Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1872
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Hess Holly A - - 2008
Infant formula companies began fortifying formulas with long-chain PUFA in 2002, including arachidonic acid (ARA) at approximately 0.5% of total fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the time-specific effects of feeding formula enriched with supra-physiologic ARA on fatty acid composition of intestinal mucosal phospholipids. One-day-old ...
Pauwels Ernest K J - - 2008
Many laboratory studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have antitumor effects. The mechanisms involved in their anticarcinogenic action include the suppression of the biosynthesis of proinflammatory molecules, the influence on transcription factor activity and gene expression, the ...
Davis Laurie M - - 2008
Uncoupling proteins (UCP) translocate protons from the mitochondrial intermembrane space to the matrix, thereby "uncoupling" electron transport from the production of ATP. It has been shown that these proteins are highly expressed in animals maintained on the ketogenic diet (KD). Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, it is known that ...
Wassall Stephen R - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) constitute an influential group of molecules that promote health by an as yet unknown mechanism. They are structurally distinguished from less unsaturated fatty acids by the presence of a repeating =CH-CH(2)-CH= unit that produces an extremely flexible chain rapidly reorienting through conformational states. The most highly ...
Kairaluoma L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There are claims that dietary supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids could help children with dyslexia to overcome their reading problems. However, these claims have not yet been empirically tested. METHODS: This study was designed to test whether dietary supplementation was superior to placebo in treating reading, spelling or other ...
Roberts L Jackson LJ - - 2009
The isoprostanes (IsoPs) are a unique series of prostaglandin-like compounds formed in vivo via a nonenzymatic mechanism involving the free radical-initiated peroxidation of arachidonic acid. This article summarizes our current knowledge of these compounds. Herein, a historical account of their discovery and the mechanism of their formation are described. A ...
Phinney Stephen D - - 2009
Oolichan grease, a dietary fat prepared from smelt-like fish, is highly prized by north Pacific coast aboriginal cultures. The composition of oolichan grease is unclear, with one report indicating a high 22:6n-3 content consistent with cold-water marine oils, but another reporting a much lower value. We noted that oolichan grease ...
Fourcade Stéphane - - 2009
Peroxisomes are essential organelles exerting key functions in fatty acid metabolism such as the degradation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs accumulate in X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a disease caused by deficiency of the Abcd1 peroxisomal transporter. Its closest homologue, Abcd2, exhibits a high degree of functional redundancy on the catabolism ...
Emanuele Enzo - - 2009
In the ultimatum game (UG), two players are involved to bargain over a division of a given sum of money. The proposer makes an ultimatum offer of a fraction of money, while the responder can either accept or reject the proposer's decision. In case of rejection of the proposed splitting ...
Cheng Judy W M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review and evaluate published evidence on the use of omega-3 fatty acid in the prevention and treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Postulated mechanisms of the antiarrhythmic effects of omega-3 fatty acid are discussed. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed articles/abstracts published in English language ...
Pawels E K J - - 2008
The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 ...
Politi Pierluigi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pilot findings seem to suggest a potential beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on behavioral alterations in children with autism. However, data on the potential benefits of omega-3 supplements in young adults with severe autism are lacking. In the present study, we sought to explore this issue ...
Okada T - - 2008
Trans and conjugated fatty acids may exhibit either beneficial or detrimental bioactive effects depending on their metabolic properties. This study was conducted to elucidate if isomerization and conjugation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) demonstrate more favorable bioactivity on lipid metabolism compared to unmodified EPA and DHA. The ...
Turnbull Teresa - - 2008
The purpose of this review was to examine the current level of evidence regarding the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in improving bipolar disorder symptoms. Of 99 articles meeting initial search criteria, 5 randomized control trials and 2 quasi-experimental studies were selected for review. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was ...
Martinelli Nicola - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases, encoded by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism that catalyze the conversion of linoleic acid (LA) into arachidonic acid (AA) and that of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1 and FADS2 ...
Vardar-Sengul Saynur - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in tissue-destruction mechanisms-associated periodontitis. MMP-8 and -13 are the predominant collagenases that are important in the extracellular matrix degradation in periodontal tissues. MMP-14 is a membrane-type MMP, whereas laminin-5 indicates basal membrane modification and epithelial induction. The purpose of the present study was ...
McNamara Robert K - - 2008
The principal polyunsaturated fatty acid acids found in brain, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), preferentially accumulate in synaptic membranes. Although neurochemical studies have found that dietary-induced deficits in rat brain DHA composition significantly alter mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, its impact on DA-mediated behavior remains poorly understood. In the ...
Xu Y Y Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, - - 2008
Maintaining essential fatty acid (EFA) homeostasis during pregnancy is critical for fetal development. As the organ that controls the maternal-to-fetal supply of nutrients, the placenta plays a significant role in guiding EFA transfer to the fetus. Many EFA homeostasis proteins are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The metabolites of ...
