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Results 301 - 350 of 1872
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Ramakrishnan Usha - - 2009
Mental health problems in women and children represent a significant public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. The role of nutrition as a cost-effective approach in the prevention and management of these conditions has received recent attention, particularly nutrients such as iron, zinc, and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, which ...
Shinto L L Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, CR120 Portland, OR 97239, USA. - - 2009
The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production by immune cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). Quality of life, fatty acid levels, and safety were also evaluated. Ten participants with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) received omega-3 FA supplementation (9.6g/day fish oil) ...
Extier Audrey - - 2010
Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of cell membranes and have beneficial effects on human health. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is the most biologically important n-3 PUFA and can be synthesized from its dietary essential precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3). Gender differences in the efficiency of DHA ...
Indo Yoriko - - 2009
Long-chain n-3 fatty acids can lower the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, therefore, we introduced a plant fatty acid desaturation3 (FAD3) gene into mammalian cells. The FAD3 cDNA was isolated from the immature seeds of scarlet flax and optimized to human high-frequency codon usage for enhancement of its expression levels in ...
Zainal Z - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative efficacy of three different omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in suppressing the mRNA levels for important proteins involved in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A model cell culture system (bovine chondrocytes) was used. Inflammatory factors and enzymes involved in OA were induced by ...
O'Quin Jami B - - 2009
Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared toward the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically expressed enzymes. Here, we show that the addition of an N-terminal epitope tag sequence (either ...
Leemans, Jérôme
The aim of this study was to assess the preventive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 PUFA) and luteolin supplementation on allergen-induced inflammation in eight Ascaris suum (AS)-sensitised cats. Airway responsiveness (AR) tests were performed and venous blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected before and following a single ...
Maekawa Motoko - - 2009
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a compelling endophenotype (biological markers) for mental disorders including schizophrenia. In a previous study, we identified Fabp7, a fatty acid binding protein 7 as one of the genes controlling PPI in mice and showed that this gene was associated with schizophrenia. We also demonstrated that disrupting ...
Schnebelen Coralie - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland to dietary supplies of long-chain omega-3 (omega3) and omega-6 (omega6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Male Wistar rats were fed a 5% lipid diet containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic ...
Wirtitsch Melanie - - 2009
Recently we showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sensitizes arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-resistant tumor cells to a clinically achievable concentration (1 microM) of As2O3 via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mechanism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, whether this combined effect of As2O3 and ...
Harnack Kerstin - - 2009
ABSTRACT: Conversion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid ...
Holub Bruce J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. METHODS: Blood samples (n = 2053) were obtained ...
Mitchell Todd W - - 2009
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) is an omega-3 fatty acid with a 22 carbon acyl chain containing six cis double bonds and is predominantly found in membrane glycerophospholipids. Dietary consumption of DHA has been positively linked with the prevention of numerous pathologies and consequently, it has been the focus of ...
Mattar Melanie - - 2009
Hypertriglyceridemia, regarded as one of the independent clinical markers of metabolic syndrome, is a frequently observed disorder that has been shown to be common in the Arab region. Epidemiologic and clinical trials demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids have the potential to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD); one of ...
Hossain Zakir - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibit beneficial biological functions in carcinogenic processes. We examined the effects of PUFAs in the acid and phospholipid forms on three colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, Caco-2, and DLD-1). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) in both acid and phospholipid forms showed growth inhibition effects on ...
Vrabl??k M - - 2009
There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal (so called omega-3 fatty acids (FAs)) on different components of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, it may seem the more answers on the topic ...
Abete P - - 2009
Large doses of omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are used to treat several diseases including hypertriglyceridemia in humans. Modest levels of EPA and DHA may be obtained from food, particularly from fatty fish. This review presents the literature examining the differences between omega-3 fatty acid ...
Martinelli Nicola - - 2009
The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases are key enzymes in the metabolism of omega-3 (omega-3) and omega-6 (omega-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which in turn influence cellular functions by regulating several metabolic pathways with well-known effects on the cardiovascular system. At present, data about desaturase activity and cardiovascular risk remain inconclusive. ...
