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Siddiqui Rafat A - - 2008
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the longest, most unsaturated, and hence, most oxidizable fatty acid commonly found in nature. The mechanisms behind DHA's many biological functions remain a subject of much debate. Here we review one important, but often unstudied, aspect of DHA function, namely, the potential role of its many ...
Freeman Marlene P - - 2008
Perinatal major depressive disorder (MDD), including antenatal and postpartum depression, is common and has serious consequences. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for perinatal depression in addition to supportive psychotherapy. Perinatal women with MDD were randomized to eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic ...
Oláh Attila - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: The application of enteral feeding as part of the treatment of acute pancreatitis goes back more than a decade now. In this review, the authors outline the indications and limitations of enteral feeding in the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Latest meta-analyses suggest ...
Bate Clive - - 2008
Dietary supplements containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are frequently taken for their perceived health benefits including a possible reduction in cognitive decline in the elderly. Here we report that pre-treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly reduced the survival of cortical or cerebellar neurons incubated with HuPrP82-146, ...
Kulas Jana - - 2008
The genome of Caenorhabditis elegans contains 75 full length cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes whose individual functions are largely unknown yet. We tested the hypothesis that some of them may be involved in the metabolism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid of this nematode. Microsomes isolated from adult ...
Naz Mehmet - - 2008
The changes in the biochemical compositions and enzymatic activities of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia, enriched and stored at 4 degrees C temperature, were determined. The total starvation period was 16 h and samples were taken at the end of the 8th and 16th hours. In present study, the rotifer ...
Kaduce Terry L - - 2008
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, has important functions in the hippocampus. To better understand essential fatty acid homeostasis in this region of the brain, we investigated the contributions of n-3 fatty acid precursors in supplying hippocampal neurons with DHA. Primary cultures of ...
Wang Wei - - 2008
Carotenoids are fat-soluble antioxidants that may protect polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 fatty acids from oxidation, and are potentially important for Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention and treatment. Fasting plasma carotenoids were measured in 36 AD subjects and 10 control subjects by HPLC. Correlations between plasma carotenoid levels, red blood ...
Heller Axel R - - 2008
Beneficial rapid onset effects of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on host defense compensatory fit into the comprehensive pathophysiology of critical illness. Because of balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on a variety of host defense subsystems even septic patients had earlier recovery and improved survival. This review focuses in ...
Kimura Fumiko - - 2008
Rat pups deficient in n-3 fatty acids received an oral administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-free microalgal oil (DMO) or fish oil (FO). DMO administration almost restored liver EPA to the level of the control diet-fed dam's pups, but FO administration did not. This suggests that EPA could ...
Kakar Puneet - - 2008
With greater focus on chronic disease prevention, renewed attention has been directed toward understanding the pathophysiology of various medical conditions and the development of newer medical treatments to prevent and treat complications. There has been immense interest in evaluating societal lifestyles, cultural attitudes toward health, and dietary influences on health ...
Lee Mak-Soon - - 2008
In this study, we investigated the lipolytic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated in a serum-free medium with 300 muM of EPA for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. In comparison with the control, intracellular lipid accumulation was significantly decreased by 24% ...
Kajikawa Masataka - - 2008
The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. synthesizes arachidonic (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids respectively by a series of reactions catalyzed by Delta6-desaturase, Delta6-elongase, and Delta5-desaturase. Overexpression of the M. polymorpha genes encoding these enzymes in transgenic M. polymorpha plants resulted in 3- and 2-fold accumulation of ...
Lucas Anthony - - 2008
This study investigated the influence of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)- or a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-supplemented diet on the deleterious effects of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of Golden Syrian hamster thoracic aorta. In a second step, LPC-modulated phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-derived ways of relaxation were investigated. Golden Syrian hamsters were fed ...
Jang Hung-Der - - 2008
To investigate the potential production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a solid-state column reactor of rice bran with Mortierella alpina was used. The optimal conditions for PUFAs production were rice bran supplementation with 3.75% (ww(-1)) nitrogen source at initial moisture content 57%, initial pH 6-7, aeration, and incubation at 20 ...
