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Results 301 - 350 of 2853
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Kim Wook Hyun - - 2013
The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6, 6]phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM)-based inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) is enhanced by the modification of zinc oxide (ZnO)/BHJ interface with carboxylic-acid-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Under simulated solar illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2), the inverted devices fabricated with ...
Ratanaburee Anussara - - 2013
The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with ...
Trentin Claudia M - - 2013
This work investigates the continuous production of alkyl esters from soybean fatty acid (FA) charges using immobilized Novozym 435 as catalyst. The experiments were performed in a packed-bed bioreactor evaluating the effects of FA charge to alcohol (methanol and ethanol) molar ratio, from 1:1 to 1:6, substrate flow rate in ...
Fan Jilian - - 2013
There is growing interest in engineering green biomass to expand the production of plant oils as feed and biofuels. Here, we show that PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (PDAT1) is a critical enzyme involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in leaves. Overexpression of PDAT1 increases leaf TAG accumulation, leading to oil droplet overexpansion through ...
Deepankumar Kanagavel - - 2013
Here we enhanced the stability and biophysical properties of mRFP1 through a combination of canonical and non-canonical amino acid mutagenesis. The global replacement of proline residue with (2S, 4R)-4-fluoroproline [(4R)-FP] into mRFP1 led to soluble protein but lost its fluorescence, whereas (2S, 4S)-4-fluoroproline [(4S)-FP] incorporation resulted in insoluble protein. The ...
Aleixandre-Tudó José Luis - - 2013
The effect of prefermentative and postfermentative caffeic acid addition (CFA), prefermentative cold maceration and micro-oxygenation on the phenolic and color composition of Tempranillo wines was investigated. Cold soaking and dry ice addition were performed as prefermentative techniques. Wines were analyzed after the end of the malolactic fermentation, and after six ...
Daba Tadessa - - 2013
The amino groups of wheat β-amylase (WBA) were modified by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), 2,4-bis (O-methoxypolyethylene glycol)-6-chloro-s-triazine (mPEG), and glutaraldehyde (GA) to improve its thermal stability and activity. Modification of WBA by 5mM TNBS, 4.8μM mPEG and 11mM GA improved its T50 (the temperature at which 50% of its activity is ...
Wunderlich Christoph H - - 2013
In this work we present a novel 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical phosphoramidite building block, which can be attached to the 5'-terminus of nucleic acids. To investigate the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) emanating from this radical center, we incorporated the TEMPO label into various types of RNAs. We measured proton PREs ...
An Meiling - - 2013
The Antarctic ice microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L which is highly resistant to salt stress holds promise in providing an alternative species for the production of microalgal oil. We studied the effects of the alga in confrontation with NaCl stress on the growth, oil yield and expression of fatty acid desaturase ...
Zhang Shijuan - - 2014
A novel and interesting pre-column derivatisation method was developed for the analysis of triterpenic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Each triterpenic acid produced two HPLC peaks with similar peak areas after derivatising with chiral 1-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) propan-2-yl-methanesulfonate (CPMS), while the fatty acid derivative of CPMS had only ...
Xiao Ni - - 2013
In this work, graphene materials have been prepared via thermal treatment of graphene oxides with the aid of intercalated nitric acid. The nitric acid not only favors the expansion of graphene but also benefits for the generation of pores into graphene. The specific surface area of such graphene frameworks is ...
Hu Jie - - 2013
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) as rapid analytical techniques promise to be widely used in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics because of their affordability and simplicity. However, LFAs still suffer from low sensitivity in detection of various biomarkers, e.g., nucleic acids. In this study, we developed a simple and general one-step signal amplification ...
Mandal Somnath - - 2014
Lipoxygenase (Lox) mediated oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in mature soya seeds results in objectionable flavour. In the present study, Lox isozymes were purified to near homogeneity (107-fold). Lox-2 and 3 displayed remarkable kinetic preference (1.7 and 1.5-fold, respectively) for low PUFA ratios (LA/LeA) (PRs) among the selected PUFA ...
