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Results 401 - 450 of 1872
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Sun Qi Q Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2008
Whereas dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids has been associated with risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), few studies have examined the relation for blood concentrations. We aimed to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in blood on the risk of nonfatal MI. Baseline blood samples were ...
Brown James J 3rd Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology & Anatomy, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 2160 S. First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, - - 2009
Using rat organotypic hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) slice cultures, we examined whether phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is involved in binge alcohol (ethanol)-induced neurodegeneration, and whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), a fish oil-enriched fatty acid that is anti-inflammatory in brain damage models, is neuroprotective. Assessed with propidium iodide and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ...
Li Yuan-You - - 2008
Delta(6)-Desaturase (linoleoyl-CoA desaturase, EC 1.14.19.3) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA). In this report, a Delta6 desaturase-like cDNA was cloned, and the relation of HUFA biosynthetic activity in liver with ambient salinity as well as dietary fatty acids was investigated in the ...
Desbois Andrew P - - 2009
Pathogenic bacteria, such as multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which are not susceptible to most conventional antibiotics, are causing increased concern in healthcare institutions worldwide. The discovery of novel antibacterial compounds for biomedical exploitation is one avenue that is being pursued to combat these problematic bacteria. Marine eukaryotic microalgae are known ...
Gladyshev Michail I - - 2009
Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid ...
Fer Maude - - 2008
Human CYP450 omega-hydroxylases of the CYP4 family are known to convert arachidonic acid (AA) to its metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). This study deals with hydroxylations of four PUFAs, eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), AA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by either human recombinant CYP4s enzymes or human liver microsomal preparations. ...
Scorza Fulvio A - - 2008
The epilepsies are the most common serious neurological condition. People with epilepsy have a two- to threefold increased risk of dying prematurely than those without epilepsy, and the most common epilepsy-related category of death is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The exact pathophysiological causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but ...
Yalçin S - - 2008
The aim of the research was to evaluate embryo composition and changes in egg yolk fatty acid composition during embryonic development as a function of incubation temperature and age of breeders. Eggs obtained from a common breeder stock at 3 ages: 32 (younger), 42 (mid age), and 65 (older) wk ...
Li Jing-Jing - - 2008
Obesity has become a prevailing epidemic throughout the globe. Effective therapies for obesity become attracting. Food components with beneficial effects on "weight loss" have caught increasing attentions. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) belong to different families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). However, they have ...
Vedin Inger - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Dietary fish or fish oil rich in n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs), eg, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), ameliorate inflammatory reactions by various mechanisms. Whereas most studies have explored the effects of predominantly EPA-based n-3 FAs preparations, few have addressed the effects of n-3 FAs preparations with ...
Harris William S - - 2008
Because blood concentrations of n-3 (or omega-3) fatty acids (FAs) (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) are a strong reflection of dietary intake, it is proposed that a n-3 FA biomarker, the omega-3 index (erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid), be considered as a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease mortality, ...
Poulsen Raewyn C - - 2008
Newly described lipoxygenase (LOX)-generated lipid mediators, that is, resolvins and protectins as well as lipoxins, are both anti-inflammatory and proresolving. We aimed to determine whether these lipid mediators are present in bone marrow and whether their lipidomic profiles are altered following ovariectomy or dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or ...
Chung Wan-Ling - - 2008
Most previous studies have focused on improved reference memory and recovery of whole brain docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)] levels in DHA-deficient animals supplemented with fish oil (FO) or switched to an adequate DHA-enriched diet. The aims of this study were to determine whether reference and working memory performance can be ...
Stark Aliza H - - 2008
Consumption of omega 3 fatty acids is known to have health benefits. For many years, the importance of the only member of the omega 3 family considered to be essential, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), has been overlooked. Current research indicates that ALA, along with its longer chain metabolites, may play an ...
Chong Elaine W-T - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence on dietary omega-3 fatty acid and fish intake in the primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Seven databases were systematically searched with no limits on publication year or language using standardized criteria. Randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies ...
Bonham M P - - 2008
Information on the status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in pregnancy and breast milk in very high fish-eating populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine dietary intake and changes in fatty acid status in a population of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles. Serum ...
Willemsen Linette E M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The intestinal mucosa functions as a barrier against harmful dietary and microbial antigens. An intact gut barrier forms a prerequisite for protection against infection and allergy. Both allergic and inflammatory mediators (e.g. IL-4, IFN-gamma) are known to compromise the epithelial barrier integrity by enhancing permeability. Breast milk provides protection ...