Szymczak Melissa - - 2008
The potential role of dietary fats in cancer is attracting considerable interest within the community. Both epidemiologic and experimental findings suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs), which are almost absent from typical Western diets, exert protective effects against cancer progression, although the precise mechanism of this suppression remains ...
Berger Gregor E - - 2008
Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that has been used in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions with some benefits. However, its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we investigate its effects on in vivo brain metabolism in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T was ...
Lim Kyu - - 2008
Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of the biliary tree. It has a high rate of mortality, and currently, there is no effective chemoprevention and treatment. This study was designed to investigate the potential effect of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3-PUFA) on human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and to ...
King S S - - 2008
Fatty acids of the n-3 type confer health benefits to humans and other species. Their importance to equine physiology could include improved exercise tolerance, decreased inflammation, and improved reproductive function. The circulating fatty acid profile and the acquisition and washout of fatty acids in response to n-3 supplementation were determined ...
Fer Maude - - 2008
Epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA) are both catalyzed by cytochromes P450s (CYPs). The oxidized metabolites are known to be involved in the regulation of vascular tone and renal function. By using a panel of 15 human recombinant CYPs, this study demonstrates that other polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids (PUFA-LC), ...
Biltagi Mohammed Al - - 2009
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease. Nutritional intervention is an important tool to decrease the severity of many chronic inflammatory diseases including asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn in children with moderately persistent asthma. Randomly ...
Long Eric K - - 2008
Lipid peroxidation of docosahexaenoic (22:6; n-3) acid (DHA) is elevated in the CNS in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in animal models of seizure and ethanol withdrawal. One product of DHA oxidation is trans-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), a six carbon analog of the n-6 fatty acid derived trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). In this work, ...
Dyall S C - - 2008
The central nervous system is highly enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the omega-6 and omega-3 series. The presence of these fatty acids as structural components of neuronal membranes influences cellular function both directly, through effects on membrane properties, and also by acting as a precursor pool for ...
Kang Jing X - - 2008
Many human diseases have been linked to inflammation, which is mediated by a number of chemical molecules including lipid mediators and cytokines. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids) are the precursors of the lipid mediators and play an important role in regulation of inflammation. Generally, omega-6 fatty acids ...
Andersen Gaby - - 2008
In the present study, we investigated whether long-term administration of high dose of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is able to mimic the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or a mixture of both with respect to insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats. Furthermore, we intended to test whether ...
Peet Malcolm - - 2008
Most studies have shown reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, in the cell membranes of red blood cells from schizophrenic patients. This has led to research interest in the possible therapeutic benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in schizophrenia. There is evidence from double-blind placebo-controlled ...
Simopoulos Artemis P - - 2008
A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Increased dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) leads to oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), platelet aggregation, and interferes with the incorporation of essential fatty acids (EFA) in cell membrane ...
Hasio Ann-Che - - 2008
Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) levels are associated with learning memory performance, but it is not known the mechanism of DHA on enhancing memory effect. The aim of this study was to examine effect of brain DHA levels on cytoskeleton expression. Rats were fed a chow or sunflower oil-based n-3 ...
Hadders-Algra Mijna - - 2008
This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neurodevelopmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6omega3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4omega6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in lower tissue levels of AA. LCPUFA accumulation in the brain ...
Colter Ashley L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical ...
Stahl Lauren A - - 2008
Research has established that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), plays a fundamental role in brain structure and function. Epidemiological and cross-sectional studies have also identified a role for long-chain omega-3 PUFA, which includes DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, in the etiology of depression. In ...
Dewailly Eric - - 2008
French Polynesians, like other remote maritime populations are intimately connected to the ocean which nourishes their daily life and culture. Their reliance on fish raises the issue of potential exposure to harmful natural and anthropogenic contaminants as well as providing essential nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess ...
MogoĊŸ T - - 2008
Omega-3 fatty acids are very important nutritive agents with a large effect on human health. Omega-3 ensures a protective effect on cardiac diseases, arthrosis, elasticity of vessels, prolong the bleeding time, improve the theology of the blood, protect the endothelium by atherosclerosis, low heart rate and blood pressure, reduce the ...