Abulateefeh Samer R - - 2013
Abstract Context: The excellent gelling and safety profiles of alginic acid combined, however, with drawbacks of its ionotropically crosslinked beads (i.e. their quick release of loaded drugs) prompted us to chemically modify alginic acid. Objective: Alginic acid was chemically conjugated with four amines of varying hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties (i.e. tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-, allyl-, ...
Li Changmo - - 2013
To elucidate the relation between heat-induced cis/trans isomerization and reaction temperature and energy in unsaturated lipids, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the heat-induced cis/trans isomerization of 18:1 isomers. Triolein (18:1,9c) was heated at two range temperatures (130, 160, 190, 220 °C and 135, 140, 145, 150, 155 °C) and ...
Ma Fang - - 2013
In the present paper, a new type of Lewis acid-base complex BX3•••Li@Calix[4]pyrrole (X = H and F) was designed and assembled based on electride molecule Li@calix[4]pyrrole (as a Lewis base) and the electron deficient molecule BX3 (as a Lewis acid) by employing quantum mechanical calculation. The new Lewis acid-base complex ...
Li Yilin - - 2013
The effect of chemical pretreatments on the color and carotenoid content of yellow discolored channel catfish fillets was studied. The color and carotenoid content of the fillets were analyzed by the L*a*b* color system and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Untreated fillets turned more yellow and darker after 12-d storage. Sodium ...
Guyon Francois - - 2014
High performance liquid chromatography linked to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via an interface allowing the chemical oxidation of organic matter (HPLC-co-IRMS) was used to simultaneously determine carbon 13 isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of organic acids, glucose and fructose in lime and lemon juices. Because of the significant difference between organic acids ...
Tohnai Norimitsu - - 2013
Organic-inorganic hybrid salts based on 1,5-bisaminophenylanthracene were able to overcome aggregation-induced quenching and emit multiple colours of luminescence according to the counter acid employed. Moreover, the emission colour could be reversibly and dynamically changed on absorption and desorption of guest molecules.
Dükkancı Meral - - 2013
The sonolytic degradation of butyric acid was investigated in an ultrasonic reactor emitting waves at 850 kHz. The effects of the ultrasonic power, the initial concentration of butyric acid, and the addition of H2O2 were studied on the degradation of butyric acid. In the sonication of butyric acid, degradation degrees as ...
Jang Yu-Sin - - 2013
Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered as an attractive platform host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C. acetobutylicum CEKW, in which genes ...
Liu Min - - 2013
A novel hypoxanthine biosensor fabricated by immobilizing the xanthine oxidase (XOD) onto the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica (SiO2-P) film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was designed and constructed in this work. A biomimetic platform was designed with the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO2-P NPs) synthesized by the method ...
Revellame Emmanuel D - - 2013
Lipid-enhancement of activated sludges was conducted to increase the amount of saponifiable lipids in the sludges. The sludges were obtained from a conventional activated sludge (CAS) and an oxidation ditch process (ODP). Results showed 59-222% and 150-250% increase in saponifiable lipid content of the sludges from CAS and ODP, respectively. ...
Nosheen Asia - - 2013
Safflower oil is a complex mixture of C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids amongst other fatty acids, and achieving separation between these similar structure components using one dimensional gas chromatography (GC) may be difficult. This investigation aims to obtain improved separation of fatty acid methyl esters in safflower oil, and ...
Vishnu Nandimalla - - 2013
Unusual electropolymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) in a neutral pH solution has been successfully demonstrated using a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified gold electrode (Au-MWCNT@PANIpH7). The modified electrode showed highly redox active surface confined peaks corresponding to the molecular transitions of leucoemeraldine-emeraldine and emeraldine-pernigraniline in pH 7 phosphate buffered ...
Chiavazza Enrico - - 2013
The synthesis, NMR properties and preliminary polarization tests on protonated and perdeuterated forms of α-trimethylglutamine (NMe3 Gln), α-trimethylglutamate (NMe3 Glu) and ε-trimethyllysine (NMe3 Lys) are reported. The (15) N-permethylated, perdeuterated amino acids display very long (15) N-T1 values, ranging between 190 and 330 s, are well polarized by the dynamic ...
