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Results 551 - 600 of 1867
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Nijkamp Karin - - 2005
A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that efficiently produced the fine chemical cinnamic acid from glucose or glycerol via the central metabolite phenylalanine. The gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was introduced. Phenylalanine availability was the main bottleneck in cinnamic acid production, which could not ...
Pollegioni Loredano - - 2005
Semisynthetic cephalosporins are synthesized from 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, which is produced by chemical deacylation or by a two-step enzymatic process of the natural antibiotic cephalosporin C. The known acylases take glutaryl-7-amino cephalosporanic acid as a primary substrate, and their specificity and activity are too low for cephalosporin C. Starting from ...
Tang Hua - - 2006
The standard methods for computing the number of nonsynonymous substitutions (Ka) lump all amino acid changes into one single class, even though their rates of substitution vary by at least 10-fold (Tang et al., 2004). Classifying these changes by their physicochemical properties has not been suitably effective in isolating the ...
Stadthagen Gustavo - - 2005
Glycosylated p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl esters and structurally related phenolphthiocerol glycolipids are important virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although both types of molecules are thought to be derived from p-hydroxybenzoic acid, the origin of this putative biosynthetic precursor in mycobacteria remained to be established. We describe the characterization of a transposon ...
Martens Eric C - - 2005
Xenorhabdus nematophila colonizes the intestinal tract of infective-juvenile (IJ) stage Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. During colonization, X. nematophila multiplies within the lumen of a discrete region of the IJ intestine termed the vesicle. To begin to understand bacterial nutritional requirements during multiplication in the IJ vesicle, we analysed the colonization behaviour ...
Dong H-F - - 2005
CCR5 is one of the primary coreceptors for Env-mediated fusion between cells and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Analyses of CCR5 variants in cohorts of HIV-1 high-risk individuals led to the identification of multiple single amino-acid substitutions, which may have functional consequences. This study focused on eight naturally occurring ...
Shiraga Seizaburo - - 2005
Combinatorial libraries of the lid domain of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL; Phe88Xaa, Ala91Xaa, Ile92Xaa) were displayed on the yeast cell surface using yeast cell-surface engineering. Among the 40,000 transformants in which ROL mutants were displayed on the yeast cell surface, ten clones showed clear halos on soybean oil-containing plates. Among ...
Nguyen Liem - - 2005
Ligation of mycolic acids to structural components of the mycobacterial cell wall generates a hydrophobic, impermeable barrier that provides resistance to toxic compounds such as antibiotics. Secreted proteins FbpA, FbpB, and FbpC attach mycolic acids to arabinogalactan, generating mycolic acid methyl esters (MAME) or trehalose, generating alpha,alpha'-trehalose dimycolate (TDM; also ...
Wu Guang - - 2005
In this study, we estimate the translation probability to amino acid from RNA codon. With the determined 183 translation probabilities and amino-acid composition of eight highly mutated proteins, we construct the theoretical distributions of mutated amino acids in these proteins and then compare them with their actual distributions affected by ...
Minard Karyl I - - 2005
Production of NADPH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown on glucose has been attributed to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1p) and a cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald6p) (Grabowska, D., and Chelstowska, A. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 13984-13988). This was based on compensation by overexpression of Ald6p for phenotypes associated with ZWF1 gene disruption ...
Bucević-Popović V - - 2006
Tyrocidine synthetase 1 (TY1), the initial monomodular constituent of the tyrocidine biosynthetic system, exhibits relaxed substrate specificity, however an efficient editing of the mis-activated amino acid provides for fidelity of product formation. We chose to analyse the consequence of single amino acid substitutions, in the amino acid activation site of ...
Budin-Verneuil Aurélie - - 2005
Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (cfa) catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to unsaturated fatty acids. Northern blot experiments demonstrated that the Lactococcus lactis MG1363 cfa gene is mainly expressed as a bicistronic transcript together with metK, the gene encoding SAM synthetase, and is highly induced by ...
Jank Thomas - - 2005
The large cytotoxins of Clostridia species glycosylate and thereby inactivate small GTPases of the Rho family. Clostridium difficile toxins A and B and Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin use UDP-glucose as the donor for glucosylation of Rho/Ras GTPases. In contrast, alpha-toxin from Clostridium novyi N-acetylglucosaminylates Rho GTPases by using UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as ...
