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Results 401 - 450 of 1967
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Bolognesi Andrea - - 2013
Palmitic acid is known to be apoptotic for nervous cells but no data are available on membrane lipidome transformations occurring during its supplementation, although membrane lipids are clearly involved in the apoptotic signaling cascade. NB100 neuroblastoma cells were supplemented with palmitic acid and membrane fatty acids were isolated, derivatized and ...
Chen Jihong - - 2013
Pluripotent stem cells can be directed into myogenic differentiation by small molecular inducers, which preferentially activate muscle-specific transcription networks. Here we describe how to efficiently direct the differentiation of pluripotent P19 cells into skeletal muscle lineage by using histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid and the ligand of retinoic acid receptor, ...
Cai Qian - - 2013
Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a ...
Hause Bettina - - 2013
To determine the location of specific molecules within tissues or cells, immunological techniques are frequently used. However, immunolocalization of small molecules, such as jasmonic acid (JA) and its bioactive amino acid conjugate, JA-isoleucine, requires proper fixation and embedding methods as well as specific antibodies. In this chapter, we present a ...
Bayer Nils B - - 2013
N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) represents the most common terminal carbohydrate residue in many mammalian glycoconjugates and is directly involved in a number of different physiological as well as pathological cellular processes. Endogenous sialic acids derive from the biosynthetic precursor molecule N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Interestingly, N-acyl-analogues of D-mannosamine (ManN) can also be incorporated ...
Habbal Mohammad Zouheir - - 2013
Pompe disease is characterised by deficiency of acid α-glucosidase that results in abnormal glycogen deposition in the muscles. Alkaptonuria is caused by a defect in the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase with subsequent accumulation of homogentisic acid. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with Pompe disease and alkaptonuria. Urine ...
Kornhuber Johannes - - 2013
Sphingolipids are not only structural components of biological membranes, but also play an important role in cellular signalling and, thus, are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation but also stress and cell death. It is therefore of great clinical relevance to define inhibitors of the enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. ...
Boniewska-Bernacka Ewa - - 2013
Introduction: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism for studies of transcriptional regulation of metabolic processes in other eukaryotic cells including human cells. Cellular acid-base balance can be disturbed in pathologic situations such as renal acidosis or cancer. The extracellular pH of malignant solid tumors is acidic in the range of 6.5-6.9. ...
Zhou Xuan - - 2013
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are known to suppress ruminal methanogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well known. In the present study, inhibition of methane formation, cell membrane permeability (potassium efflux), and survival rate (LIVE/DEAD staining) of pure ruminal Methanobrevibacter ruminantium (DSM 1093) cell suspensions were tested for a number ...
Simkin Johanna E - - 2013
Vagal neural crest cells (VNCCs) arise in the hindbrain, and at (avian) embryonic day (E) 1.5 commence migration through paraxial tissues to reach the foregut as chains of cells 1-2 days later. They then colonise the rest of the gut in a rostrocaudal wave. The chains of migrating cells later ...
Garcia-Doval Carmela - - 2013
Correct host cell recognition is important in the replication cycle for any virus, including bacterial viruses. This essential step should occur before the bacteriophage commits to transfer its genomic material into the host. In this chapter we will discuss the proteins and mechanisms bacteriophages use for receptor recognition (just before ...
Betiati Dayanne da Silva Borges Dda - - 2013
The development of leukemia and lymphomas is related to the increase in inflammatory process modulators. These, in turn, have divergent actions on the neoplastic process. Populations of T cells have different roles in the neoplastic environment; while interferon-gamma positive T cells have antitumor activity, the FoxP3+interleukin-10 positive population present a ...
Merendino Nicolò - - 2013
ω -3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly present in fish oil, are part of the human diet. Among PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has received particular attention for its anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenetic, anti-invasion, and antimetastatic properties. These data suggest that DHA can exert antitumor activity potentially representing an effective adjuvant ...