Bøe Sigurd Leinæs - - 2013
Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a method for releasing macromolecules from endosomal and lysosomal compartments. The PCI approach uses a photosensitizer that localizes to endosomal and lysosomal compartments, and a light source with appropriate light spectra for excitation of the photosensitizer. Upon photosensitizer excitation, endosomal and lysosomal membranes are destroyed, due ...
Gilani Gilani Rubina - - 2013
In our present research we studied physiochemical properties and antimicrobial activity of T. ammi (Trachyuspermum ammi) seeds. The seeds yielded 2.86% essential oil. Refractive index, specific gravity, acid value, and easter values were 1.496, 0.9212, 1.12 and 2.80 respectively. GLC was used to determine the composition of oil. The major ...
Kim Eunkyung E Department of Culinary Science and Food Service Management, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, - - 2013
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial properties of the Korean traditional rice wine Makgeolli, supplemented with banana during 6 day fermentation. The alcohol contents of the control and banana Makgeolli were 17.0 and 16.5%, respectively. The pH values decreased while total acidity, total ...
Kim Ilgook - - 2014
In this study, nitric acid (HNO3) was evaluated as an acid catalyst for rice straw pretreatment, and, after neutralization, as a sole nitrogen source for subsequent fermentation. Response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal pretreatment condition with respect to HNO3 concentration (0.2-1.0%), temperature (120-160°C) and reaction time (1-20min). In ...
Liu Xinjun - - 2013
A 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-OG) probe bearing a methylene group introduced at the C4 position and a vinyl group to replace the carbonyl group at the C2 position elicited characteristic affinity for NtcA, the 2-OG receptor, while maintaining the signaling function of the parent natural metabolite 2-OG. This discovery opens new ...
Owen Nick A - - 2013
A system dynamics (SD) approach was taken to model crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression from measured biochemical and physiological constants. SD emphasizes state-dependent feedback interaction to describe the emergent properties of a complex system. These mechanisms maintain biological systems with homeostatic limits on a temporal basis. Previous empirical studies on ...
Han Sanghwa - - 2013
When oleic acid and oleate coexist in comparable amounts they form unilamellar vesicles called ufasomes in aqueous phase. Intrinsic pH sensitivity of ufasomes makes it an attractive vehicle for drug delivery. Physical properties of ufasomes have been studied by using spectroscopic techniques but an atomistic model for a ufasome has ...
Sun Ming - - 2013
The concerted proton tunneling frequency for the propiolic acid-formic acid dimer was calculated using a relaxed ab initio double-well potential in the imaginary-frequency mode of the saddle point, and new measurements were made for the deuterated propiolic acid-formic acid (ProOD-FAOD) isotopologue. It is important to have consistent calculated tunneling frequency ...
Fa Yun - - 2013
An improved method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates using one-valve switching after injection, ion chromatography, and integrated pulsed amperometric detection is proposed. The resolution of the amino acids and carbohydrates in the cation trap column was investigated. In addition, parameters including flow liquid type, ...
Keshk Sherif M A S - - 2014
Influence of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on bacterial cellulose (BC) production and crystal structure was studied using four strains of Gluconacetobacter xylinus (ATCC 10245, IFO 13693, 13772 and 13773). BC productivity of all strains was increased in presence of vitamin C (0.5% w/w), the average BC production reached 0.47g/30ml compared ...
Rydfjord Jonas - - 2013
A fast and convenient synthesis of aryl amidines starting from carboxylic acids and cyanamides is reported. The reaction was achieved by palladium(II)-catalysis in a one-step microwave protocol using [Pd(O2 CCF3 )2 ], 6-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), providing the corresponding aryl amidines in moderate to excellent yields. ...
Wang Yongze - - 2013
The d-lactic acid producing strain, Escherichia coli HBUT-D, was reengineered for l(+)-lactic acid fermentation by replacing the d-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with an l(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pedicoccus acidilactici, followed by adaptive evolution in sucrose. The resulting strain, WYZ-L, has enhanced expression of the sucrose operon (cscA and cscKB). ...