Coetzee Magdalena - - 2009
Osteoblasts in culture can differentiate into mature mineralizing osteoblasts when stimulated with osteogenic agents. Clinical trials and in vivo animal studies suggest that specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may benefit bone health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affect osteogenesis ...
Berm?dez Men?ndez de la Granda M - - 2009
Obesity is becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing as well as the burden of diet-related chronic diseases including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and certain cancers. The link between obesity and chronic diseases is well established. Obese individuals are two to three times more likely ...
Munakata Mitsutoshi - - 2009
Currently, various formulas with different fatty acid compositions are used for enteral nutrition (EN). All formulas contain various concentrations of essential fatty acids: linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA); LA is biotransformed into arachidonic acid (AA) and ALA into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in vivo. Some ...
Zhao Yun-Tao - - 2009
AIM: To systematically review trials concerning the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on sudden cardiac death (SCD), cardiac death, and all-cause mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database (1966-2007) were searched. We identified randomized controlled trials that compared dietary or supplementary intake of ...
van Schothorst Evert M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine, and the potential contribution ...
Patel Jeetesh V - - 2009
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation has been used for the secondary prevention of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). However, the benefit of this therapy is frequently confused with other established treatments in the therapeutic strategy among such patients. We review the data on omega-3 PUFA use in ...
Reese Adam C - - 2009
Dietary intake of fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) may decrease the risk of prostate cancer development and progression to advanced stage disease. This could reflect the anti-inflammatory effects of PUFAs, possibly through mediation of cyclooxygenase (COX), a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. Despite promising ...
Allayee Hooman - - 2009
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) arises as a result of genetic predisposition in the context of a disease-promoting environment. While several risk factors have been identified for CVD, such as elevated serum lipid levels and hypertension, most of the genes identified thus far do not appear to involve such 'conventional' risk factors. ...
Tanaka Toshiko - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a role in many physiological processes, including energy production, modulation of inflammation, and maintenance of cell membrane integrity. High plasma PUFA concentrations have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease and mortality. To identify genetic contributors of plasma PUFA concentrations, we conducted a ...
Anderson Breanne M - - 2009
N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to have potential beneficial effects for chronic diseases including cancer, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular have been studied extensively, whereas substantive evidence for a biological role for the precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is lacking. ...
Irish Ashley - - 2009
Haemodialysis (HD) is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20-54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and ...
Gowani Saqib A - - 2009
The use of omega-3 fatty acids is a currently proven strategy for secondary prevention of heart disease. The prescription practices for this important nutraceutical is not currently known. It is imperative to assess the knowledge of cardiologists regarding the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and to determine the frequency of ...
Hegde K R - - 2009
The primary objective of these investigations was to determine the fatty acid composition of the mouse retina as affected by diabetes. Additionally, in order to ascertain if there is any accumulation of lipids in the diabetic retina as occurs in many diabetic tissues, its total fatty acid content was also ...
Sublette M Elizabeth ME Department of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 42, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2009
Deficiencies in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (PUFA) are implicated in mood disorders, although mechanisms of action and regional specificity in the brain are unknown. We hypothesized that plasma phospholipid PUFA levels are correlated with regionally specific relative cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRglu). Medication-free depressed subjects (N=29) were studied using ...
Serhan Charles N - - 2009
The endogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms that control acute inflammation and its resolution are of wide interest. Using self-resolving inflammatory exudates and lipidomics, we have identified a new pathway involving biosynthesis of potent antiinflammatory and proresolving mediators from the essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by macrophages (MPhis). During the ...
Banga Anannya A The Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, - - 2009
Adiponectin, made exclusively by adipocytes, is a 30-kDa secretory protein assembled posttranslationally into low-molecular weight, middle-molecular weight, and high-molecular weight homo-oligomers. PPARgamma ligand thiozolidinediones, which are widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, increase adiponectin levels. PPARgamma also has several putative ligands that include fatty acid derivatives. Overnight ...
Kaeoket K - - 2010
During the cryopreservation process, the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the sperm plasma membrane decreases significantly because of lipid peroxidation, which may contribute to sperm loss quality (i.e. fertility) of frozen-thawed semen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of ...