Pinfield-Wells Helen - - 2005
The Arabidopsis acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX) family comprises isozymes with distinct fatty acid chain-length specificities that together catalyse the first step of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have isolated and characterized T-DNA insertion mutants in the medium to long-chain (ACX1) and long-chain (ACX2) acyl-CoA oxidases, and show that the corresponding endogenous ...
Maekawa Masao - - 2005
We evaluated the role of D-amino-acid oxidase on spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, since this enzyme metabolizes D-amino-acids, some of which enhance the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor functions. The Morris water maze learning and the LTP in the CA1 area of the hippocampal slice were observed in wild-type ...
Takeno Seiki - - 2005
An oleaginous fungus, Mortierella alpina 1S-4, is used commercially for arachidonic acid production. Delta12-Desaturase, which desaturates oleic acid (18:1n-9) to linoleic acid (18:2n-6), is a key enzyme in the arachidonic acid biosynthetic pathway. To determine if RNA interference (RNAi) by double-stranded RNA occurs in M. alpina 1S-4, we silenced the ...
Newmark Kathryn G KG Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2005
Nalidixic acid, the prototype antibacterial quinolone, induces the SOS response by a mechanism that requires the RecBCD nuclease/helicase. A key step inferred for this induction pathway is the conversion of a drug-induced gyrase cleavage complex into a DNA break that can be processed by RecBC. We tried to clarify the ...
Suwannakham Supaporn - - 2005
Fed-batch fermentations of glucose by P. acidipropionici ATCC 4875 in free-cell suspension culture and immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) were studied. The latter produced a much higher propionic acid concentration (71.8 +/- 0.8 g/L vs. 52.2 +/- 1.1 g/L), indicating enhanced tolerance to propionic acid inhibition by cells adapted ...
Ishizaki Kimitsune - - 2005
In mammals, electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO) and electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) are functionally associated, and ETF accepts electrons from at least nine mitochondrial matrix flavoprotein dehydrogenases and transfers them to ubiquinone in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In addition, the mammalian ETF/ETFQO system plays a key role in beta-oxidation of fatty acids ...
Nacry Philippe - - 2005
The changes in root system architecture (RSA) triggered by phosphate (P) deprivation were studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants grown for 14 d on 1 mM or 3 microM P. Two different temporal phases were observed in the response of RSA to low P. First, lateral root (LR) development was ...
Radmacher Eva - - 2005
The lipid-rich Corynebacterianeae, to which Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium species belong, produce both fatty acids and mycolic acids. Compared with most other bacteria, C. glutamicum possesses two fatty acid synthases, encoded by fasA (8907 kb; FAS-IA) and fasB (8988 kb; FAS-IB). Here, it was shown by mutational analyses that fasA ...
Pourreza Atousa A Department of Biological Science, School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, California 92834-6850, - - 2005
Alanine scanning of motif A in the pJHCMW1-encoded aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib identified amino acids important for the ability of the enzyme to confer wild-type levels of resistance to kanamycin and amikacin. The replacement of two amino acids, D117 or L120, with alanine residues resulted in complete loss of the ...
Yusa Keisuke - - 2005
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (GP) 120 interacts with CD4 and the CCR5 coreceptor for viral entry. The V3 loop in GP120 is a crucial region for determining coreceptor usage during viral entry, and a variety of amino acid substitutions has been observed in clinical isolates. To construct ...
Purohit Jogeswar Satchidananda - - 2006
Spores from the co-culture of Aspergillus foetidus and Rhizopus oryzae were subjected to UV, heat and NTG (3-nitro,5-methylguanidine) mutagenesis. A few colonies were screened from the selected media for tannase study. Amongst all, the best mutant isolated from the heat treatment (60 degrees C for 60 min) was SCPR 337. ...
Asano Yasuhisa - - 2005
Aspartase (l-aspartate ammonia-lyase, EC 4.3.1.1), which catalyzes the reversible deamination of l-aspartic acid to yield fumaric acid and ammonia, is highly selective towards l-aspartic acid. We screened for enzyme variants with altered substrate specificity by a directed evolution method. Random mutagenesis was performed on an Escherichia coli aspartase gene (aspA) ...
