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Results 501 - 550 of 1869
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Kunte Amit S - - 2006
SREBPs are membrane bound transcription factors that are crucial for normal lipid synthesis in animal cells. Here, we show that Drosophila lacking dSREBP die before the third larval instar. Mutant larvae exhibit pronounced growth defects prior to lethality, along with substantial deficits in the transcription of genes required for fatty ...
Shokri Atefeh - - 2006
At increasing glucose limitation, typical for fed-batch cultivation performance, cultivation of Escherichia coli (relA1) results in development of a lipid structure that radically differs from the wild type and is characterised by accumulation of neutral phospholipids and saturated fatty acids. The mutant can, furthermore, not change the level of cardiolipin, ...
Qu Zhiqiang - - 2006
Mutations in human bestrophin-1 (VMD2) are genetically linked to a juvenile form of macular degeneration and autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. Recently, it has been proposed that bestrophins are Cl- channels and that the putative second transmembrane domain participates in forming the bestrophin pore. However, the structural determinants of Cl- ion permeation ...
Johansson Louise - - 2006
Shikimic acid, which is produced in the aromatic amino acid pathway in plants and microorganisms, is an industrially interesting chiral starting material for the synthesis of many chemical substances, e.g. the influenza medicine Tamiflu. When produced by genetically modified Escherichia coli it has previously been found that carbon-rich conditions (e.g. ...
Barkan Lenore - - 2006
Leaf membrane lipids of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fatty acid biosynthesis 1 (fab1) mutant contain a 35% to 40% increase in the predominant saturated fatty acid 16:0, relative to wild type. This increase in membrane saturation is associated with loss of photosynthetic function and death of mutant plants at low ...
Merfort Marcel - - 2006
Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2343 (ATCC 621H)catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and subsequently to 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5-KGA), a precursor of the industrially important L-(+)-tartaric acid. To further increase 5-KGA production in G. oxydans, the mutant strain MF1 was used. In this strain the membrane-bound gluconate-2-dehydrogenase activity, responsible for ...
Cristea Mirela - - 2006
Lipoxygenases with R stereospecificity have a conserved Gly residue, whereas (S)-lipoxygenases have an Ala residue. Site-directed mutagenesis has shown that these residues control position and S/R stereospecificity of oxygenation. Recombinant Mn-LO was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and its conserved Gly-316 residue was mutated to Ala, Ser, Val, and Thr. The ...
Kang Beom Ryong - - 2006
Certain plant growth-promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens 89B61 and Bacillus pumilus SE34, secreted high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in tryptophan-amended medium in stationary phase as determined by chromogenic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography. Two other growth-promoting strains, P. chlororaphis O6 and Serratia marcescens 90-166, did not produce these ...
Hamamoto Hiromi H Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu, Toyama 939-0398, - - 2006
Our previous studies revealed the species-based difference of CYP24A1-dependent vitamin D metabolism. Although human CYP24A1 catalyzes both C-23 and C-24 oxidation pathways, rat CYP24A1 shows almost no C-23 oxidation pathway. We tried to identify amino acid residues that cause the species-based difference by site-directed mutagenesis. In the putative substrate-binding regions, ...
Bakke Mikio - - 2006
D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is of considerable practical importance, such as bioconversion and enzymatic assay. In this study, we succeeded in obtaining a thermostable mutant DAO from porcine kidney by a single amino acid substitution. This mutant enzyme, F42C, was stable at 55 degrees C, while the wild-type enzyme was ...
Bearson Shawn M D - - 2006
Since the stomach is a first line of defense for the host against ingested microorganisms, an ex vivo swine stomach contents (SSC) assay was developed to search for genes important for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium survival in the hostile gastric environment. Initial characterization of the SSC assay (pH 3.87) using ...
Zhu Kun - - 2006
The double bond in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is introduced by the FabA dehydratase/isomerase of the bacterial type II fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. A DeltafabA mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grew aerobically, but required a UFA supplement for anaerobic growth. Wild-type cells produced 18:1Delta11 as the principal UFA, whereas ...
