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Murakami Akikazu - - 2010
Two groups of anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) Abs each possessing a different amino acid, Tyr or Gly, at position 95, appeared respectively at early and late stages of immunization. The early Abs predominantly harbored Tyr95 and were referred to as the Tyr95 type. These had ∼100-fold lower ceiling affinity than the late ...
Qureshi Nadia N - - 2011
Amoxicillin is commonly used to treat Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of peptic ulcers, stomach cancer, and B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Amoxicillin resistance in H. pylori is increasing steadily, especially in developing countries, leading to treatment failures. In this study, we characterize the mechanism of amoxicillin resistance in the ...
Hill Shauna S Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2011
The facile abstraction of bis-allylic hydrogens from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is the hallmark chemistry responsible for initiation and propagation of autoxidation reactions. The products of these autoxidation reactions can form cross-links to other membrane components and damage proteins and nucleic acids. We report that PUFAs deuterated at bis-allylic sites ...
Pérez-Valle Jorge - - 2010
The yeast protein kinases Sat4/Hal4 and Hal5 are required for the plasma membrane stability of the K(+) transporter Trk1 and some amino acid and glucose permeases. The transcriptomic analysis presented here indicates alterations in the general control of the metabolism of both nitrogen and carbon. Accordingly, we observed reduced uptake ...
Kravchuk Zhana - - 2011
Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no ...
Urano Kei - - 2010
The isovaleric acid-emanating silkworm mutant skunk (sku) was first studied over 30 years ago because of its unusual odour and prepupal lethality. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the sku mutant. Because of its specific features and symptoms similar to human isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) deficiency, ...
Moeder Wolfgang - - 2010
Until recently, phytohormones were mostly studied separately. However, recent studies have suggested that the signaling pathways involved are highly interconnected. We recently reported the antagonistic effects of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the lesion mimic mutants, cpr22 and ssi4. After shifting these mutants from high humidity, where ...
Mira Nuno P - - 2010
Weak acids are widely used as food preservatives (e.g., acetic, propionic, benzoic, and sorbic acids), herbicides (e.g., 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and as antimalarial (e.g., artesunic and artemisinic acids), anticancer (e.g., artesunic acid), and immunosuppressive (e.g., mycophenolic acid) drugs, among other possible applications. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying the adaptive response ...
Jnawali Hum Nath - - 2011
A putative sigma factor gene, orf21, was disrupted or overexpressed in the wild-type clavulanic acid (CA) producer Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL3585 and characterized. An orf21 mutant (Streptomyces clavuligerus HN14) of S. clavuligerus was obtained by insertional inactivation via double-crossover. Although there was little reduction of sporulation in the mutant, the growth ...
Girvan Hazel M - - 2011
Bacillus megaterium P450 BM3 (BM3) is a P450/P450 reductase fusion enzyme, where the dimer is considered the active form in NADPH-dependent fatty acid hydroxylation. The BM3 W1046A mutant was generated, removing an aromatic "shield" from its FAD isoalloxazine ring. W1046A BM3 is a catalytically active NADH-dependent lauric acid hydroxylase, with ...
Baud Sébastien - - 2010
The PII protein is an integrator of central metabolism and energy levels. In Arabidopsis, allosteric sensing of cellular energy and carbon levels alters the ability of PII to interact with target enzymes such as N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase and heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, thereby modulating the biological activity of these plastidial ATP- ...
Hirbawi Jamila - - 2010
Factor Va, the cofactor of prothrombinase, is composed of heavy and light chains associated noncovalently in the presence of divalent metal ions. The COOH-terminal region of the heavy chain contains acidic amino acid clusters that are important for cofactor activity. In this work, we have investigated the role of amino ...
Park Duck Hwan - - 2010
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three ...
Huang Xiaobin X Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union, Medical College, Tsinghua University, - - 2010
NHAoc/NHA2 is highly and selectively expressed in osteoclasts and plays a role(s) in normal osteoclast differentiation, apoptosis and bone resorptive function in vitro. Extensive mutational analysis of a bacterial homologue, NhaA, has revealed a number of amino acid residues essential for its activity. Some of these residues are evolutionarily conserved ...