Wilhelm M - - 2005
Reverse transcriptase (RT) with its associated RNase H (RH) domain and integrase (IN) are key enzymes encoded by retroviruses and retrotransposons. Several studies have implied a functional role of the interaction between IN and RT during the replication of retroviral and retrotransposon genomes. In this study, IN deletion mutants were ...
Afitlhile M M - - 2005
The final steps of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis are thought to involve peroxisomal beta-oxidation, but this has not been directly demonstrated. The last and key step in fatty acid beta-oxidation is catalyzed by 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT) (EC 2.3.1.16). A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta, which lacks a functional ...
Dietrich Charles R - - 2005
Prior analyses established that the maize (Zea mays L.) gl8a gene encodes 3-ketoacyl reductase, a component of the fatty acid elongase required for the biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). A paralogous gene, gl8b, has been identified that is 96% identical to gl8a. The gl8a and gl8b genes ...
Frirdich Emilisa - - 2005
In most members of the Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella, the lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharide backbone is modified by phosphoryl groups. The negative charges provided by these residues are important in maintaining the barrier function of the outer membrane. Mutants lacking the core heptose region and the phosphate residues display ...
Uehara Tsuyoshi - - 2005
Escherichia coli breaks down over 60% of the murein of its side wall and reuses the component amino acids to synthesize about 25% of the cell wall for the next generation. The amino sugars of the murein are also efficiently recycled. Here we show that the 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid (anhMurNAc) is ...
Shi Jinrui - - 2005
Phytic acid, myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or Ins P6, is the most abundant myo-inositol phosphate in plant cells, but its biosynthesis is poorly understood. Also uncertain is the role of myo-inositol as a precursor of phytic acid biosynthesis. We identified a low-phytic acid mutant, lpa3, in maize. The Mu-insertion mutant has a phenotype ...
Navas-Martin Sonia - - 2005
Murine coronavirus A59 strain causes mild to moderate hepatitis in mice. We have previously shown that mutants of A59, unable to induce hepatitis, may be selected by persistent infection of primary glial cells in vitro. These in vitro isolated mutants encoded two amino acids substitutions in the spike (S) gene: ...
Poulsen Peter - - 2005
Amino acids in the environment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can transcriptionally activate a third of the amino acid permease genes through a signal that originates from the interaction between the extracellular amino acids and an integral plasma membrane protein, Ssy1p. Two plasma membrane-associated proteins, Ptr3p and Ssy5p, participate in the sensing, ...
Larkindale Jane - - 2005
To investigate the importance of different processes to heat stress tolerance, 45 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants and one transgenic line were tested for basal and acquired thermotolerance at different stages of growth. Plants tested were defective in signaling pathways (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and oxidative burst signaling) and in ...
Rock Christopher D - - 2005
Studies of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin have revealed that these pathways impinge on each other. The Daucus carota (L.) Dc3 promoter: uidA (beta-glucuronidase: GUS) chimaeric reporter (ProDc3:GUS) is induced by ABA, osmoticum, and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in vegetative tissues of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Here, we ...
Mun Hee-Chang - - 2005
The extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor is activated allosterically by l-amino acids, and recent molecular analysis indicates that amino acids are likely to bind in the receptor's Venus flytrap domain. In the current study we set out to identify residues in the VFT domain that specifically support amino acid binding and/or amino ...
Noutoshi Yoshiteru - - 2005
We isolated an Arabidopsis albino and pale green 10 (apg10) mutant which exhibits pale green cotyledons and true leaves at the juvenile stage. We identified a valine to leucine change in BBMII (N'-[(5'-phosphoribosyl)-formimino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) isomerase involved in histidine biosynthesis. The morphological abnormality of apg10 was recovered by histidine supplementation. The ...
Förster-Fromme Karin - - 2005
Mini-transposon-induced mutants with defects in utilization of linear terpenes such as citronellol and citronellic acid were isolated from Pseudomonas citronellolis. Mutants with strongly reduced growth on citronellol and citronellic acid (class I) were obtained together with mutants growing normally on citronellic acid but with impairment in growth on citronellol (class ...