Pyle Denver J - - 2008
Crude glycerol is the primary byproduct of the biodiesel industry. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) through fermentation of the alga Schizochytrium limacinum on crude glycerol provides a unique opportunity to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of impurities ...
DeMar James C JC Jr Section of Nutritional Neurosciences, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2008
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a crucial nervous system n-3 PUFA, may be obtained in the diet or synthesized in vivo from dietary alpha-linolenic acid (LNA). We addressed whether DHA synthesis is regulated by the availability of dietary DHA in artificially reared rat pups, during p8 to p28 development. Over 20 days, ...
Todorcević Marijana - - 2008
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) preadipocytes, isolated from visceral adipose tissue, differentiate from an unspecialized fibroblast like cell type to mature adipocytes filled with lipid droplets in culture. The expression of the adipogenic gene markers peroxisome proliferated activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), fatty acid ...
Vaisman Nachum - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation for patients with psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the exact metabolic fate of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on different glyceride carriers remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether conjugation of EPA and DHA to ...
Létisse Marion - - 2008
Based on the principle of supercritical chromatography, a fractionation process for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) under supercritical conditions was studied with the aim of obtaining in extracts highly enriched eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish cannery waste. Yields of the fractionation process were enhanced by using ...
Skulas-Ray Ann C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Moderate hypertriglyceridemia is fairly common, and elevated triglycerides are a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been shown to lower triglycerides in many clinical studies. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid concentrates (P-OM3) are indicated for use in people with very high triglycerides ...
Ren Hongmei - - 2008
In previous studies, we found that homozygous sickle cell (HbSS) patients, compared with their healthy (HbAA) counterparts, had reduced levels of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, in red cells, platelets, and mononuclear cells. These differences were not due to lower intake of the two fatty ...
McDaniel Jodi C - - 2008
Physiological events in the initial inflammatory stage of cutaneous wound healing influence subsequent stages. Proinflammatory cytokines coordinate molecular and cellular processes during the inflammatory stage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alter proinflammatory cytokine production, but how this phenomenon specifically influences wound healing is not clearly understood. In the present study, effects ...
Friedman Allon N AN Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. - - 2008
Hemodialysis patients have an extremely high rate of cardiac arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death, although the risk during the hemodialysis procedure is relatively low. A higher blood content of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death. We performed this study to measure ...
Glick Norris R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Determine whether there are essential fatty acid abnormalities in arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-deprived tube-fed individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma fatty acid concentrations were measured in eight tube-fed adults with profound developmental disabilities. RESULTS: Mean plasma AA, DPAn-6, stearic, oleic, Mead, palmitoleic, and vaccenic acid concentrations were elevated ...
Wilhelm Matthias - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies support the protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on sudden cardiac death. However, patients with structural heart disease and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) showed no effect or even a proarrhythmic response to fish oil supplementation. Animal studies suggest different electrophysiologic effects of circulating and incorporated omega-3 ...
Estienne M J - - 2008
Development of nutritional strategies to increase the production of fertile sperm would further enhance the distribution of superior genetic material by AI. The objective was to determine the effects of a dietary source of omega-3 fatty acids in boars on semen characteristics and sexual behavior. Boars were fed daily 2.2 ...
Simopoulos Artemis P - - 2008
Several sources of information suggest that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids ...
Marion-Letellier Rachel - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and is activated by both natural (polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFAs) and synthetic (troglitazone) ligands. The fatty acid content of defined formula diets may play a role in mediating the antiinflammatory effect, but the mechanism is ...
Kong J - - 2008
The objectives of this study were to develop a value-added jerky-style snack from salmon flesh and to minimize loss of healthful lipids during processing. Three formulations were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder. The base formulation included Atlantic salmon (82%, w/w), sucrose (4%), pregelatinized starch (3%), modified tapioca starch (3%), ...
Hsieh A T - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Clinical chemistry and complete blood count (CBC) values were determined in 14 term baboons (Papio species) consuming formula with moderate or high levels of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from 2-12 weeks of age. METHOD: Neonates were randomized to three groups: C: Control, no LCPUFA; L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic ...
Tanaka Naoki - - 2008
Recent studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one of the major components of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is widely used as an antilipidemic agent, its single efficacy for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. As such, we aimed to evaluate ...
Goldberg Ronald B - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent availability of a concentrated prescription omega-3 fatty acid preparation provides physicians with an additional anti-dyslipidemic agent at a time when limitations of statin therapy in dyslipidemic high-risk patients are recognized. This review examines the evidence supporting the use of omega-3 fatty acid treatment in dyslipidemic ...
