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Palacios-Pelaez R - - 2010
The significance of the selective enrichment in omega-3 essential fatty acids in photoreceptors and synaptic membranes of the nervous system has remained, until recently, incompletely understood. While studying mechanisms of cell survival in neural degeneration, we discovered a docosanoid synthesized from unesterified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by a 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), which ...
Burns Rebecca N - - 2010
The newly discovered G protein-coupled receptor GPR120 has recently been shown to stimulate secretion of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin upon binding of free fatty acids, thrusting it to the forefront of drug discovery efforts for treatment of type 2 diabetes as well as satiety and obesity. Although ...
Lin Pao-Yen - - 2010
BACKGROUND: On the basis of evidence from studies showing the antidepressant effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the inverse relation between fish consumption and the prevalence of depression, the phospholipid hypothesis seems promising in ascertaining the etiology and treatment of depression. Although several studies have shown lower levels of ...
Ren Lu-Jing - - 2010
The effect of aeration on the performance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production by Schizochytrium sp. was investigated in a 1,500-L bioreactor using fed-batch fermentation. Six parameters, including specific growth rate, specific glucose consumption rate, specific lipid accumulation rate, cell yield coefficient, lipid yield coefficient, and DHA yield coefficient, were used ...
Gil-Sánchez Alfonso - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth and development require n-3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but mechanisms for their placental transfer are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We assessed distribution and human placental transfer of (13)C-labeled fatty acids (FAs) 12 h after oral application. DESIGN: Eleven pregnant women received 0.5 mg [(13)C]palmitic acid ((13)C-PA; ...
Zwart Sara R - - 2010
NF-kappaB is a transcriptional activator of many genes, including some that lead to muscle atrophy and bone resorption-significant concerns for astronauts. NF-kappaB activation is inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but the influence of this omega-3 fatty acid on the effects of weightlessness are unknown. We report here cellular, ground analogue, ...
Hagi Akifumi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of parenterally administered fish oil (FO) on the fatty acid composition in rats to determine the optimal omega-6:omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio of fat emulsions to achieve an anti-inflammatory effect. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused a parenteral nutrition (PN) solution containing fat ...
Arnold Cosima - - 2010
Dietary fish oil omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protect against arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death using largely unknown mechanisms. EPA and DHA may serve as efficient alternative substrates of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. For many of the ...
Rezanka T - - 2010
The yellow-green alga Trachydiscus minutus (class Xanthophyta) was cultivated in a standard medium and in media without sulfur and nitrogen. Its yield after a 16-d cultivation reached 13 g dry mass per 1 L medium. The content of oligoenoic ('polyenoic') fatty acid (PUFA), i.e. eicosapentaenoic (EPA), was in excess of ...
Siegel Paul D - - 2010
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a well-recognized immune-mediated disease often associated with the use of vulcanization accelerator-containing latex and nitrile gloves. Potential contact allergens in neoprene (polychloroisoprene, polychloroprene) gloves have not been reported. The objective was to analyze extracts of neoprene surgical and examination gloves for potential contact allergens. Four ...
Picq M - - 2010
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the end-product of the metabolism of omega-3 family fatty acids, is the main polyunsaturated fatty acid of the brain, but its accumulation is incompletely understood. This paper reviews how it could accumulate through specific uptake of DHA-containing lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC-DHA). DHA migrates very easily from the sn-2 position ...
Köhler Anton - - 2010
There is strong evidence that the intake of EPA and DHA reduces the risk of adverse cardiac events. Fish and fish oil capsules are not necessarily an ideal source of EPA and DHA for every individual. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a convenience ...
Li Yong - - 2010
The present study was conducted to determine whether provision of preformed dietary docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) can replace DHA for normal long bone growth as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for mineral content (BMC). A newly modified artificial rearing method was employed to generate n-3 fatty acid-deficient rats. Except the dam-reared ...
Messamore Erik - - 2010
Schizophrenia is associated with a blunted flush response to niacin. Since niacin-induced skin flushing is mediated by vasodilators derived from arachidonic acid (AA), we tested whether the blunted flush response to niacin is a marker of AA deficiency. Eight concentrations of methylnicotinate were applied to the forearms of 20 adults ...
McNamara Robert K RK Department of Psychiatry, Division of Bipolar Disorders Research, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45219-0516, USA. - - 2010
Epidemiological and controlled intervention trials suggest that omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency represents a reversible risk factor for recurrent affective disorders. However, there is limited comparative information available regarding the n-3 fatty acid status and associated mood symptoms in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). ...
