this thermodynamically controlled conversion is determined by maximal velocities for synthesis (V(mS)) and hydrolysis (V(mH)) of the N-acyl-l-amino acid. To investigate which parameter ...
Deweese Joseph E - - 2009
Human topoisomerase IIalpha utilizes a two-metal-ion mechanism for DNA cleavage. One of the metal ions (M(1)(2+)) is believed to make a critical interaction with the 3'-bridging atom of the scissile phosphate, while the other (M(2)(2+)) is believed to interact with a nonbridging oxygen of the scissile phosphate. Based on structural ...
Chung Jung-Sung - - 2009
NMR spectroscopy has been used to map the interaction domain on Escherichia coli thioredoxin for the thioredoxin- dependent 5'-adenylylsulfate reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaAPR). Seventeen thioredoxin amino acids, all clustered around Cys-32 (the more surface-exposed of the two active-site cysteines), have been located at the PaAPR binding site. The center ...
Takahashi Tadanobu - - 2009
To identify a determinant of human H3 hemagglutinin (HA) amino acid residues linked to the recognition of molecular species of sialic acid, we generated six mutant viruses possessing either the wild-type HA gene from A/Memphis/1/71 (H3N2) or a genetically single-mutated HA gene at position 137, 144, 155, 158 or 193 ...
Subashchandrabose Sargurunathan - - 2009
In Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes porcine pleuropneumonia, ilvI was identified as an in vivo-induced (ivi) gene and encodes the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. ilvI and 7 of 32 additional ivi promoters were upregulated in vitro when grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) lacking ...
Dobritsa Anna A - - 2009
Sporopollenin is the major component of the outer pollen wall (exine). Fatty acid derivatives and phenolics are thought to be its monomeric building blocks, but the precise structure, biosynthetic route, and genetics of sporopollenin are poorly understood. Based on a phenotypic mutant screen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we identified a ...
Blau-Wasser Rosemarie - - 2009
The Dictyostelium centrosome is a nucleus associated body consisting of a box-shaped core surrounded by the corona, an amorphous matrix functionally equivalent to the pericentriolar material of animal centrosomes which is responsible for the nucleation and anchoring of microtubules. Here we describe CP250 a component of the corona, an acidic ...
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