Stähler Frank Nils - - 2005
In the gastric microenvironment, Helicobacter pylori is exposed to bicarbonate, urea and acid. Here it is demonstrated that both H. pylori carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are required for maintaining urease activity and therefore influence H. pylori urea resistance at neutral pH. Furthermore, the beta-CA is required for acid resistance as indicated ...
Madsen Søren M - - 2005
We previously characterized three Lactococcus lactis promoters, P170, P1 and P3, which are induced by low pH. Here, we identified a novel 14 bp regulatory DNA region centred at around -41.5 and composed of three tetranucleotide sequences, boxes A, C and D. Boxes A and C contribute to P1 activity, ...
Lai Hsin-Chih - - 2005
Serratia marcescens swarms at 30 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C on a nutrient-rich (LB) agar surface. Mini-Tn5 mutagenesis of S. marcescens CH-1 yielded a mutant (WC100) that swarms not only vigorously at 37 degrees C but also earlier and faster than the parent strain swarms at 30 ...
Nakajima Katsuhisa - - 2005
In order to clarify the effect of an accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemadsorption character of the influenza AH3 virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein, we introduced single-point amino acid changes into the HA1 domain of the HA proteins of influenza viruses isolated in 1968 (A/Aichi/2/68) and 1997 (A/Sydney/5/97) by ...
Kleinschmidt Malte - - 2005
The ability to adhere to other cells is one of the most prominent determinants of fungal pathogenicity. Thus, adherence of fungi to human tissues or plastics triggers hospital-acquired fungal infections, which are an increasing clinical problem, especially in immunocompromised persons. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhesion can be induced ...
Münzer Dieter F - - 2005
Substrate engineered, achiral carboxylic acid derivative was biohydroxylated with various mutants of cytochrome P450 BM-3 to give two out of the four possible diastereoisomers in high de and ee. The BM-3 mutants exhibit up to 9200 total turnovers for hydroxylation of the engineered substrate, which without the protecting group is ...
Penfield S - - 2005
Germinating oilseeds break down fatty acids through peroxisomal beta-oxidation and convert the carbon into soluble carbohydrates through the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. This interconversion is unique among higher eukaryotes. Using a combination of forward and reverse genetic screens, we have isolated mutants that compromise fatty acid breakdown at each step. ...
Besier Silke - - 2005
Recent studies have shown that individual amino acid exchanges within elongation factor G (EF-G) cause fusidic acid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The data from the present study illustrate that the fusidic acid resistance-mediating amino acid substitutions P406L and H457Y are associated with a marked impairment of the biological fitness of ...
Milad-Kodsi E - - 2005
Site-directed mutagenesis of rat hepatic neutral cytosolic cholesteryl ester hydrolase (rhncCEH) was used to substitute acidic, basic or neutral amino acid residues for Ser506, required for activation by protein kinase A. The substitution of acidic Asp506 resulted in esterase activities with cholesteryl oleate, p-nitrophenylcaprylate (PNPC) and p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) equivalent to ...
Adham A Raquel - - 2005
Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is an endogenous auxin used to enhance rooting during propagation. To better understand the role of IBA, we isolated Arabidopsis IBA-response (ibr) mutants that display enhanced root elongation on inhibitory IBA concentrations but maintain wild-type responses to indole-3-acetic acid, the principle active auxin. A subset of ibr ...
Lo Hsueh-Hsia - - 2005
Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to change the substrate specificity of Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). A double mutant, R292E/L18H, with a 12.9-fold increase in the specific activity toward L-lysine and 2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (OPBA) was identified. E. coli cells expressing this mutant enzyme could convert OPBA to L-homophenylalanine (L-HPA) with 97% ...
Hutchinson Kelly M - - 2005
A laboratory experiment for undergraduate biophysical chemistry is described, in which the acid concentration and temperature dependences of the decarboxylation of pyrrole-2-carboxylate are measured using a continuous ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. Data collection and analysis are structured using principles of guided inquiry. Data leading to the calculation of multiple rate ...
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