Wall Rebecca - - 2010
Recently, we reported that administration of Bifidobacteria resulted in increased concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in murine adipose tissue [1]. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of co-administration of Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and the substrate for EPA, alpha-linolenic acid, on host ...
Fujita Akiko - - 2010
In order to evaluate sensory compatibility of alcoholic beverages with food, beverages and dried squid, namely, "surume", a common Japanese accompaniment, were consumed together. White wine and dried squid pairings had a more undesirable taste and more fishy off-odor than sake and dried squid pairings. The undesirable taste and fishy ...
Yuan Jizhong - - 2010
Bone homeostasis is maintained by active remodeling through the balance between resorption (by osteoclasts) and synthesis (by osteoblasts). In this study, we examined the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites on sRANKL-induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) into osteoclasts in vitro. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) strongly inhibited ...
Halade Ganesh V GV Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, - - 2010
The therapeutic efficacy of individual components of fish oils (FOs) in various human inflammatory diseases still remains unresolved, possibly due to low levels of n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or lower ratio of DHA to EPA. Because FO enriched with DHA (FO-DHA) or EPA (FO-EPA) ...
Nauroth Julie M - - 2010
The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly ...
Hessvik N P - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to examine whether pretreatment with different fatty acids, as well as the liver X receptor (LXR) agonist T0901317, could modify metabolic switching of human myotubes. The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased suppressibility, the ability of glucose to suppress FA oxidation. Substrate-regulated flexibility, ...
Geleijnse Johanna M - - 2010
Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It is at ...
Masterton G S - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects 10-35% of the adult population worldwide; there is no consensus on its treatment. Omega-3 fatty acids have proven benefits for hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular disease, and have recently been suggested as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AIMS: To review the evidence base for ...
Heinrichs Stephen C - - 2010
Direct actions of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on neuronal composition, neurochemical signaling and cognitive function constitute a multidisciplinary rationale for classification of dietary lipids as "brain foods." The validity of this conclusion rests upon accumulated mechanistic evidence that omega-3 fatty acids actually regulate neurotransmission in the normal nervous system, ...
Tolasa Sebnem - - 2010
The objective of the study was to compare the dispersion and oxidative stability of omega-3 fatty acid oil in high- and low-quality surimi gels during 4-mo refrigerated and frozen storage. Low-quality surimi was prepared by subjecting Alaska pollock surimi to 7 freeze-thaw cycles. Surimi gels were prepared with 4% modified ...
O'Sullivan Therese A - - 2011
Dietary fat consumed during childhood and adolescence may be related to the development of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases in adulthood; however, there is a lack of information on specific fatty acid intakes and food sources in these populations. Our study aimed to assess fatty acid intakes in Australian adolescents, ...
Bouzidi Nassima - - 2010
We sought to evaluate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) supplementation on dyslipidemia, lipid and protein peroxidation, and antioxidant defense in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Eighty patients with CRF were diagnosed in the hospital of Oran between January 2008 and April 2008. Forty patients (male/female, 22/18; aged ...
Yanagisawa Naotake - - 2010
AIM: We assessed levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in serum and red blood cells (RBCs) among groups stratified by generation and its clinical significance in Japanese subjects living in an urban area. METHODS: We enrolled 200 apparently healthy Japanese (126 males, mean age: 50.3+/-9.2 years) living in an urban ...
Rapoport Stanley I - - 2010
Dietary requirements for maintaining brain and heart docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) homeostasis are not agreed on, in part because rates of liver DHA synthesis from circulating alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA, 18:3n-3) have not been quantified. These rates can be estimated using intravenous radiotracer- or heavy isotope-labeled alpha-LNA infusion. In adult unanesthetized ...
Mazer Laura M - - 2010
Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Life-long dietary therapy is recommended to restrict BCAA intake and thus prevent poor neurological outcomes and death. To maintain adequate nutritional status, the majority of protein and nutrients are derived from ...
Raza Shaikh Saame - - 2010
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that generally suppresses the function of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APCs). An emerging mechanism by which DHA modifies lymphocyte function is through changes in the organization of sphingolipid/cholesterol lipid raft membrane domains. Two contradictory models have been proposed ...
Fortier M - - 2010
The elderly reportedly have a significantly higher % of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in plasma and red cell lipids. However, these observations are from a few small studies and the health status of the elderly in these studies is for the most part unclear. Since the elderly are ...