Haarmann Thomas - - 2006
Clavines and D-lysergic acid-derived alkaloid amides and alkaloid peptides are two different families of compounds that have the indole-derived tetracyclic metergoline ring system in common. Previous work has shown that D-lysergic acid is biosynthetically derived from clavine alkaloids. Recent cloning and analysis of the ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene cluster from ...
Shen Qiong - - 2006
B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands, is a crucial survival factor for B cells. We successfully constructed seven mutants of the functional soluble fragment of human BLyS (named cBLyS, amino acid 134-285), including three deletion mutants and four site-directed mutants. All the ...
Shimakami Tetsuro - - 2006
We previously reported that nucleolin, a representative nucleolar marker, interacts with nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) through two independent regions of NS5B, amino acids 208 to 214 and 500 to 506. We also showed that truncated nucleolin that harbors the NS5B-binding region inhibited the RNA-dependent RNA ...
Kaliszewski Pawel - - 2006
The Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase plays a role in many cellular processes including the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The PIS1 (phosphatidylinositol synthase gene) encoding the enzyme Pis1p which catalyses the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol from CDP-diacyglycerol and inositol, was isolated in a screen for multicopy suppressors of the rsp5 temperature sensitivity ...
Croxen Matthew A - - 2006
The location of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of mammals is defined by natural pH gradients within the gastric mucus, which are more alkaline proximal to the mucosal epithelial cells and more acidic toward the lumen. We have used a microscope slide-based pH gradient assay and video data collection ...
Naderer Thomas - - 2006
Leishmania are protozoan parasites that replicate within mature phagolysosomes of mammalian macrophages. To define the biochemical composition of the phagosome and carbon source requirements of intracellular stages of L. major, we investigated the role and requirement for the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP). L. major FBP was constitutively expressed in both ...
Zhang Xin-Yue - - 2006
Trichosanthin (TCS) possesses many biological and pharmaceutical activities, but its strong immunogenicity limits its clinical application. To reduce the immunogenicity of TCS, we modified the reported method for the prediction of antigenic site and identified two crucial amino acid residues (Y55 and D78) for a new epitope. We mutated these ...
Daghfous Douraid - - 2006
SeqA and Dam proteins were known to be responsible for regulating the initiation of replication and to affect the expression of many genes and metabolisms. We have examined here the fatty acids composition and phospholipids membrane in dam and/or seqA mutants. The dam mutant showed an accumulation of the acidic ...
Baerga-Ortiz Abel - - 2006
The ketoreductase (KR) domains eryKR(1) and eryKR(2) from the erythromycin-producing polyketide synthase (PKS) reduce 3-ketoacyl-thioester intermediates with opposite stereospecificity. Modeling of eryKR(1) and eryKR(2) showed that conserved amino acids previously correlated with production of alternative alcohol configurations lie in the active site. eryKR(1) domains mutated at these positions showed an ...
Teilum Kaare - - 2006
Site-specific 13C labeling offers a desirable means of eliminating unwanted relaxation pathways and coherent magnetization transfer in NMR relaxation experiments. Here we use [1-13C]-glucose as the sole carbon source in the growth media for protein overexpression in Escherichia coli. The approach results in specific incorporation of 13C at isolated positions ...
Yates P J - - 2006
Development of in vitro resistance to GW640385, a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor, was studied. Variants characterized included one with <4-fold resistance and amino acid substitutions Q58E/A71V (protease) and P452K (Gag) and one with >50-fold resistance and amino acid substitutions L10F/G16E/E21K/A28S/M46I/F53L/A71V (protease) and L449F/P453T (Gag). The A28S ...
Vedam Vinata - - 2006
Members of the Rhizobiaceae contain 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid (27OHC(28:0)) in their lipid A. A Rhizobium leguminosarum 3841 acpXL mutant (named here Rlv22) lacking a functional specialized acyl carrier lacked 27OHC(28:0) in its lipid A, had altered growth and physiological properties (e.g., it was unable to grow in the presence of an ...