Yamaoka Ippei - - 2008
The feeling of warmth after a meal is caused by the ingestion of nutrients and the sensation is known as nutrition-induced thermogenesis or specific dynamic action. Core body temperature (Tb) is constantly maintained within a narrow range, but thermoregulation can become impaired by the inhalation or intravenous administration of anesthetics ...
Bromfield Edward - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Though polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce seizures in several animal models, results have been inconsistent in humans. The goal of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a PUFA supplement as adjunctive treatment for intractable focal or generalized epilepsy in humans. METHODS: Adults with uncontrolled epilepsy were ...
Tassoni Daniella - - 2008
The brain contains two main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These PUFA are located almost exclusively in the sn2-position of phosphoglycerides which are found in the neural cell membranes. Liberation of these PUFA from the phosphoglycerides occurs via the action of specific phospholipases (PLA2). ...
Nasrollahzadeh Javad - - 2008
Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA), DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA) were fed ...
Das Undurti N - - 2008
Dyslipidemia, and inflammatory markers: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2(Lp-PLA2), and lipid peroxides (LP) are insufficient to predict the onset, extent, and prognosis of CHD. Lipoxins (LXs), resolvins, and protectins are derived from omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-6 arachidonic ...
Das Undurti N - - 2008
Lowering plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), blood pressure, homocysteine, and preventing platelet aggregation using a combination of a statin, three blood pressure lowering drugs such as a thiazide, a beta blocker, and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor each at half standard dose; folic acid; and aspirin-called as polypill- was ...
Ishak Sairatul D - - 2008
Although unsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), collectively known as the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), play pivotal roles in vertebrate reproduction, very little is known about their synthesis in the ovary. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) display capability ...
Das Undurti N - - 2008
Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and ...
Greenberg James A - - 2008
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as ...
Kainz Martin - - 2008
We investigated seasonal variability of essential fatty acids (EFA) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in four size categories of planktonic organisms in two coastal lakes. MeHg concentrations increased significantly with increasing plankton size and were independent of plankton taxonomy. However, total EFA increased from seston to mesozooplankton, but decreased in ...
Harris William S - - 2008
The most common omega-3 fatty acids contain 18-22 carbons and a signature double bond at the third position from the methyl (or n, or omega) end of the molecule. These fatty acids must be obtained in the diet as they cannot be synthesized by vertebrates. They include the plant-derived alpha-linolenic ...
Smith Daryl J - - 2008
The 80-kb dit cluster of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 encodes the catabolism of abietane diterpenoids. This cluster includes ditQ and ditU, predicted to encode cytochromes P450 (P450s) belonging to the poorly characterized CYP226A subfamily. Using proteomics, we identified 16 dit-encoded proteins that were significantly more abundant in LB400 cells grown on ...
Lee Hyeon-Cheol - - 2008
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is a component of membrane phospholipids, and it functions both as a signaling molecule and as a compartment-specific localization signal in the form of polyphosphoinositides. Arachidonic acid (AA) is the predominant fatty acid in the sn-2 position of PI in mammals. LysoPI acyltransferase (LPIAT) is thought to catalyze ...
Yuen Alan W C AW Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK. - - 2008
Fatty acids (FAs) determine membrane properties and may affect cardiac and neuronal function. In this study, FA profiles were determined in 56 patients with epilepsy who participated in a 12-week double-blind randomized trial of omega-3 FA supplementation (1 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.7 g docosahexaenoic acid daily). At baseline, subjects ...
Fraser Thomas - - 2008
Deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other omega-3 (omega3) fatty acids may constitute an alterable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mechanisms of potential involvement of DHA in the disease process have been postulated primarily from studies in vitro and in mouse models of AD. Information on the fatty acid ...
Louw L - - 2008
Information from a preceding lipid study contributed to the pathobiological assessment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Lipid-driven signaling pathways are responsible for laryngeal carcinogenesis and immunodeficiency. The construction of fatty acid (FA) profiles for LSCC allowed the identification of FA role players. The integration of lipid and clinicomolecular information ...
Bauer John E - - 2007
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and other marine sources appear to be capable of modifying inflammatory and immune responses in dogs. Information is provided on the capacity of dogs to metabolize omega-3 fatty acids and the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on skin and coat, inflammatory responses, and ...
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