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Campenni' L - - 2012
Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source for high-value products. The specie Chlorella protothecoides (Cp), heterotrophically grown, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of lutein and fatty acids (FA) and has a good profile for biodiesel production. This work studies carotenoid and FA production by autotrophic grown ...
Huitrón Carlos - - 2012
Agave tequilana fructans are the source of fermentable sugars for the production of tequila. Fructans are processed by acid hydrolysis or by cooking in ovens at high temperature. Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered an alternative for the bioconversion of fructans. We previously described the isolation of Aspergillus niger CH-A-2010, an indigenous ...
Wang Buyun - - 2012
A pretreatment was developed to remove nitrogen from ramie residue and cotton stalk to eliminate potential nitrogen pollutants in biomass energy production. In the pretreatment, straw was treated with acid wastewater from bioleaching for 3h followed by Clostridium thermocellum incubation for 2h. Most nitrogen was removed from biomass waste and ...
Liu Weilu - - 2013
A novel composite film derived from cysteic acid and poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene (PDDA-GN) was employed as an enhanced electrode material for ultrasensitive determination of metronidazole. The cysteic acid/PDDA-GN composite film was prepared by the electrochemical grafting of cysteic acid onto the PDDA-GN coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The cyclic voltammetry ...
Rand Emily E Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, - - 2013
A biosensor based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is found to be effective for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the presence of excess ascorbic acid (AA). The CNF electrode outperforms the conventional glassy carbon ...
Barros Karina V - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: N-3 fatty acids (FA) may have benefits in ICU patients. The aims were to identify whether FA status is altered in critical illness and to evaluate the effect of supplemental intravenous n-3 FA on plasma FA status and clinical outcome in ICU patients receiving enteral nutrition. METHODS: Enterally ...
Wang Jiewei - - 2012
Phenol was investigated for the ability of TiO(2) photocatalysis to increase its bioavailability as an electron donor for denitrification. The rate of nitrate removal by denitrification was increased by up to 2.6-fold by exposing phenol to photocatalysis for 30 min, although the rate decreased with increasing photocatalysis. The increased denitrification rate ...
Ferrer Ana - - 2012
The influence of temperature (150-190°C), time (0-20min), liquid/solid ratio (6-8) and sulfuric acid concentration (0.1-0.5%), on the hydrolysis of palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) was studied and the liquid and solid fractions were analyzed. Polynomial models were found to reproduce the experimental results with errors less than 15% in most ...
Babich Lara - - 2012
Herein, we report a new flow process with immobilized enzymes to synthesize complex chiral carbohydrate analogues from achiral inexpensive building blocks in a three-step cascade reaction. The first reactor contained immobilized acid phosphatase, which phosphorylated dihydroxyacetone to dihydroxyacetone phosphate using pyrophosphate as the phosphate donor. The second flow reactor contained ...
Janůšová Barbora - - 2012
Transdermal permeation enhancers are compounds that temporarily decrease skin barrier properties to promote drug flux. In this study, we investigated enhancers with amino acids (proline, sarcosine, alanine, β-alanine, and glycine) attached to hydrophobic chain(s) via a biodegradable ester link. The double-chain lipid-like substances displayed no enhancing effect, whereas single-chain substances ...
Chen Chi-Hao - - 2012
In this work, we have developed a simple and reliable cobalt oxide (Co(3)O(4)) based amperometric sensor for the determination of NADH. A sheet shape Co(3)O(4) nanooxide was synthesized by the CTAB assisted hydrothermal technique and was characterized by SEM and XPS. Owing to the redox property of Co(3)O(4), the operating ...
El Kadib Abdelkrim - - 2012
The co-condensation of functional alkoxysilanes with tetraethoxysilane in the presence of a structure directing agent under sol-gel process chemistry is a common way to access functional organosilica with an ordered mesostructure. In this report, bulky silylated fatty acid methyl esters were used both as co-templating bio-molecules and functionalizing agents in ...
Liu Guangfei - - 2012
Geobacter metallireducens was found to be capable of decolorizing several azo dyes with different structures to various extents. Pyruvate, ethanol, acetate, propionate, and benzoate could support 66.3 ± 2.6-93.7 ± 2.1 % decolorization of 0.1 mM acid red 27 (AR27) in 40 h. The dependence of the specific decolorization rate on AR27 concentration (25 to 800 μM) followed ...
Ulziijargal Enkhjargal - - 2013
Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf ...
Liu Hai-Xia - - 2012
Tetrahexahedral Pt nanocrystals (THH Pt NCs), bound by high index facets, belong to an emerging class of nanomaterials that promise to bridge the gap between model and practical electrocatalysts. The atomically stepped surfaces of THH Pt NCs are extremely active for the electrooxidation of small organic molecules but they also ...
Anres Philippe - - 2012
The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanism taking place in field enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (FESI-Sweep-MEKC), with the utilization of two acidic high conductivity buffers (HCB), phosphoric acid or sodium phosphate buffer, in view of maximizing sensitivity enhancements. Using cationic model ...