Tani Motohiro - - 2010
Aureobasidin A (AbA) inhibits Aur1p, an enzyme catalysing the formation of inositol phosphorylceramide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AbA treatment results not only in reductions in complex sphingolipid levels but also in accumulation of ceramides, both of which are believed to lead to the growth defect caused by this inhibitor. ...
Jeong Heon-Ho - - 2010
This study presents a microfluidic approach for the rapid analysis of bacterial chemotaxis in response to chemical gradients. The diffusional mixing of laminar flow continuously generates a stable chemical gradient in a microfluidic device. For the proof of concept, we have investigated the effects of the attractant peptone and repellent ...
Ye Gui-zi - - 2010
Actinobacillus succinogenes, a typical succinic acid producing microorganism, was inhibited seriously by ammonium ion, which hampered industrialization of A. succinogenes with ammonium ion based material as the pH controller. In this study, we have isolated an ammonium ion-tolerant mutant of A. succinogenes by continuous-culture technique in which all environmental factors ...
Prabhakar Veena - - 2010
Restriction of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) supply to plastids causes lethality of female and male gametophytes in Arabidopsis thaliana defective in both a phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) of the inner envelope membrane and the plastid-localized enolase (ENO1) involved in glycolytic PEP provision. Homozygous double mutants of cue1 (defective in PPT1) and eno1 could ...
Weaver Yi M YM Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, - - 2010
OATP1B1 and 1B3 are related transporters mediating uptake of numerous compounds into hepatocytes. A putative model of OATP1B3 with a "positive binding pocket" containing conserved positively charged amino acids was predicted (Meier-Abt et al. J Membr Biol 208:213-227, 2005). Based on this model, we tested the hypothesis that these positive ...
Imae Rieko - - 2010
Phosphatidylinositol (PI), an important constituent of membranes, contains stearic acid as the major fatty acid at the sn-1 position. This fatty acid is thought to be incorporated into PI through fatty acid remodeling by sequential deacylation and reacylation. However, the genes responsible for the reaction are unknown, and consequently, the ...
Salzman V V Microbiology Division, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531 (S2002LRK) Rosario, - - 2010
Mycolic acids are major components of the cell envelope of mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and play an important role in its architecture, impermeability and interaction with the environment. Synthesis of mycolic acids is carried out by two types of fatty acid synthases (FAS) working in concert: type I FAS, ...
Nyathi Yvonne Y Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Centre for Plant Sciences, Leeds LS2 9JT, United - - 2010
The Arabidopsis ABC transporter Comatose (CTS; AtABCD1) is required for uptake into the peroxisome of a wide range of substrates for β-oxidation, but it is uncertain whether CTS itself is the transporter or if the transported substrates are free acids or CoA esters. To establish a system for its biochemical ...
Marbois Beth - - 2010
Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q) is a crucial mitochondrial lipid required for respiratory electron transport in eukaryotes. 4-Hydroxybenozoate (4HB) is an aromatic ring precursor that forms the benzoquinone ring of Q and is used extensively to examine Q biosynthesis. However, the direct precursor compounds and enzymatic steps for synthesis of ...
Böttcher Christine - - 2010
In fleshy fruit, levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin, decline towards the onset of ripening. The application of auxins to immature fruit can delay the ripening processes. However, the mechanisms by which the decrease in endogenous IAA concentrations and the maintenance of low auxin levels in maturing ...
Fan Qing Q Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2010
Paired immunoglobulin (Ig)-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRalpha) and PILRbeta are paired receptors that are highly homologous to each other. When engaged by ligand, PILRalpha is inhibitory whereas PILRbeta is activating. PILRalpha is a newly identified herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB) receptor and is associated with ...
