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Results 401 - 450 of 1984
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Kim Sung-Koo - - 2013
The acidic hydrolysis of biomass generates numerous inhibitors of fermentation, which adversely affect cell growth and metabolism. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of fermentation inhibitors on growth and glucose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also conducted in situ adsorption during cell cultivation in synthetic ...
Li Xiao-Ping - - 2013
Trans fatty acids (TFA) have been considered as an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease, sudden death and insulin-resistance, and different TFA isomers may have different effects on the progression of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of two major ...
Xiang Wanchun - - 2013
Sensing the sun: Incorporation of a cyanomethyl benzoic acid electron acceptor into donor-π-acceptor sensitizers for dye-sensitized-solar cell is shown to lead to devices with improved conversion efficiency when compared with more widely used cyanoacetic acid acceptor.
Morato P N - - 2013
Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is capable of increasing muscle glycogen reserves and of concentrating the glucose transporter in the plasma membrane (PM). The objective of this study was to determine which WPH components could modulate translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 to the PM of animal skeletal muscle. Forty-nine animals ...
Yamasaki Kanako - - 2013
Chloroplasts are responsible for biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA) an important signal molecule in plant immunity. EDS5 is a homologue of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family of transporters, and is essential for SA biosynthesis. It has been speculated that EDS5 would be involved in the export of ...
de Souza Clairton F - - 2013
We localised amino acids in the mid-peripheral aged human retina and a retina that had undergone radiation treatment 10 years earlier. The distribution pattern of glutamate, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), glycine, glutamine and taurine, reflected patterns established in the primate retina. The retina that had undergone radiation exposure displayed both ...
Gong Min - - 2013
All-trans retinoic acid plays an important role in nervous system development. However, the effects of all-trans retinoic acid on the neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and the mechanisms through which this differentiation takes place are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the biological effects of all-trans retinoic acid on ...
Uchiyama Kan - - 2013
The sudden change in the dietary habits of the Japanese population towards a European/American-style diet since the 1960s is thought to be responsible for the recent increase in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Japan. Dietary fatty acid intake influences the fatty acid profiles of vital cell membranes, ...
Dannenberger D - - 2013
Samples of M. longissimus were collected from a total of 203 feral roe deer (n=118) and wild boar (n=85) in two regions of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany). The muscle lipid saturated fatty acid proportions of roe deer and wild boar ranged between 33 and 49g/100g total fatty acids and 31 and ...
Wan Zhongxiao - - 2013
FAT/CD36 has been extensively studied for its role in facilitating fatty acid uptake. Recent findings have also demonstrated that this protein regulates adipocyte lipolysis and may modulate fatty acid re-esterification. As FAT/CD36 has been shown to control the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes we reasoned ...
Liu Jian-Jun - - 2013
Recently, it was reported that naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids such as ursolic acid have anti-adiposity property. We studied if acetyl-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), an established anti-inflammation and anti-cancer pentacyclic triterpenoid which has similar chemical structure to ursolic acid, may modulate adipocyte phenotype. 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and human subcutaneous adipocytes were treated ...
Dong Xuan - - 2013
The polyethylenimine (PEI) derivatives (PTn) are prepared by treating PEI25k with Tris(hydroxymethyl) acrylamidomethane via the Michael addition. These PTns can effectively condense nucleic acids into nanosized particles with positive surface charges. The PTns show lower cytotoxicity and better serum-resistant capacity than PEI25k. Specially, the transfection efficiency of PT26/DNA is 29-fold ...
Wu Chongde - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate ...
Mamani-Linares L W - - 2013
Twenty male llama of the Kh'ara genotype, reared extensively in the north of Chile, were slaughtered at ages between 2 and 4 permanent teeth (2 to 3.5years) and analyses were carried out on the Longissimus lumborum muscle, including composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash, cholesterol, amino acids, fatty acid profile and ...
Yoshida Toyokazu - - 2013
The nitrilase gene of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 was expressed in Escherichia coli using the expression vector, pKK223-3. The recombinant E. coli JM109 cells hydrolyzed enantioselectively 2-methyl-2-propylmalononitrile to form (S)-2-cyano-2-methylpentanoic acid (CMPA) with 96 % e.e. Under optimized conditions, 80 g (S)-CMPA l(-1) was produced with a molar yield of 97 % at 30 °C after ...
Henry Brian - - 2013
The enzyme acid sphingomyelinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide. The importance of the enzyme for cell functions was first recognized in Niemann-Pick disease type A and B, the genetic disorders with a massive accumulation of sphingomyelin in many organs. Studies in the last years demonstrated that the enzyme ...
Bolognesi Andrea - - 2013
Palmitic acid is known to be apoptotic for nervous cells but no data are available on membrane lipidome transformations occurring during its supplementation, although membrane lipids are clearly involved in the apoptotic signaling cascade. NB100 neuroblastoma cells were supplemented with palmitic acid and membrane fatty acids were isolated, derivatized and ...