Fan Xiangqun - - 2012
The Fenton-like degradation of nalidixic acid was studied in this work. The effects of Fe(3+) concentration and initial H(2)O(2) concentration were investigated. Increasing the initial H(2)O(2) concentration enhances the degradation and mineralization efficiency for nalidixic acid, while Fe(3+) shows an optimal concentration of 0.25 mM. A complete removal of nalidixic acid ...
Wang Mingchun - - 2013
The peduncles of Hovenia dulcis, containing abundant nutrients and having a taste like a combination of raisin, clove, cinnamon and sugar, have been consumed as fruits and used as traditional herbal medicine for a long time in China. Up to date, little information is available about the polysaccharides from peduncles ...
Choi Youngbo - - 2012
The development of solid acid catalysts that contain a high density of Brønsted acid sites with suitable acidity, as well as a long lifetime, is one of great challenges for the efficient dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. Herein, we report on a mesoporous siliconiobium phosphate (NbPSi-0.5) composite, which is a ...
Feng Gang - - 2012
The dimer of acrylic acid can exist in two forms, depending on the entgegen or zusammen orientations of the two allyl groups. The latter one (zusammen) has a permanent value of the μb dipole moment component, which allowed measuring its pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave (MW) spectrum. From the tunnelling ...
Park Jong Suk - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. Elevated serum uric acid levels, hypoadiponectinemia and arterial stiffness are strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the relationships among uric acid, adiponectin and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. STUDY DESIGN: 9555 subjects who had the routine ...
Roy Debleena - - 2012
In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented ...
Tsuzuki Wakako - - 2012
GC with a capillary column (60-100 m length) is widely used to measure trans fatty acids in dietary fats and biological tissues. Recently, we have occasionally observed that isothermal operation of an SP-2560 column at 180 degrees C results in incomplete separation of gondoic acid (11c-20:1) and one of the ...
Stephany Olivier - - 2012
Original mixed selectors were synthesized by coupling a single l-valine diamide moiety on permethylated β-cyclodextrin. The structures of the new selectors were designed to limit the interactions between the l-valine derivative and cyclodextrin by removing the amino acid moiety from the cyclodextrin cavity by means of an amide linkage on ...
Goertz Ole - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The breakdown of skin microcirculation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of chemical burns. Available data for alkali and acid injuries are rare. To determine the pathophysiological similarities and differences, two comparable in vivo acid and alkali burn models were developed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deep partial-thickness acid burns (32% ...
Ali Abbas - - 2012
In this study we evaluated the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using the K & Dbioassay module system. Saturated (C6:0 to C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acids (C11:1 to C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, and ...
Eissa Shimaa - - 2012
A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was ...
Yamaguchi Makoto - - 2012
Perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers have been extensively studied in particular for application to polymer electrolyte fuel cells as they show high proton conductivity at relatively low humidity. While vibrational spectroscopic methods have been successfully applied to investigate dissociation and hydration of their acid sites, the bands in the measured spectra ...
Kumar Santosh S Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. - - 2013
Bleeding is a significant morbidity associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A total of 200 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were randomized into 2 equal groups. Patients in ...
Wu Ke-Hua - - 2012
Aim:To describe the population pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil acid and to compare the extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid in 5 major ethnic groups (Han, Mongolian, Korean, Uygur, and Hui) of China.Methods:In a multi-center, open-label, single dose clinical trial, 49 healthy volunteers from the 5 ethnic groups received ...
do Nascimento Raphael Fonseca - - 2013
The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt(II)-phthalocyanine immobilized in a carbon paste electrode for citric acid oxidation under a diffusion-controlled electrochemical process was employed to develop a selective flow injection amperomettric analysis method. Under optimized conditions, rapid and reliable determinations of citric acid (65 samples per hour) were achieved for analyses of ...
Dolińska Barbara - - 2012
Together with vitamin C, zinc, selenium, manganese, and magnesium play a vital role in the preservation of organs scheduled for transplantation. In the present study, it is shown that addition of 1 mg/l of these elements influences the stability of 0.3 mM ascorbic acid solutions. The solution's stability was estimated using an ...
Salanti Anika - - 2012
The recalcitrance of lignocelluloses toward enzymatic hydrolysis necessitates pretreatments. Ionic liquid pretreatment with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([amin]Cl) was applied to risk husk and cellulose-containing fractions were recovered from the ionic liquid solutions by acidic, alkaline, and alkaline-acidic regeneration respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the recovered materials was carried out and results demonstrated ...
Liu Yaqing - - 2012
Supramolecular polymers from the bolaamphiphilic L-histidine (BolaHis) and benzene dicarboxylic acids (o-phthalic acid, OPA; isophthalic acid, IPA and terephthalic acid, TPA) were found to form hydrogels although neither of the single components could gel water. It was suggested that the hydrogen bond and ionic interactions among different imidazole and carboxylic ...
Koutsari Christina C Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, - - 2013
Accurate measures of plasma FA oxidation can improve our understanding of diseases characterized by impaired FA oxidation. We describe and compare the 24 h time-courses of FA oxidation using bolus injections of [1-(14)C]palmitate versus [9,10-(3)H]palmitate under postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking conditions. Fifty-one men and 95 premenopausal women participated in one ...