McNamara Robert K - - 2009
To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on phosphatidylinositol signaling in brain, myo-inositol (mI) concentrations were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of omega-3 fatty acid deficient rats by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). To generate graded deficits in PFC docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) composition, perinatal ...
Vandal Milène - - 2008
Little information is available concerning whether incorporation of dietary omega-3 fatty acids into plasma lipids changes during healthy aging. Elderly (74 +/- 4 years old) and young (24 +/- 2 years old) adults were given a fish oil supplement for 3 weeks that provided 680 mg/day of docosahexaenoic acid and ...
Innis Sheila M - - 2008
The omega-3 fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients and one of their important roles is providing the fatty acid with 22 carbons and 6 double bonds known as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for nervous tissue growth and function. Inadequate intakes of omega-3 fatty acids decrease DHA and increase omega-6 fatty acids ...
Morishita Mariko - - 2008
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived peptide secreted from intestinal L-cells and now considered as an ideal diabetic medicine. Recently, it was reported that the unsaturated fatty acid alpha-linoleic acid promotes the secretion of GLP-1 via a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR120. However, the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on ...
Freese Elke - - 2009
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; n-20:5omega3) was found to be a constituent of phospholipids in three mesophilic strains of Gammaproteobacteria, which were isolated from anoxic most probable number series prepared with sediments from an intertidal flat of the German North Sea coast. Their partial 16S rRNA gene sequences identified the isolates as ...
Chang Chih-Tsung CT Claude Pepper Institute and Department of Chemistry, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901, - - 2008
The stereospecific synthesis of two all-syn-EPA-derived isoprostanes (iPs), 5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF(3alpha)-VI 17 and 8,12-iso-iPF(3alpha)-VI 18, has been accomplished. These two synthetic probes have been used to discover and identify their presence in human urine. The eventual quantitative measurement of these two iPs may be a valuable index of oxidative stress in people ...
Morishige Jun-ichi - - 2008
Juniperonic acid (Delta-5c,11c,14c,17c-20:4, JA) is a polymethylene-interrupted (PMI) fatty acid that occurs in Biota orientalis. In this study, we found that JA has an antiproliferative activity. Swiss 3T3 cells were preloaded with fatty acids before stimulation with bombesin, a mitogenic neuropeptide, and proliferation of the cells was assessed by [(3)H]thymidine ...
Calder Philip C - - 2008
The immune system, including its inflammatory components, is fundamental to host defence against pathogenic invaders. It is a complex system involving interactions amongst many different cell types dispersed throughout the body. Central to its actions are phagocytosis of bacteria, processing of antigens derived from intracellular and extracellular pathogens, activation of ...
Rapoport Stanley I - - 2008
Metabolic cascades involving arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) within brain can be independently targeted by drugs, diet and pathological conditions. Thus, AA turnover and brain expression of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), but not DHA turnover or expression of DHA-selective Ca(2+)-independent iPLA(2), are reduced in rats given agents ...
SanGiovanni John Paul - - 2008
To examine the association of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intake with incident neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and central geographic atrophy (CGA). Multicenter clinic-based prospective cohort study from a clinical trial including Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants with bilateral drusen at enrollment. Main outcome measures ...
Gustafson Kathleen M - - 2008
Docosahexaenoic acid is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in large quantity in the brain and which has repeatedly been observed to be related in positive ways to both cognitive function and cardiovascular health. The mechanisms through which docosahexaenoic acid affects cognition are not well understood, but in ...
Bretillon Lionel - - 2008
Accumulation of lipids within Bruch's membrane (BrM) and between BrM and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) accounts for one of the biological changes associated with normal aging and may contribute to the development of age-related maculopathies. The origin of these lipids is still being actively investigated. The relative contribution of plasma ...
Tukiainen Taru - - 2008
A three-molecular-window approach for (1)H NMR spectroscopy of serum is presented to obtain specific molecular data on lipoproteins, various low-molecular-weight metabolites, and individual lipid molecules together with their degree of (poly)(un)saturation. The multiple data were analysed with self-organising maps, illustrating the strength of the approach as a holistic metabonomics framework ...
Raghukumar Seshagiri - - 2008
Thraustochytrids, the heterotrophic, marine, straminipilan protists, are now established candidates for commercial production of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that is important in human health and aquaculture. Extensive screening of cultures from a variety of habitats has yielded strains that produce at least 50% of ...
McNamara Robert K RK Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA. - - 2008
Previous antemortem and postmortem tissue fatty acid composition studies have observed significant deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cell (RBC) and postmortem cortical membranes of patients with unipolar depression. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex ...