Strader Lucia C - - 2010
Genetic evidence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggests that the auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is converted into active indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by peroxisomal beta-oxidation; however, direct evidence that Arabidopsis converts IBA to IAA is lacking, and the role of IBA-derived IAA is not well understood. In this work, we directly ...
Takami Tsuneaki - - 2010
The Arabidopsis thaliana kas3 mutant was isolated based on the hypersensitivity of PSII to low temperature using a Chl fluorescence imaging technique. Chl content was lower in kas3 seedlings cultured at 23 degrees C than in the wild type, but PSII activity was only mildly affected. However, after the chilling ...
Bartsch Michael - - 2010
An intricate network of hormone signals regulates plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Salicylic acid (SA), derived from the shikimate/isochorismate pathway, is a key hormone in resistance to biotrophic pathogens. Several SA derivatives and associated modifying enzymes have been identified and implicated in the storage and channeling ...
Zhang Feiwei - - 2011
His(354) and His(358), two highly conserved histidines in Xenopus laevis (6-4) photolyase [equivalent to His(401) and His(405), in Dunaliella salina (6-4) photolyase], are critical for photoreactivation. They act as a base and an acid, respectively. However, the remaining high repair activity when the pH value is higher than the pKa ...
Thammachat Siriya - - 2010
Cyt2Aa2 is a mosquito-larvicidal protein produced as a 29 kDa crystalline protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. To become an active toxin, proteolytic processing is required to remove amino acids from its N- and C-termini. This study aims to investigate the functional role of amino acid residues on the N-terminal ...
Konno Ryuichi - - 2010
D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) catalyzes oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. Since D-amino acids are considered to be rare in eukaryotes, physiological function of this enzyme has been enigmatic for a long time. Mutant mice lacking DAO were found, and their strain was established. The urine of the mutant mice contained ...
Hayashi Ken-ichiro - - 2010
Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of diterpene-type plant hormones biosynthesized from ent-kaurene via ent-kaurenoic acid. GAs are ubiquitously present in seed plants. The GA signal is perceived and transduced by the GID1 GA receptor/DELLA repressor pathway. The lycopod Selaginella moellendorffii biosynthesizes GA and has functional GID1-DELLA signaling components. In contrast, ...
Kim Hyun Uk - - 2010
The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid biosynthesis1 (fab1) mutant grows as well as wild type at 22 degrees C, but after transfer to 2 degrees C fab1 plants cannot maintain photosynthetic function and die after 5 to 7 weeks at 2 degrees C. A fab1 suppressor line, S7, was isolated ...
Sulpice Ronan - - 2010
Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were generated targeting the cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (SlICDH1) via the RNA interference approach. The resultant transformants displayed a relatively mild reduction in the expression and activity of the target enzyme in the leaves. However, biochemical analyses revealed that the transgenic lines displayed a ...
Krin Evelyne - - 2010
In Escherichia coli, hns mutants lack flagellar motility and display an increase in acid stress resistance. Spontaneous phenotypic revertants showed reversion of both H-NS-controlled phenotypes. In the present study, suppressor mutations were identified in the rcsB gene. In addition to RcsA, our experiments establish that H-NS indirectly controlled the RcsB ...
Barkan Daniel D Division of Infectious Diseases, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, - - 2010
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope contains a wide variety of lipids and glycolipids, including mycolic acids, long-chain branched fatty acids that are decorated by cyclopropane rings. Genetic analysis of the mycolate methyltransferase family has been a powerful approach to assign functions to each of these enzymes but has failed to ...
Hirakawa Hidetada - - 2010
As a stationary-phase signal, indole is secreted in large quantities by Escherichia coli on enriched media and has been shown to control several genes; however, its impact on acid resistance remains to be studied in detail. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that indole increases the expression of ...
Bryk Boris - - 2010
The TOR pathway mediates nutrient-responsive regulation of cell growth and metabolism in animals. TOR Complex 1 activity depends, amongst other things, on amino acid availability. MAP4K3 was recently implicated in amino-acid signaling in cell culture. We report here the physiological characterization of MAP4K3 mutant flies. Flies lacking MAP4K3 have reduced ...
