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Results 201 - 250 of 1872
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Venegas-Caler?n M?nica - - 2010
It is now accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5Delta5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Delta4,7,10,13,16,19) play important roles in a number of aspects of human health, with marine fish rich in these beneficial fatty acids our primary dietary source. However, over-fishing and concerns about pollution of ...
Mimoun Myriam - - 2009
An imbalance in (n-6)/(n-3) PUFA has been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Glycerophospholipids enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (GPL-DHA) have been shown to regulate the (n-6)/(n-3) fatty acid ratio in the elderly. Here, we tested the effect of GPL-DHA supplementation on PUFA status in F508del homozygous CF mice. GPL-DHA liposomes ...
van Rensburg Susan J - - 2009
In a previously reported double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as supplemental treatment in 40 patients with schizophrenia, we found significant improvement in symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) compared to placebo (Emsley et al. 2002). Here we report changes in fatty acid composition ...
Niemoller Tiffany D TD Neuroscience Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2010
Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives actively generated by enzymatic activity. It is well known that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for brain function. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 4 22:6(n-3)] is the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid present ...
Dijkstra S Coosje - - 2009
Evidence is accumulating for a cardioprotective effect of fish or its n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined EPA plus DHA and fish intake in relation to incident heart failure in the population-based Rotterdam Study. The analysis comprised 5299 subjects (41% men, age approximately 68 ...
Plourde Mélanie - - 2009
The risk of Alzheimer's disease is increased for carriers of apoE4 (E4) or the PPAR-alpha L162V polymorphism (L162V), but it is decreased in fish and seafood consumers. The link between high fish intake and reduced risk of cognitive decline in the elderly appears not to hold in carriers of E4, ...
Chattipakorn Nipon - - 2009
The benefits of omega-3 (ie, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-6 (ie, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid [AA]) fatty acids on reducing cardiac mortality are still debated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues are associated ...
Lee Sang-Hak - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, their prognostic value has not been studied prospectively in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: The plasma levels of phospholipids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (% of total fatty acids), ...
Chang Chih-Tsung CT Claude Pepper Institute and Department of Chemistry, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901, - - 2009
The total and stereospecific synthesis of d(4)-5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF(3alpha)-VI 55 and d(4)-8,12-iso-iPF(3alpha)-VI 64, EPA-derived all-syn-isoprostanes (iPs), has been accomplished. Because of issues related to volatility and yield with some of the primary deuterated synthons an improved synthesis is presented. These two deuterated analogs were used to discover and quantify the presence of ...
Gao Benlian - - 2010
Lipoxygenases (LOX) are found in most organisms that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, usually existing as individual genes although occasionally encoded as a fusion protein with a catalase-related hemoprotein. Such a fusion protein occurs in the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina and herein we report the novel catalytic activity of its LOX domain. ...
Shearer Gregory C GC Cardiovascular Health Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 1100 E 21st St., Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA. - - 2009
Plasma and red blood cell fatty-acid (RBC FA) composition have both been proposed as biomarkers for cardiovascular (CV) risk. Since case/control studies using samples obtained after a CV constitute a source of supporting evidence, demonstrating that FA profiles are not affected by a myocardial infarction (MI) would improve our understanding ...
Igarashi Miki - - 2010
Reduced concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) have been reported in the postmortem bipolar disorder (BD) brain. Additionally, an increased prevalence of BD has been related to low dietary intake of fish, and dietary supplements containing fish products or DHA have been reported to ameliorate ...
Bazan Hernan A - - 2009
The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are prevalent in fish oil and their cardioprotective effects are thought to be mediated by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study is to determine whether omega-3 fatty acids are associated with carotid plaques from neurologically symptomatic patients. Plaques ...
Micallef Michelle A - - 2009
Phytosterols and omega-3 fatty acids are natural compounds with potential cardiovascular benefits. Phytosterols inhibit cholesterol absorption, thereby reducing total- and LDL cholesterol. A number of clinical trials have established that the consumption of 1.5-2.0 g/day of phytosterols can result in a 10-15% reduction in LDL cholesterol in as short as ...
Saremi Adonis - - 2009
We reviewed the use of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease by discussing key epidemiologic and placebo-controlled studies in people with and without prior cardiovascular disease at baseline. In addition, studies on the antitriglyceridemic, antihypertensive, hemostatic, antiarrhythmic, and antiatherogenic properties of omega-3 fatty acids were examined. Lastly, we discussed ...