Jeong Kwi-Wan - - 2013
Folding of newly synthesized protein occurs in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is assisted by chaperone molecules. In ER stress conditions, misfolded proteins are enriched in a lumen of ER perturbing its normal function, which triggers cellular self-defense mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR). It was reported that tunicamycin-induced ER stress ...
Yu Kaifan - - 2013
Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs ...
Kohlwein Sepp D - - 2013
Lipid droplets (LDs) and peroxisomes are central players in cellular lipid homeostasis: some of their main functions are to control the metabolic flux and availability of fatty acids (LDs and peroxisomes) as well as of sterols (LDs). Both fatty acids and sterols serve multiple functions in the cell-as membrane stabilizers ...
Carvalho Ana Lúcia - - 2013
The effect of pH on the glucose metabolism of non-growing cells of L. lactis MG1363 was studied by in vivo NMR in the range 4.8 to 6.5. Immediate pH effects on glucose transporters and/or enzyme activities were distinguished from transcriptional/translational effects by using cells grown at the optimal pH of ...
Opsahl Jill A - - 2013
Exposure of cells to the diarrhetic shellfish poison, okadaic acid, leads to a dramatic reorganization of cytoskeletal architecture and loss of cell-cell contact. When cells are exposed to high concentrations of okadaic acid (100-500 nM), the morphological rearrangement is followed by apoptotic cell death. Okadaic acid inhibits the broad acting ...
Petit Morgan - - 2013
The photooxidation of cellular monounsaturated fatty acids was investigated in senescent phytoplanktonic cells (Emiliania huxleyi) and in their attached bacteria under laboratory controlled conditions. Our results indicated that UV-visible irradiation of phytodetritus induced the photooxidation of oleic (produced by phytoplankton and bacteria) and cis-vaccenic (specifically produced by bacteria) acids. These ...
Silva Alexandra - - 2013
Acetic acid-induced apoptosis in yeast is accompanied by an impairment of the general protein synthesis machinery, yet paradoxically also by the up-regulation of the two isoforms of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone family, Hsc82p and Hsp82p. Herein, we show that impairment of cap-dependent translation initiation induced by acetic ...
Tan Lik Tong - - 2013
The tropical marine cyanobacterium, Moorea bouillonii, has gained recent attention as a rich source of bioactive natural products. Continued chemical investigation of this cyanobacterium, collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea, yielded a novel cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptide, bouillonamide (1), along with previously reported molecules, ulongamide A and apratoxin A. Planar ...
Santos Júlia - - 2013
Ammonium (NH4 (+)) leads to chronological life span (CLS) shortening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 cells, particularly evident in cells starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids (leucine, lysine, and histidine) simultaneously. Here, we report that the effect of NH4 (+) on aging yeast depends on the specific amino acid they are deprived ...
Chen Jun-Jiang - - 2013
Natural products are frequently used for adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment. 23-O-(1,4'-bipiperidine-1-carbonyl) betulinic acid (BBA) is a synthetic derivative of 23-hydroxybutulinic acid (23-HBA), which is a natural pentacyclic triterpene and the major active constituent of the root of Pulsatillachinensis. We previously reported that BBA could reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance ...
Nishinaga Osamu - - 2013
Anodic porous alumina has been widely investigated and used as a nanostructure template in various nanoapplications. The porous structure consists of numerous hexagonal cells perpendicular to the aluminum substrate and each cell has several tens or hundreds of nanoscale pores at its center. Because the nanomorphology of anodic porous alumina ...
Beckham Thomas H - - 2013
The tumor suppressor PTEN is now understood to regulate cellular processes at the cytoplasmic membrane, where it classically regulates PI3K signaling, as well as in the nucleus where multiple roles in controlling cell cycle and genome stability have been elucidated. Mechanisms that dictate nuclear import and, less extensively, nuclear export ...