Chen Jihong - - 2013
Pluripotent stem cells can be directed into myogenic differentiation by small molecular inducers, which preferentially activate muscle-specific transcription networks. Here we describe how to efficiently direct the differentiation of pluripotent P19 cells into skeletal muscle lineage by using histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid and the ligand of retinoic acid receptor, ...
Cai Qian - - 2013
Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a ...
Hause Bettina - - 2013
To determine the location of specific molecules within tissues or cells, immunological techniques are frequently used. However, immunolocalization of small molecules, such as jasmonic acid (JA) and its bioactive amino acid conjugate, JA-isoleucine, requires proper fixation and embedding methods as well as specific antibodies. In this chapter, we present a ...
Bayer Nils B - - 2013
N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) represents the most common terminal carbohydrate residue in many mammalian glycoconjugates and is directly involved in a number of different physiological as well as pathological cellular processes. Endogenous sialic acids derive from the biosynthetic precursor molecule N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Interestingly, N-acyl-analogues of D-mannosamine (ManN) can also be incorporated ...
Habbal Mohammad Zouheir - - 2013
Pompe disease is characterised by deficiency of acid α-glucosidase that results in abnormal glycogen deposition in the muscles. Alkaptonuria is caused by a defect in the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase with subsequent accumulation of homogentisic acid. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with Pompe disease and alkaptonuria. Urine ...
Kornhuber Johannes - - 2013
Sphingolipids are not only structural components of biological membranes, but also play an important role in cellular signalling and, thus, are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation but also stress and cell death. It is therefore of great clinical relevance to define inhibitors of the enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. ...
Boniewska-Bernacka Ewa - - 2013
Introduction: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism for studies of transcriptional regulation of metabolic processes in other eukaryotic cells including human cells. Cellular acid-base balance can be disturbed in pathologic situations such as renal acidosis or cancer. The extracellular pH of malignant solid tumors is acidic in the range of 6.5-6.9. ...
Zhou Xuan - - 2013
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are known to suppress ruminal methanogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well known. In the present study, inhibition of methane formation, cell membrane permeability (potassium efflux), and survival rate (LIVE/DEAD staining) of pure ruminal Methanobrevibacter ruminantium (DSM 1093) cell suspensions were tested for a number ...
Simkin Johanna E - - 2013
Vagal neural crest cells (VNCCs) arise in the hindbrain, and at (avian) embryonic day (E) 1.5 commence migration through paraxial tissues to reach the foregut as chains of cells 1-2 days later. They then colonise the rest of the gut in a rostrocaudal wave. The chains of migrating cells later ...
Garcia-Doval Carmela - - 2013
Correct host cell recognition is important in the replication cycle for any virus, including bacterial viruses. This essential step should occur before the bacteriophage commits to transfer its genomic material into the host. In this chapter we will discuss the proteins and mechanisms bacteriophages use for receptor recognition (just before ...
Betiati Dayanne da Silva Borges Dda - - 2013
The development of leukemia and lymphomas is related to the increase in inflammatory process modulators. These, in turn, have divergent actions on the neoplastic process. Populations of T cells have different roles in the neoplastic environment; while interferon-gamma positive T cells have antitumor activity, the FoxP3+interleukin-10 positive population present a ...
Merendino Nicolò - - 2013
ω -3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly present in fish oil, are part of the human diet. Among PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has received particular attention for its anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenetic, anti-invasion, and antimetastatic properties. These data suggest that DHA can exert antitumor activity potentially representing an effective adjuvant ...
Jeong Kwi-Wan - - 2013
Folding of newly synthesized protein occurs in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is assisted by chaperone molecules. In ER stress conditions, misfolded proteins are enriched in a lumen of ER perturbing its normal function, which triggers cellular self-defense mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR). It was reported that tunicamycin-induced ER stress ...
Yu Kaifan - - 2013
Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs ...
Kohlwein Sepp D - - 2013
Lipid droplets (LDs) and peroxisomes are central players in cellular lipid homeostasis: some of their main functions are to control the metabolic flux and availability of fatty acids (LDs and peroxisomes) as well as of sterols (LDs). Both fatty acids and sterols serve multiple functions in the cell-as membrane stabilizers ...
Carvalho Ana Lúcia - - 2013
The effect of pH on the glucose metabolism of non-growing cells of L. lactis MG1363 was studied by in vivo NMR in the range 4.8 to 6.5. Immediate pH effects on glucose transporters and/or enzyme activities were distinguished from transcriptional/translational effects by using cells grown at the optimal pH of ...
Opsahl Jill A - - 2013
Exposure of cells to the diarrhetic shellfish poison, okadaic acid, leads to a dramatic reorganization of cytoskeletal architecture and loss of cell-cell contact. When cells are exposed to high concentrations of okadaic acid (100-500 nM), the morphological rearrangement is followed by apoptotic cell death. Okadaic acid inhibits the broad acting ...