Higashihara Eiji - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Soy protein ameliorates rat polycystic kidney disease with concomitant renal enrichment of omega3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. A study was conducted to examine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) on renal volume and function in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). METHODS: Non-azotemic patients were randomized to either a ...
Soni Smita P - - 2008
Solid-state (2)H-NMR of [(2)H(31)]-N-palmitoylsphingomyelin ([(2)H(31)]16:0SM, PSM*), supplemented by differential scanning calorimetry, was used for the first time, to our knowledge, to investigate the molecular organization of the sphingolipid in 1:1:1 mol mixtures with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-18:1PE, POPE) or 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-22:6PE, PDPE) and cholesterol. When compared with (2)H-NMR data for analogous mixtures ...
Koussoroplis Apostolos-Manuel - - 2008
Fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of six carnivorous mammalian species (European otter Lutra lutra, American mink Mustela vison, European Mink Mustela lutreola, European polecat Mustela putorius, stone marten Martes foina and European wild cat Felis silvestris) was studied. These species forage to differing degrees in aquatic and terrestrial ...
Posner Gary H GH Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. - - 2008
From 9-substituted DHA, several new artemisinin-derived C-10 acetal ethers and esters were prepared with either a 9-fluoro or a 9-sulfonyl substituent. The very strong inductive electron-withdrawing C-9 substituent is shown to retard considerably C-10 ionization (acid-promoted etherification) of 9-fluoro-DHA and 9-sulfonyl-DHA.
Kim Hee-Yong - - 2008
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), an n-3 fatty acid highly concentrated in the central nervous system, is essential for proper neuronal and retinal function. While a high level of DHA is generally maintained in neuronal membranes, inadequate supply of n-3 fatty acid or ethanol exposure leads to a significant loss of ...
Martin Caren McHenry - - 2008
The potential health benefit of omega-3 fatty acids has been the focus of much research in the past decade. While the typical diet in the United States has a much greater ratio of omega-6 fatty acids compared with omega-3 fatty acids, research is showing that shifting this ratio-by increased consumption ...
Bays Harold E - - 2008
Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Very high triglyceride (TG) levels (> or =500 mg/dl [5.65 mmol/l]) increase the risk of pancreatitis. One therapeutic option to lower TG levels is omega-3 fatty acids, which are derived from the oil of fish and other seafood. The American ...
von Schacky Clemens - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent publications seem to indicate no or an untoward effect of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on cardiac rhythm. This review puts these developments into perspective. RECENT FINDINGS: In-vitro or in animal models, little pro-arrhythmic effect, but many antiarrhythmic mechanisms of omega-3 ...
Sierra Saleta - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in the modulation of the immune response. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) produced from dietary precursors may not be sufficient to match nutritional requirements and thus should be included in our diet. In this sense, the administration of higher amounts ...
Petenuci Maria Eugênia - - 2008
Nile tilapia (Oreochormis niloticus) fishbone is a fish part with unknown composition. After elaboration of flour fishbone of tilapia it was analysede. The results in 100 g of flour were: moisture (14.2%), protein (40.8%), total lipids (25.3%), and ash (18.3%), and mineral (in 100 g) was 2715.9 mg (calcium), 1.3 ...
Lee John H JH Mid America Heart Institute and University of Missouri-Kansas City, 4330 Wornall Road, Kansas City, MO 64111, - - 2008
The most compelling evidence for the cardiovascular benefit provided by omega-3 fatty acids comes from 3 large controlled trials of 32,000 participants randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acid supplements containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or to act as controls. These trials showed reductions in cardiovascular events of ...
Feller Scott E - - 2008
A variety of experimental methods indicate unique biophysical properties of membranes containing the highly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the following we review the atomically detailed picture of DHA acyl chains structure and dynamics that has emerged from computational studies of this system in our lab. A ...
Haak L - - 2008
In this experiment, the effect of duration and time of feeding n-3 PUFA sources on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated. Linseed (L) and fish oil (F), rich in alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA), respectively, were ...
Stanke-Labesque Françoise - - 2008
n-3 PUFA supplementation helps in the prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases and CVD. However, many supplementations reported sofar are either a combination of n-3 PUFA or used large daily amounts of n-3 PUFA dosages. The present study investigated the influence of increasing dose intake of DHA on the fatty ...
Wassall Stephen R - - 2008
What distinguishes polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from less unsaturated fatty acids is the presence of a repeating =CH-CH(2)-CH= unit that produces an extremely flexible structure rapidly isomerizing through conformational states. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with 6 double bonds is the most extreme example. The focus of this review is the profound ...
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