Jung Young Hoon - - 2013
The yield of ethanol from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) was increased on exploiting maleic acid pretreatment combined with fermentation of the pretreated whole slurry. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to expose EFB to a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short time duration ...
Jalan Amrit - - 2013
Reactions of the Criegee intermediate (CI, ˙CH2OO˙) are important in atmospheric ozonolysis models. In this work, we compute the rates for reactions between ˙CH2OO˙ and HCHO, CH3CHO and CH3COCH3 leading to the formation of secondary ozonides (SOZ) and organic acids. Relative to infinitely separated reactants, the SOZ in all three ...
Jung Won-Kyo - - 2014
Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared from a chitooligomer solution by heating at 80°C for different times. A time-dependent increase in UV absorbance, browning, and fluorescence was observed upon heating, indicating formation of MRPs with heating of the chitooligomer solution. The formation was also evidenced by Fourier transform infrared and ...
Yi Xin - - 2013
The effect of biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) on hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The results indicated that RL could greatly reduce the surface tension of sludge, resulting in stimulating the hydrolysis rate of WAS and enhancing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). With the increase ...
Rajendran Karthikeyan - - 2013
Bacillus badius isolated from soil has been identified as potential producer of penicillin G acylase (PGA). In the present study, batch experiments performed at optimized inoculum size, temperature, pH, and agitation yielded a maximum PGA of 9.5 U/ml in shake flask. The experiments conducted in bioreactor with different oxygen flow rates ...
Novak Halina R - - 2013
The recombinant L-haloacid dehalogenase from the marine bacterium Psychromonas ingrahamii has been cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. It shows activity towards monobromoacetic (100 %), monochloroacetic acid (62 %), S-chloropropionic acid (42 %), S-bromopropionic acid (31 %), dichloroacetic acid (28 %) and 2-chlorobutyric acid (10 %), respectively. The L-haloacid dehalogenase has highest activity towards substrates with ...
Yu Yanyan - - 2013
In this work, a facile electrochemical sensor based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene (PDDA-G) and graphite was fabricated. The composite electrode exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards uric acid (UA), owing to the electrocatalytic effect of graphene nanosheets and the electrostatic attractions between PDDA-G and UA. The anodic peak ...
Knob Radim - - 2013
A method for the determination of tartaric acid enantiomers using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection has been developed. Cu(II) as a central metal ion together with l-hydroxyproline were used as a chiral selector, the background electrolyte was composed of 7 mM CuCl2, 14 mM trans-4-hydroxy- l-proline, and 100 mM ...
Taheri Rod - - 2013
Polyphenols from underutilized black, purple, and red aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, prunifolia, and arbutifolia) and 'Viking' (A. mitschurinii) berries were characterized. Anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin flavonoids were quantitated by UHPLC-DAD-MS, and proanthocyanidins by normal-phase HPLC. On a dry weight basis, anthocyanins were mainly cyanidin-3-galactoside, highest in black aronia (3.4 to 14.8 mg/g) ...
Zhang Kan - - 2013
Morphology-controlled MoS2 nanosheets were successfully synthesized with the aid of graphene/acid coexistence by a one-pot hydrothermal method. The ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets were self-assembled into a cockscomb-like structure with an exposed (100) facet on graphene sheets, which is in strong contrast to large aggregate MoS2 plates grown freely on graphene sheets ...
Hafeez Farhaan - - 2013
Abstract Context: Occlusion is widely utilized to enhance the percutaneous penetration of applied drugs in clinical practice; however, occlusion does not increase the penetration of all chemicals. Objective: This study determines: (1) whether occlusion enhances the percutaneous penetration of the lipophilic salicylic acid or the hydrophilic formaldehyde when compared to ...
Rodríguez-Pazo Noelia - - 2013
Cheese whey hydrolyzates supplemented with phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) and commercial nutrients can be efficiently metabolized by Lactobacillus plantarum CECT-221 to biosynthesize some compounds with attractive applications in the food market. The main metabolites of cell-free extracts were antimicrobial compounds such as phenyllactic acid (PLA) and lactic acid (LA). The production ...
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