Kasuga Kie K Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2008
Resolution of inflammation is essential. Although supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids is widely used, their availability at sites of inflammation is not known. To this end, a multidisciplinary approach was taken to determine the relationship of circulating omega-3 to inflammatory exudates and the generation of resolution signals. In this study, ...
Gao Fei F Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. - - 2009
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), long-chain n-3 PUFAs important for brain and heart function, can be obtained from dietary fish products or by liver synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA). Their daily human dietary requirements are not clear, and their liver synthesis rates in humans and nonhumans are unknown. ...
Taha Ameer Y - - 2009
People with epilepsy may have abnormal cardiac function. This has been linked to a greater incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In the present review, we assess the evidence linking cardiac failure to SUDEP, and propose the use of the maximal pentylenetetrazol seizure test to model SUDEP in ...
Arai Yasuhiro - - 2008
We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of decreasing plasma levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (C26:0) with a synthetic oil containing trioleate and trielucate (Lorenzo's oil) as well as increasing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in red blood cells (RBC) with DHA ethyl ester in four patients with Zellweger syndrome. We investigated serial ...
Lee Won-Hae - - 2008
An isolate from holothurians was identified as an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing bacterium KMG427, which is characterized by EPA synthesis efficiency, by thin layer and gas chromatographic analyses. The EPA production was maximized to more than 10% of the total fatty acids by incubation at 4o degrees C after cell proliferation ...
Rapoport Stanley I - - 2008
Kinetic methods in unanesthetized rodents have shown that turnover rates of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in brain membrane phospholipids are rapid and energy consuming and that phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes that regulate turnover are specific for one or the other PUFA. Thus, AA turnover ...
Tziomalos Konstantinos - - 2008
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are divided into long-chain fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid ), which are found in fatty fish, and intermediate-chain FAs (alpha-linolenic acid), which are found in vegetable oils. Omega-3 FAs favorably modulate a variety of vascular risk factors and also exert antiarrhythmic effects. Epidemiologic data ...
Anes E - - 2008
The increased intake of omega-6 fatty acids together with the widely use of omega-3 supplements in Western diets can affect the host defence against infectious diseases. In the present review we focused on the impact of these fatty acids on salmonella and mycobacteria infection models in animals or in cell ...
Tobin K A R - - 2009
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are essential for proper development of fetal brain and retina. These LCPUFAs are selectively enriched in the fetal circulation compared with the maternal circulation. In the current study we investigated the transfer of LCPUFAs and a ...
Duda Monika K - - 2009
AIMS: Clinical studies suggest that intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) may lower the incidence of heart failure. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA exerts metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects that could prevent left ventricle (LV) pathology; however, it is unclear whether these effects occur at clinically relevant doses and ...
Dunlap Steven - - 2009
The impact of essential dietary fatty acid deficiency on self-selection of fatty acid enriched foods is little studied in spite of widespread health promotion claims for fatty acid supplemented diets. Accordingly, the present studies investigated the consequences of consumption over four weeks of omega-3 fatty acid replete and deficient diets ...
McNamara Robert K RK Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0559, United States. - - 2009
Prior clinical studies suggest that chronic treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications increase erythrocyte and postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) omega-3 fatty acid composition in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). However, because human tissue phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid composition is potentially influenced by multiple extraneous variables, definitive evaluation of this putative mechanism of ...
Robert Stanley S - - 2009
The marine microalga Pavlova salina (Haptophyta, Pavlovophyceae) produces lipids containing approximately 50% n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A full-length cDNA sequence, designated PsElo5, was isolated from P. salina. Sequence alignment showed that the gene was homologous to corresponding ELO-type elongases from other ...
Hashimoto Michio - - 2008
We have previously reported that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves and/or protects against impairment of cognition ability in amyloid beta(1-40) (Abeta(1-40))-infused Alzheimer's disease (AD)-model rats. Here, after the administration of DHA to AD model rats for 12 weeks, the levels of Abeta(1-40), cholesterol and the composition of fatty acids were ...
McNamara Robert K RK Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati OH 45267-0559, United States. - - 2009
A dysregulation in central serotonin neurotransmission and omega-3 fatty acid deficiency have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. To determine the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on indices of serotonin neurotransmission in the adult rat brain, female rats were fed diets with or without the omega-3 fatty ...
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