Jordao Luisa - - 2008
We recently showed that treatment of macrophages prior to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with the pro-inflammatory omega-6 lipid, arachidonic acid (AA) enhanced bacterial killing whereas the anti-inflammatory, omega-3 lipid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) stimulated bacterial growth. Here we tested if these effects were depending on when lipids were added to macrophages: before ...
Leroy Christine - - 2008
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in cardioprotection. These effects have been largely attributed to membrane docosahexaenoic acid. Conversely, saturated fatty acids trigger apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, with modifications of mitochondrial properties including cardiolipin loss, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. The purpose of this study was ...
Harris William S - - 2008
A plant source of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) that can raise tissue eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed. A soybean oil (SBO) containing approximately 20% stearidonic acid [SDA; the delta-6 desaturase product of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)] derived from genetically modified soybeans is under development. This study compared ...
Novak Elizabeth M - - 2008
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega-3) is a major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain and is required in large amounts during development. Low levels of DHA in the brain are associated with functional deficits. The omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients and their metabolism and incorporation in developing brain depends on ...
Belkind-Gerson J - - 2008
Knowledge of the importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in neurodevelopment was originally obtained from animal studies. These fatty acids are rapidly accreted in brain during the first postnatal year in animal and human infants, and they are found in high concentrations ...
Calder Philip C - - 2008
With regard to inflammatory processes, the main fatty acids of interest are the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA), which is the precursor of inflammatory eicosanoids like prostaglandin E(2) and leukotriene B(4), and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA are found in oily fish ...
Yu Y H - - 2008
The nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) triggers adipocyte differentiation by regulating lipogenic genes. A ligand for PPARgamma is necessary to activate PPARgamma function. Fatty acids are potential ligands for PPARgamma activation. The current experiment was designed to determine the potential for individual fatty acids to activate porcine ...
Sato Sho - - 2008
An Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium, Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10, produces cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LPUFA), as a component of membrane phospholipids at low temperatures. The EPA-less mutant generated by disruption of the EPA synthesis gene becomes cold-sensitive. We studied whether the cold sensitivity could be suppressed by supplementation ...
Aldámiz-Echevarría Luis - - 2008
AIM: To evaluate plasma fatty acid (FA) composition of children with food allergy undergoing elimination diets that avoided the offending antigens. METHODS: Twenty-five children (14 male, 11 female) aged 3.8 +/- 1.6 years (range 2-7 years) affected of multiple food allergy and managed with elimination diets participated in a cross-sectional ...
Dinan Timothy - - 2009
There is evidence that increased inflammatory activity contributes to treatment non-response in depression and studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is effective in antidepressant non-responders. We tested the hypotheses that in major depression (1) the plasma omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio is greater in antidepressant non-responders than responders and (2) ...
Iapichino G - - 2008
Nutrition support in critically ill patients is not merely simple nutrition, but rather metabolic support. In the last few years, the pharmacological properties of nutrients have been specifically addressed in a new field called pharmaconutrition. This review will offer a deeper insight into this field, focusing on the properties of ...
Zapata-Gonzalez Fernando - - 2008
There is accumulating evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may modulate immune responses. When monocytes were differentiated to dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the expression of costimulatory and antigen presentation markers was altered in a concentration-dependent way, positively or negatively, depending on the markers tested and ...
Perez Locas Carolina - - 2008
On the basis of numerous studies on the mechanism of formation of acrylamide (AA) from asparagine and reducing sugars, the decarboxylated Schiff base [ N-( d-glucos-1-yl)-3'-aminopropionamide] and its corresponding Amadori product [ N-(1-deoxy- d-fructos-1-yl)-3'-aminopropionamide) are considered to be possible direct precursors in addition to 3-aminopropionamide (AP). Furthermore, the mechanism of ...
Willis Sarah - - 2009
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or vegetable oil (control) were added to standard rodent chow (6 g/kg) and fed to mice ad lib for 4 weeks to determine if polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are anticonvulsant or neuroprotective in mice. The seizure susceptibility of these mice was compared using the ...
Robson Lesley G - - 2010
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 series and omega-6 series modulate neurite outgrowth in immature neurones. However, it has not been determined if their neurotrophic effects persist in adult and aged tissue. We prepared cultures of primary sensory neurones from male and female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG), isolated ...
Rao Suryadevara - - 2008
Modern diets are often deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and additional dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids are useful. In order to investigate the molecular basis of the high accumulation of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), in three different plants, flax (Linum usitatissimum), Dracocephalum moldavica, and Perilla frutescens ...
Sadovsky Richard - - 2008
Although there is an enormous amount of information available on omega-3 fatty acids, it is sometimes misleading, contradictory, and unsupported by scientific fact. Consumers and medical professionals may be confused regarding the potential value of omega-3 fatty acid supplements, despite having either read or heard about fi sh oil consumption ...
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