He Jiucheng J Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2010
Dry eye (DE) is a multifactorial condition that affects the surface of the eye and induces an inflammatory response. Corneal nerves play an important role in the maintenance of a healthy ocular surface. Here we review corneal structure, nerve architecture, DE conditions, and nerve regeneration following corneal surgery and discuss ...
Harris William - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses the cardiovascular benefits of the two families of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs): omega-6 and omega-3. The former (and the shorter chain species of the latter) are found in vegetable oils and nuts, whereas the longer chain omega-3 FAs are found in fish oils. ...
Musa-Veloso Kathy - - 2010
The objectives of this review were to determine whether the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid dose-dependently reduce fasting serum triglycerides (TG) and, if so, to create a mathematical model that may be used to predict potential percent reductions in fasting serum TG levels at the recommended ...
Cederholm Tommy - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To report recent data on the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) found in oily fish, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), to prevent and treat cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Observational studies still provide conflicting results, in which the majority indicate beneficial effects on ...
Gonz?lez Sonia - - 2010
Epidemiological studies on the association between diet and cognitive function suggested a possible role of dietary fatty acids in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to examine whether intake of different types of fatty acids is associated with cognitive status. A cohort of 304 (127 men and ...
Du J - - 2010
Previous results show that treatment with saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (PA), induces the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), while treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protects against AD pathology. However, the pharmacological mechanism underlying these opposite effects of fatty acids on AD is ...
Ryan Alan S - - 2010
Omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are critical for infant and childhood brain development, but levels of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are often low in the Western diet. Increasing evidence from both epidemiological and intervention studies, reviewed here, indicates that DHA ...
Chen Yonggang - - 2010
The possibility of elevating the omega-3 fatty acid contents in mammalian cells using the sdd17 gene from Saprolegnia diclina was investigated in the current study. The nucleotide sequence of the sdd17 gene was optimized and the pSDD17-IRES-GFP plasmid was introduced into murine 3T3 fibroblast cells by electroporation, following which its ...
Cole Greg M - - 2010
The risk for dementia, a major contributor to incapacitation and institutionalization, rises rapidly as we age, doubling every 5 y after age 65. Tens of millions of new Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementia cases are projected as elderly populations increase around the world, creating a projected dementia epidemic for ...
Kirby A - - 2010
Increasing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, dyslexia, autism) has occurred as a consequence of some international studies highlighting this link. In particular, some studies have shown that children with ADHD may have lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly ...
Siener R - - 2010
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The fatty acid pattern of membrane phospholipids is suggested to affect membrane fluidity and epithelial barrier function as a result of membrane fatty acid unsaturation. The incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into membrane phospholipids may diminish inflammatory potential in patients with gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this ...
Suominen-Taipale Anna Liisa - - 2010
It has been suggested that high fish consumption improves mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess whether high fish consumption or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was associated with reduced self-reported psychological distress. We used three cross-sectional data sets, the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = ...
Kitson Alex P - - 2010
Observational evidence suggests that in populations consuming low levels of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids, women have higher blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:3n-6) as compared with men. Increased conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) to DHA by females has been confirmed in fatty acid stable isotope studies. This ...
Teixeira Monica C - - 2010
Two full-length cDNA clones PoleFAD7 and PoleFAD8, encoding plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturases were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea). The encoded enzymes convert linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Three histidine clusters characteristic of fatty acid desaturases, a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal, and three putative transmembrane domains were ...
McNamara Robert K - - 2010
Increasing evidence suggests that docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)], the principal (n-3) fatty acid in brain gray matter, has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. Preliminary clinical evidence also suggests that the perinatal accrual, and the subsequent dietary maintenance of, cortical DHA is positively associated with cortical gray matter volumes. The pathophysiology of ...
Bakheit K H - - 2010
A case-control study was conducted in Khartoum hospital, Sudan to compare omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids profile in three phospholipid fractions (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) using gas chromatography in erythrocytes from 65 pre-eclamptic women and well-matched 60 healthy control pregnant women, both in the third trimester of pregnancy. While levels ...
Stehle Melanie E - - 2010
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been used to treat dogs with atopic dermatitis but the mechanism of action has not been well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro influence of PUFA on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC isolated from eleven dogs with ...
Rawling Tristan - - 2010
Facile syntheses of the monounsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, (Z)-15-octadecenoic acid and (Z)-16-nonadecenoic acid, are presented. Commercially available hydroxy fatty acids were esterified and oxidised, followed by the Wittig reaction to introduce the omega-3 olefinic bond; hydrolysis yielded the omega-3 fatty acids in high purity. An examination of different reaction conditions ...
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