Petit Morgan - - 2013
The photooxidation of cellular monounsaturated fatty acids was investigated in senescent phytoplanktonic cells (Emiliania huxleyi) and in their attached bacteria under laboratory controlled conditions. Our results indicated that UV-visible irradiation of phytodetritus induced the photooxidation of oleic (produced by phytoplankton and bacteria) and cis-vaccenic (specifically produced by bacteria) acids. These ...
Silva Alexandra - - 2013
Acetic acid-induced apoptosis in yeast is accompanied by an impairment of the general protein synthesis machinery, yet paradoxically also by the up-regulation of the two isoforms of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone family, Hsc82p and Hsp82p. Herein, we show that impairment of cap-dependent translation initiation induced by acetic ...
Tan Lik Tong - - 2013
The tropical marine cyanobacterium, Moorea bouillonii, has gained recent attention as a rich source of bioactive natural products. Continued chemical investigation of this cyanobacterium, collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea, yielded a novel cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptide, bouillonamide (1), along with previously reported molecules, ulongamide A and apratoxin A. Planar ...
Santos Júlia - - 2013
Ammonium (NH4 (+)) leads to chronological life span (CLS) shortening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 cells, particularly evident in cells starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids (leucine, lysine, and histidine) simultaneously. Here, we report that the effect of NH4 (+) on aging yeast depends on the specific amino acid they are deprived ...
Chen Jun-Jiang - - 2013
Natural products are frequently used for adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment. 23-O-(1,4'-bipiperidine-1-carbonyl) betulinic acid (BBA) is a synthetic derivative of 23-hydroxybutulinic acid (23-HBA), which is a natural pentacyclic triterpene and the major active constituent of the root of Pulsatillachinensis. We previously reported that BBA could reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance ...
Nishinaga Osamu - - 2013
Anodic porous alumina has been widely investigated and used as a nanostructure template in various nanoapplications. The porous structure consists of numerous hexagonal cells perpendicular to the aluminum substrate and each cell has several tens or hundreds of nanoscale pores at its center. Because the nanomorphology of anodic porous alumina ...
Beckham Thomas H - - 2013
The tumor suppressor PTEN is now understood to regulate cellular processes at the cytoplasmic membrane, where it classically regulates PI3K signaling, as well as in the nucleus where multiple roles in controlling cell cycle and genome stability have been elucidated. Mechanisms that dictate nuclear import and, less extensively, nuclear export ...
Oettl Sarah K - - 2013
In vitro screening of 17 Alpine lichen species for their inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and nuclear factor kappa B revealed Cetrelia monachorum (Zahlbr.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. As conceivable source for novel anti-inflammatory compounds. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic crude extract resulted in the isolation ...
Yamasaki Masao - - 2013
Various fatty acids are attracting considerable interest for their anticancer effects. Among them, fatty acids containing conjugated double bonds show one of the most potent cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Here, we focused on the cancer cell killing activity of jacaranda seed oil. The seed oil of jacaranda harvested from ...
Abed Majed - - 2013
Background: The polyphenol tannic acid with antioxidant and antimicrobial potency may trigger suicidal death of nucleated cells or apoptosis and thus may counteract tumor growth. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with appearance of ...
Darvishi Emad - - 2013
Eugenol is an aromatic component of clove oil that has therapeutic potential as an antifungal drug, although its mode of action and precise cellular target(s) remain ambiguous. To address this knowledge gap, a chemical-genetic profile analysis of eugenol was done using ∼4700 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutants to reveal ...
Shiratake Takuma - - 2013
Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri ...
Nagai Toshiharu - - 2013
It has been previously shown that the positional isomers of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing palmitic acid (P) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as DHA (D) and EPA (E) vary between fishes and marine mammals. However, it has not yet been understood why in marine mammals HUFAs are located only ...
Kato Yasumasa Y Department of Oral Function and Molecular Biology, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 963-8611, Koriyama, Japan. - - 2013
Acidic extracellular pH is a major feature of tumor tissue, extracellular acidification being primarily considered to be due to lactate secretion from anaerobic glycolysis. Clinicopathological evidence shows that transporters and pumps contribute to H+ secretion, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger, the H+-lactate co-transporter, monocarboxylate transporters, and the proton pump (H+-ATPase); ...
Kakazu Eiji - - 2013
An imbalance of plasma amino acids (AA) is observed cirrhotic patients. Here we report that the imbalance suppresses the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by reducing the intracellular ATP due to interference with the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We used serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentration of ...
Chkhikvishvili Irakli I Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tbilisi State Medical University, 33 Vazha Pshavela Ave. 0177, Tbilisi, - - 2013
Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., Lamiaceae) is used in several regions of the world as a spice and folk medicine. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of S. hortensis and of its rosmarinic acid-rich phenolic fraction have been demonstrated in animal trials. However, previous studies of rosmarinic acid in cell models have ...
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