Alibaud Laeticia - - 2010
The cell envelope is a crucial determinant of virulence and drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Several features of pathogenesis and immunomodulation of host responses are attributable to the structural diversity in cell wall lipids, particularly in the mycolic acids. Structural modification of the alpha-mycolic acid by introduction of cyclopropane rings ...
Plumridge Andrew - - 2010
The ability to resist anti-microbial compounds is of key evolutionary benefit to microorganisms. Aspergillus niger has previously been shown to require the activity of a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (encoded by padA1) for the decarboxylation of the weak-acid preservative sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) to 1,3-pentadiene. It is now shown that this ...
Dobritsa Anna A - - 2010
Pollen grains of land plants have evolved remarkably strong outer walls referred to as exine that protect pollen and interact with female stigma cells. Exine is composed of sporopollenin, and while the composition and synthesis of this biopolymer are not well understood, both fatty acids and phenolics are likely components. ...
Miclea Paul S - - 2010
A toxin-antitoxin (TA)-like system (designated as bat/bto genes) was identified in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, based on sequence homology and similarities in organization and size to known TA systems. Deletion of the bat/bto module resulted in pleiotropic alterations in cell morphology and metabolism. The generation time of the mutant was considerably decreased ...
Andersson Mattias K - - 2010
Chymases are chymotrypsin-like serine proteases that are found in large amounts in mast cell granules. So far, the extended cleavage specificities of eight such chymases have been determined, and four of these were shown to have a strong preference for acidic amino acids at position P2'. These enzymes have basic ...
Berezniuk Iryna I Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, - - 2010
Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) is a mouse mutant which is characterized by postnatal degeneration of selective cell types. The pcd mutation was mapped to a gene encoding a cytosolic carboxypeptidase-like protein (CCP), named CCP1/Nna1. Many neurons in pcd mice show increased levels of autophagy, including cell types which do not ...
Wichmann Christian - - 2010
RUNX1/ETO, the fusion protein resulting from the chromosomal translocation t(8;21), is one of the most frequent translocation products in acute myeloid leukemia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the homo-tetramerization domain of ETO, the nervy homology region 2 (NHR2), is essential for RUNX1/ETO oncogenic activity. We ...
Dunphy Kathleen Y KY Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2010
One key adaptation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis established to survive long term in vivo is a reliance on lipids as an energy source. M. tuberculosis H37Rv has 36 fadD genes annotated as putative fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase genes, which encode enzymes that activate fatty acids for metabolism. One such gene, ...
Smith Kevin Michael - - 2010
The production of isobutanol in microorganisms has recently been achieved by harnessing the highly active 2-keto acid pathways. Since these 2-keto acids are precursors of amino acids, we aimed to construct an isobutanol production platform in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a well-known amino-acid-producing microorganism. Analysis of this host's sensitivity to isobutanol toxicity ...
Ordiz M Isabel - - 2010
Rice transcription factor RF2a binds to the BoxII cis element of the promoter of rice tungro bacilliform virus and activates promoter expression. The acidic acid-rich domain of RF2a is a transcription activator and has been partially characterized (Dai et al., 2003). The RF2a acidic domain (A; amino acids 49-116) was ...
Hu Yangbo - - 2010
Enteric bacteria have developed various survival systems that protect against acid stress. In this study, an aspartate-dependent acid survival system is characterized in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The expression of aspartase (AspA) was confirmed to be increased at acidic pH by proteomic and lacZ fusion analyses. Addition of aspartate increased acid survival ...
Fujihara Naoki - - 2010
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles of eukaryotic cells that fulfill a variety of biochemical functions, including beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Here, we report that an ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome biogenesis gene PEX13 is required for pathogenicity of Colletotrichum orbiculare. CoPEX13 was identified by screening random insertional mutants for deficiency ...
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