He Liping L Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2520, - - 2006
CLH-3a and CLH-3b are Caenorhabditis elegans ClC channel splice variants that exhibit striking differences in voltage, Cl(-), and H(+) sensitivity. The major primary structure differences between the channels include a 71 amino acid CLH-3a N-terminal extension and a 270 amino acid extension of the CLH-3b C-terminus. Deletion of the CLH-3a ...
Bonomo Jeanne - - 2006
A problem in strain engineering is that mutations that benefit the expression of a phenotype in one environment may impose a cost to biological fitness in a new environment. The overall objective of this study was to improve understanding of this phenomenon within the context of a classic anti-metabolite selection ...
Buer Charles S - - 2006
Plant organs change their growth direction in response to reorientation relative to the gravity vector. We explored the role of ethylene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root gravitropism. Treatment of wild-type Columbia seedlings with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) reduced root elongation and gravitropic curvature. The ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 ...
Urbina Daniel - - 2006
The frequencies of A, C, G, and T in mitochondrial DNA vary among species due to unequal rates of mutation between the bases. The frequencies of bases at fourfold degenerate sites respond directly to mutation pressure. At first and second positions, selection reduces the degree of frequency variation. Using a ...
Kaur Rajvinder - - 2006
Pseudomonas strain AN5 (Ps. str. AN5), a non-fluorescent Australian bacterial isolate, is an effective biological control (biocontrol) agent of the take-all disease of wheat caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). Ps. str. AN5 controls Ggt by producing an antifungal compound which was purified by thin layer and ...
Yaeno Takashi - - 2006
The Arabidopsis FAD7 gene encodes a plastid omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that catalyzes the desaturation of dienoic fatty acids to trienoic fatty acids in chloroplast membrane lipids. The expression of FAD7 was rapidly and locally induced by ozone exposure, which causes oxidative responses equivalent to pathogen-induced hypersensitive responses and subsequently ...
Endo Shogo - - 2006
We generated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mutants by introducing a single amino-acid substitution in subdomain V of the catalytic domain and then examined the susceptibility of these mutants to PP1 derivatives originally designed as Src inhibitors. Substituting smaller amino acids (alanine [Ala (A)] or glycine [Gly (G)]) for glutamine ...
Lale G - - 2006
AIMS: To examine the production of gibberellic acid by selected morphological mutants of Gibberella fujikuroi in liquid cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mutants of G. fujikuroi having different morphological characteristics were selected after UV irradiation. The production of gibberellic acid by mutants that had different hyphal lengths was examined in shake ...
Wu Guang - - 2006
In this study, we used the 183 translation probabilities between RNA codons and mutated amino acids to construct the theoretical distributions of mutated amino acids in hemagglutinins of influenza A virus. We then compared the actual distributions of mutated amino acids from 953 hemagglutinins with their theoretical ones. The results ...
Zhu Changhua - - 2006
Root hair formation is an important model with which to study cell patterning and differentiation in higher plants. Ethylene and auxin are critical regulators of root hair development. The role of jasmonates (JAs) was examined in Arabidopsis root hair development as well as their interactions with ethylene in this process. ...
Zhang Xiao-Qi - - 2006
The molecular basis of an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) target-based resistant Lolium rigidum population (WLR 96) was studied here. The carboxyl-transferase domain of the plastidic ACCase gene from resistant individuals was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The DNA sequences were aligned and compared with a susceptible population. Six amino acid substitutions ...
Takahagi Toshikazu - - 2006
In atrazine-tolerant tobacco cells with Ser to Thr mutation at the 264th amino acid of PsbA polypeptide in photosystem II (PSII), electron trannsport around the secondary quinone acceptor (Q(B)) site was inhibited to a greater extent by barbatic acid than in wild-type cells. Further characterization suggests similar mode of action ...
Hornstra Luc M - - 2006
Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that l-alanine, l-cysteine, l-threonine, and l-glutamine are capable of initiating the germination of endospores of B. cereus ATCC 14579. ...
Levasseur Anthony - - 2006
There have been many claims of adaptive molecular evolution, but what role does positive selection play in functional divergence? The aim of this study was to test the relationship between evolutionary and functional shifts with special emphasis on the role of the environment. For this purpose, we studied the fungal ...