Oettl Sarah K - - 2013
In vitro screening of 17 Alpine lichen species for their inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and nuclear factor kappa B revealed Cetrelia monachorum (Zahlbr.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. As conceivable source for novel anti-inflammatory compounds. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic crude extract resulted in the isolation ...
Yamasaki Masao - - 2013
Various fatty acids are attracting considerable interest for their anticancer effects. Among them, fatty acids containing conjugated double bonds show one of the most potent cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Here, we focused on the cancer cell killing activity of jacaranda seed oil. The seed oil of jacaranda harvested from ...
Abed Majed - - 2013
Background: The polyphenol tannic acid with antioxidant and antimicrobial potency may trigger suicidal death of nucleated cells or apoptosis and thus may counteract tumor growth. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with appearance of ...
Darvishi Emad - - 2013
Eugenol is an aromatic component of clove oil that has therapeutic potential as an antifungal drug, although its mode of action and precise cellular target(s) remain ambiguous. To address this knowledge gap, a chemical-genetic profile analysis of eugenol was done using ∼4700 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutants to reveal ...
Shiratake Takuma - - 2013
Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri ...
Nagai Toshiharu - - 2013
It has been previously shown that the positional isomers of triacylglycerol (TAG) containing palmitic acid (P) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as DHA (D) and EPA (E) vary between fishes and marine mammals. However, it has not yet been understood why in marine mammals HUFAs are located only ...
Kato Yasumasa Y Department of Oral Function and Molecular Biology, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 963-8611, Koriyama, Japan. - - 2013
Acidic extracellular pH is a major feature of tumor tissue, extracellular acidification being primarily considered to be due to lactate secretion from anaerobic glycolysis. Clinicopathological evidence shows that transporters and pumps contribute to H+ secretion, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger, the H+-lactate co-transporter, monocarboxylate transporters, and the proton pump (H+-ATPase); ...
Kakazu Eiji - - 2013
An imbalance of plasma amino acids (AA) is observed cirrhotic patients. Here we report that the imbalance suppresses the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by reducing the intracellular ATP due to interference with the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We used serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentration of ...
Chkhikvishvili Irakli I Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tbilisi State Medical University, 33 Vazha Pshavela Ave. 0177, Tbilisi, - - 2013
Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., Lamiaceae) is used in several regions of the world as a spice and folk medicine. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of S. hortensis and of its rosmarinic acid-rich phenolic fraction have been demonstrated in animal trials. However, previous studies of rosmarinic acid in cell models have ...
Ramos-Jerz Maria Del R Mdel R Institute of Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Schleinitzstraße 20, 38106 Braunschweig, - - 2013
Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts ...
Ghobakhlou Abdollah A Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada ; Department of Soils and Agri-Food Engineering, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, - - 2013
Arctic Mesorhizobium sp. N33 isolated from nodules of Oxytropis arctobia in Canada's eastern Arctic has a growth temperature range from 0°C to 30°C and is a well-known cold-adapted rhizobia. The key molecular mechanisms underlying cold adaptation in Arctic rhizobia remains totally unknown. Since the concentration and contents of metabolites are ...
Park Ji-Hyuk JH College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, South Korea. - - 2013
Background: Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is known to exert antitumor activity in breast, lung, liver and colon cancers. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism of ursolic acid in prostate cancer cells still remains unclear. To investigate the antitumor mechanism, the apoptotic mechanism of ursolic acid via Wnt/β-catenin signaling was examined in ...
Gdula-ArgasiƄska Joanna J Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Radioligands, Kraków, - - 2013
Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids results in biosynthesis of mediators with different physiological effects. These metabolites include prostaglandins, prostacyclins, isoprostanes and others that are important signalling molecules and regulate a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including inflammation. Prostaglandins and isoprostanes are produced by either non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation or by ...