Habermann Nina - - 2009
Epidemiological studies suggest that high fish intake is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer which has been linked to the high content of the n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in some fish. In this study, two different cell lines ...
Lee Su-Jin - - 2009
Forty-four eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing microbial strains were isolated from the intestines of marine fishes. Among them, one strain showing a maximum level of EPA (4.78%of total fatty acids) was identified as Shewanella sp. BR-2 on the basis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The EPA content reached a maximum level during ...
Dlugosova K - - 2009
Hypertension alters expression of connexin-43 (Cx43) in cardiovascular system. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (30 mg/day for 2 months) on expression of Cx43 in the aorta of 1-year-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Spatial distribution and expression of Cx43 in ...
Cysneiros Roberta M - - 2009
Epilepsy is the commonest serious neurological disorder and individuals with epilepsy are at higher risk of death than the general population and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac ...
Bannenberg Gerard L - - 2009
Research on the formation of novel enzymatic oxygenation products derived from the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has revealed the endogenous formation of several novel autacoids that have been termed resolvins and protectins. The elucidation of the chemical structures of resolvins and protectins, and the ...
Roqueta-Rivera Manuel M Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2010
Delta-6 desaturase-null mice ((-/-)) are unable to synthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs): arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n6-docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn6). The (-/-) males exhibit infertility and arrest of spermatogenesis at late spermiogenesis. To determine which HUFA is essential for spermiogenesis, a diet supplemented with either 0.2% (w/w) ...
Hossain Shahdat - - 2009
The mechanism of the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n-3), one of the essential brain nutrients, on in vitro fibrillation of amyloid beta (Abeta(1-42)), Abeta(1-42)-oligomers and its toxicity imparted to SH-S5Y5 cells was studied with the use of thioflavin T fluorospectroscopy, laser confocal microfluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. The ...
Schuchardt Jan Philipp - - 2010
omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a central role in the normal development and functioning of the brain and central nervous system. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5omega-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6omega-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4omega-6), in particular, are involved in numerous neuronal processes, ...
Lavie Carl J - - 2009
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 PUFA) therapy continues to show great promise in primary and, particularly in secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. The most compelling evidence for CV benefits of omega-3 PUFA comes from 4 controlled trials of nearly 40,000 participants randomized to receive eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) with or ...
McMahon Anne - - 2010
Recent studies have established that retinal health depends on the presence of polyunsaturated C28-C36 fatty acids, in addition to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). Initially characterised 20 years ago, these C28-C36 fatty acids are found as sn-1 acyl components of retinal phosphatidylcholines (PCs), which have DHA in the sn-2 position. This ...
Safarinejad Mohammad Reza - - 2010
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fatty acid (FA) composition of the spermatozoa may be an important determinant of fertility. The aim was to evaluate polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of the blood plasma and spermatozoa in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). METHODS: Eighty-two infertile men with idiopathic OAT and seventy-eight fertile ...
Calzada Catherine - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of supplementation with increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as the only n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) redox status and oxidizability. METHODS: Twelve healthy men aged 53-65 years ingested consecutive doses of DHA (200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/day), each dose ...
Dimitrow Pawel Petkow - - 2009
The cardioprotective effects of food rich in omega-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular risk has been of interest from the moment when a low rate of coronary heart disease was documented in the Eskimo population. The aim of the present review is to discuss recent studies documenting multidirectional ...
Meiri Gal - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of omega-3 fatty acids for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: This was an open-label pilot study. Ten children aged 4-7 years old with ASD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) ...
Warstedt Kristina - - 2009
The incidence of allergic diseases has increased, and a relation between allergy and dietary fatty acids has been proposed. Modulation of the maternal immune function during pregnancy may have an impact on future clinical outcomes in the child. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of omega ...
Das Gupta Ashoke Bijoy - - 2009
A study was conducted to see the disease activity suppression role of omega-3 fatty acids with indomethacin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. One group received indomethacin (75 mg) only daily while another group received indomethacin (75 mg) along with omega-3 fatty acids (3 g) daily for 12 weeks. The main ...
Wang Shu S JM USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2009
Dietary long-chain PUFA, both n-3 and n-6, have unique benefits with respect to CVD risk. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA (EPA, DHA) and n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA)) relative to SFA (myristic acid (MA), palmitic acid (PA)) ...
Sartorelli Daniela S - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether lifestyle-induced changes in dietary fat quality are related to improvements on glucose metabolism disturbances in Japanese Brazilians at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: One hundred forty-eight first- and second-generation subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glycemia who attended a lifestyle intervention program ...