Eckert-Boulet Nadine - - 2006
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extracellular amino acids are sensed at the plasma membrane by the SPS sensor, consisting of the transporter homologue Ssy1p, Ptr3p, and the endoprotease Ssy5p. Amino acid sensing results in proteolytic truncation of the transcription factors Stp1p and Stp2p, followed by their relocation from the cytoplasm to the ...
Kang Sei - - 2006
Pepper (Capsicum annuum) serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (SHT) catalyzes the synthesis of N-hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin, including feruloylserotonin and p-coumaroylserotonin. To elucidate the domain or the key amino acid that determines the amine substrate specificity, we isolated a tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (THT) gene from pepper. Purified recombinant THT protein catalyzed the synthesis ...
Sheldon Amanda L - - 2006
The neuronal glutamate transporter, EAAC1 (excitatory amino acid carrier 1), undergoes rapid regulation after treatment with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or phorbol ester in C6 glioma cells and neurons. A large intracellular pool of EAAC1 exists, from which transporters are redistributed to the cell surface in response to these signals. ...
Yow Geok-Yong - - 2006
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sensitive to D-amino acids: those corresponding to almost all proteinous L-amino acids inhibit the growth of yeast even at low concentrations (e.g. 0.1 mM). We have determined that D-amino acid-N-acetyltransferase (DNT) of the yeast is involved in the detoxification of D-amino acids on the basis of the ...
Kitazawa Daisuke - - 2005
Circumnutation and winding in plants are universal growth movements that allow plants to survive despite their sessile nature. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms controlling these phenomena remain unclear. We previously found that a gravitropic mutant of Japanese morning glory (Pharbitis nil or Ipomoea nil), Shidare-asagao (weeping), is defective not only ...
Gonzalo Asensio Jesús - - 2006
Two-component regulatory signal transduction systems are important elements of the adaptative response of prokaryotes to a variety of environmental stimuli. Disruption of PhoP-PhoR in Mycobacterium tuberculosis dramatically attenuates virulence, implying that this system directly and/or indirectly coordinates the expression of important virulence factors whose identity remains to be established. Interestingly, ...
Oglesby Amanda G - - 2005
Shigella flexneri requires iron for survival, and the genes for iron uptake and homeostasis are regulated by the Fur protein. Microarrays were used to identify genes regulated by Fur and to study the physiological effects of iron availability in S. flexneri. These assays showed that the expression of genes involved ...
Feng Jie - - 2005
A triglyceride lipase gene LIP1 was identified in the genome of Fusarium graminearum strain PH-1. The predicted protein encoded by LIP1 contains 591 amino acid residues with a putative N-terminal signal peptide and shows 57 and 40-44 % identity to a Botrytis cinerea lipase and five Candida rugosa lipases, respectively. ...
Liu Yi - - 2006
The self-compatible Coprinopsis cinerea homokaryon AmutBmut produces fruiting bodies without prior mating to another strain. Early stages of fruiting body development include the dark-dependent formation of primary hyphal knots and their light-induced transition to the more compact secondary hyphal knots. The AmutBmut UV mutant 6-031 forms primary hyphal knots, but ...
Cao Linsen L Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6030, - - 2005
The Cdt is a family of gram-negative bacterial toxins that typically arrest eukaryotic cells in the G0/G1 or G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The toxin is a heterotrimer composed of the cdtA, cdtB and cdtC gene products. Although it has been shown that the CdtA protein subunit binds to ...
Liou Benjamin - - 2006
Acid beta-glucosidase (GCase) is a 497-amino acid, membrane-associated lysosomal exo-beta-glucosidase whose defective activity leads to the Gaucher disease phenotypes. To move toward a structure/function map for disease mutations, 52 selected single amino acid substitutions were introduced into GCase, expressed in an insect cell system, purified, and characterized for basic kinetic, ...
Wong Tuck Seng - - 2006
We have developed a statistical method named MAP (mutagenesis assistant program) to equip protein engineers with a tool to develop promising directed evolution strategies by comparing 19 mutagenesis methods. Instead of conventional transition/transversion bias indicators as benchmarks for comparison, we propose to use three indicators based on the subset of ...
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