Zhu Guiming G Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medicine, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang, - - 2013
Arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids, but their biosyntheses in mammals are very limited. The biosynthesis of DHA is the most difficult, because this undergoes the Sprecher pathway-a further elongation step from docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), a Δ6-desaturase acting on a ...
Moschner Johann J Universität Leipzig, Institut für Organische Chemie, Johannisallee 29, D-04103 Leipzig, - - 2013
The chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of new cyclopamine analogs bearing exocyclic methylenes in different positions is described. Bis-exo-cyclopamine 6 was identified as a potent inhibitor of the Gli1-dependent luciferase expression in Shh-LIGHTII cells. An extension of this study to F-ring-modified structures shows the necessity of a rigidly positioned nitrogen ...
Kizilbash Nadeem A NA Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine & Applied Medical Sciences, Northern Border University, Arar-91431, Saudi - - 2013
The β-sheet of muscle fatty acid binding protein of Locusta migratoria (Lm-FABP) was modeled by employing 2-D NMR data and the Rigid Body Assembly method. The model shows the β-sheet to comprise ten β-strands arranged anti-parallel to each other. There is a β-bulge between Ser 13 and Gln 14 which ...
Hajmohamad Ebrahim Ketabforoosh Shima S Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176, - - 2013
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppresses the growth of transformed cells such as human breast cancer cells, hepatocarcinoma , myeloid leukemia, colorectal cancer cells, fibrosarcoma, glioma and melanoma. A group of heterocyclic esters of caffeic acid was synthesized using Mitsunobu reaction and the esters were subjected to further structural modification ...
Bjorgvinsdottir Lara L School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, - - 2013
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) has been associated with an inflammatory response to the surgical procedure. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been proposed for the prevention of POAF. We investigated the relationship between the plasma concentration of inflammatory mediators, levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in red blood cell (RBC) membrane ...
Deng Xuefeng X College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, - - 2013
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the causative agent of erythema infectiosum in humans. B19 infection also causes severe disease manifestations, such as chronic anemia in immunocompromised patients, aplastic crisis in patients with a high turnover rate of red blood cells, and hydrops fetalis in pregnant women. Although a secreted phospholipase ...
Nishimura Junko J Laboratory of Animal Products Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aobaku, Sendai 981-8555, - - 2013
In yogurt, the formation of formate by Streptococcus thermophilus stimulates the activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus). However, there have been no reports how formic acid acts on the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production of L. bulgaricus. Here, the effect of formate on the EPS production in skim milk by ...
Sajiki Kenichi K G0 Cell Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan. - - 2013
Microorganisms naturally respond to changes in nutritional conditions by adjusting their morphology and physiology. The cellular response of the fission yeast S. pombe to nitrogen starvation has been extensively studied. Here, we report time course metabolomic analysis during one hour immediately after nitrogen starvation, prior to any visible changes in ...
Machii Miki - - 2012
Two chemically defined media, CDM-1G and CDM-1X, that use glucose and xylose as carbon sources, respectively, were prepared for Lactococcus lactis strain IO-1. The maximal cell density at 600 nm in CDM-1G exceeded 2. Omission growth experiments indicated that IO-1 is auxotrophic for 2 vitamins and 6 amino acids.
Baron J Allen JA Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, - - 2013
Although yeast cells grown in abundant glucose tend to acidify their extracellular environment, they raise the pH of the environment when starved for glucose or when grown strictly with non-fermentable carbon sources. Following prolonged periods in this alkaline phase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells will switch to producing acid. The mechanisms and ...
Wang Wei - - 2012
The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The ...
El Semary Nermin Adel - - 2012
Microscopic, molecular, and biochemical investigations were conducted to describe a benthic mat-forming Leptolyngbya isolate collected from wastewater canal in Helwan area, Egypt. Microscopic examination revealed that the isolate was filamentous, nonheterocystous, with obvious granular surface ornamentation. Electron microscopy was used to reveal the isolate's ultrastructure. Cross walls were thick with ...
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