Wang Dahai - - 2009
ω-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2J2 that is expressed in endothelial cells metabolizes arachidonic acids to biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) that possess anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. We studied the effects of EPA and ...
Cussons Andrea J - - 2009
CONTEXT: There is an association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids have favorable effects on cardiovascular risk and could reduce liver fat in NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids ...
Sumich Alexander - - 2009
Abnormal fatty acid status has been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delayed maturation in ADHD may result in raised frontal low frequency (theta) electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and a reduction in posterior high frequency (beta, alpha) activity. The current study used sequential linear regression to investigate ...
Ebert Stefanie - - 2009
Microgliosis is a common phenomenon in neurodegenerative disorders including retinal dystrophies. We performed a detailed characterization of activated microglia in the retinoschisin (Rs1h)-deficient (Rs1h(-/Y)) mouse model of inherited retinal degeneration. To visualize and isolate microglia, we crossed Rs1h(-/Y) animals with transgenic MacGreen mice, which express green fluorescent protein under the ...
Yang Huey-Lang - - 2010
Marine heterotrophic microalgal species which are potentially rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) have been found in Taiwan; however, there was a lack of detailed analysis and characterization of these indigenous algae which is needed for the development of commercial applications. Hence, the objective of this study was to screen ...
Cheng Bifang - - 2010
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) plays an important role in many aspects of human health. In our efforts towards producing high levels of EPA in plants, we investigated the effects of different host species, genes and promoters on EPA biosynthesis. Zero-erucic acid Brassica carinata appeared to be an outstanding host species ...
Olza Josune - - 2010
BACKGROUND & AIMS: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may improve cardiovascular outcomes in elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding elderly patients exclusively with an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet specifically designed for enteral nutrition for 6 months, evaluating modifications in plasma fatty acid profile ...
Rupp Heinz - - 2009
Despite progress made in post-myocardial infarction (MI) revascularization and background therapy for the failing heart, the prevention of adverse cardiac remodeling associated with severe rhythm disorders remains an important drug target. Part of the remodeling can be counteracted by modulating the activity of ion channels and exchangers by omega-3 acids ...
Brownawell Amy M - - 2009
This review examines issues related to the development of a recommended daily allowance or adequate intake, two of the categories of dietary reference intakes, for the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3). Although some have suggested a dietary ...
Broughton K Shane - - 2009
Prostaglandins (PGs) play a key role in the regulation of ovulation. Typically, ingestion of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been found to decrease, whereas arachidonic acid (ARA) increases PG biosynthesis in most systems. We hypothesized that DHA and EPA would ...
An W S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Membrane fatty acid composition plays an important role in the cellular function. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition mirrors that of myocardium and is influenced by diet. Earlier studies have shown significant alterations of membrane fatty acid composition in ethnically mixed patients with end-stage renal disease. Given the impact of ethnic ...
Seti Hila - - 2009
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays a critical role in normal growth and development as well as in malignant states. Most of the biological activities of the IGFs are mediated by the IGF-IR, which is over-expressed in most tumours and cancer cell lines. Fatty acids have critical roles in ...
Gao Fei F Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. - - 2009
Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) are considered important for maintaining normal heart and brain function, but little EPA is found in brain, and EPA cannot be elongated to DHA in rat heart due to the absence of elongase-2. Ingested EPA may have to be converted ...
Park Yongsoon - - 2009
The risk of CHD has been linked to n-3 and trans-fatty acids. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that lower n-3 fatty acids and higher trans-fatty acids in erythrocytes are associated with an increased risk of acute non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and that fatty acid ...
Ebrahimi Mahmoud - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Fish-oil contains high concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. We have evaluated the effects of purified omega-3 fatty acid supplements on several anthropometric and biochemical parameters, including heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 antibody titres in subjects with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Subjects (n ...
Calder Philip C - - 2009
The n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) gives rise to eicosanoid mediators that have established roles in inflammation and AA metabolism is a long recognised target for commonly used anti-inflammatory therapies. It has generally been assumed that all AA-derived eicosanoids are pro-inflammatory. However this is an over-simplification since some ...
Dirix Chantal E H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Certain essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are considered important for fetal growth and brain development, whereas industrial trans fatty acids (mainly 18:1trans) have been associated with negative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between term birth dimensions and prenatal exposure to some of these ...
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