Lin Mingbao - - 2012
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is found in many plants that are used as medicinal substances in traditional Chinese medicine injectables (TCMIs). However, to date, there is controversy as to whether CGA is the major cause of TCMIs-related hypersensitivity administered intravenously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ...
Sirsalmath Kiran - - 2012
A group of Piloty's acid (N-hydroxybenzenesulfonamide) derivatives were synthesized and fully characterized in order to assess the rates and pH of HNO (azanone, nitroxyl) donation in aqueous media. The derivatives, with electron-withdrawing and -donating substituents include methyl, nitro, fluoro, tri-isopropyl, trifluoromethyl and methoxy groups. The most interesting modulation observed is ...
Haslam Richard P - - 2012
This article will focus on the modification of plant seed oils to enhance their nutritional composition. Such modifications will include C18 Δ6-desaturated fatty acids such as γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, as well as the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (often named ...
Dong Da-Wen - - 2012
Doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to polyethylenimine (PEI) in several synthetic ways and created PEI-succinic anhydride (SUC)-DOX, PEI-N-succinimidyl 3-maleimidopropionate (SMP)-DOX and PEI-3-maleimidopropionic acid hydrazide (MPH)-DOX conjugates using pH-insensitive linkage (amide bond) or pH-sensitive linkage (hydrazone bond). The effects of the conjugates on anticancer therapy against human breast cancer cells were investigated ...
Michelon Damien - - 2012
Reducing activity is a physiological property of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of technological importance. We developed a solid medium with tetrazolium dyes enabling weakly and strongly reducing LAB to be discriminated. It was used to quantify populations in a mixed culture (spreading method) and screen strains (spot method).
James Gabriel O - - 2012
This study investigated the changes in the fatty acid content and composition in the nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii starchless mutant, BAF-J5, grown at different temperatures. The optimal temperature for vegetative growth under nitrogen sufficient conditions was found to be 32°C. Shifting temperature from 25 to 32°C, in conjunction with nitrogen starvation, ...
Martín-Sómer Ana - - 2012
The gas-phase acidity of a series of amine-borane complexes has been investigated through the use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), with the application of the extended Cooks kinetic method, and high-level G4 ab initio calculations. The most significant finding is that typical nitrogen bases, such as aniline, react with BH(3) to ...
Hsu Hsin-Yun HY Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10672, - - 2012
Ascorbic acid occurs naturally in many wine-making fruits. The industry also uses ascorbic acid as an antioxidant and color stabilizer in the making of alcoholic beverages including white wine, wine cooler, alcopop, and fruit liqueur. However, the degradation of ascorbic acid itself may cause browning and the deterioration of color ...
Xiong Zhu - - 2013
Blends of entirely bio-sourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and starch, have been melt-compounded by lab-scale co-extruder with epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) as a reactive compatibilizer. The starch granules were grafted with the maleic anhydride (MA) to enhance its reactivity with ESO. The ready reactions between the epoxy groups on ESO, ...
Restaino Odile Francesca - - 2012
Chondroitin sulfate is a well-known bioactive molecule, widely used as an anti-osteoarthritis drug, that is nowadays mainly produced by animal tissue sources with unsafe extraction procedures. Recent studies have explored an integrated biotechnological-chemical strategy to obtain a chondroitin sulfate precursor from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide, demonstrating the influence of ...
Oh Hye Yun - - 2012
The improvement of bacterial tolerance to organic solvents is a main prerequisite for the microbial production of biofuels which are toxic to cells. For targeted genetic engineering of Escherichia coli to increase organic solvent tolerances (OSTs), we selected and investigated a total of 12 genes that participate in relevant mechanisms ...
Ober Courtney A - - 2012
Cocrystals of itraconazole, an antifungal drug with poor bioavailability, and succinic acid, a water-soluble dicarboxylic acid, were formed by gas antisolvent (GAS) cocrystallization using pressurized CO(2) to improve itraconazole dissolution. In this study, itraconazole and succinic acid were simultaneously dissolved in a liquid solvent, tetrahydrofuran, at ambient conditions. The solution ...
Patkar Rajesh N - - 2012
Fatty acids stored as triglycerides, an important source of cellular energy, are catabolized through β-oxidation pathways predicted to occur both in peroxisomes and mitochondria in filamentous fungi. Here, we characterize the function of Enoyl-CoA hydratase Ech1, a mitochondrial β-oxidation enzyme, in the model phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Ech1 was found to ...
Kuribayashi Hideaki - - 2012
Enterobacteria are known to deconjugate amino acid-conjugated bile acids in the intestine. Administration of ampicillin (ABPC; 3 days, 100mg/kg) decreased the expression of ileal farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) target genes, and increased the levels of total bile acids in the intestinal lumen. The primary tauro-conjugates of cholic acid (TCA) and ...
Harris William S - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Blood omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels have been associated with reduced risk for total mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), but their relationships with mortality in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between red blood cell (RBC) fatty ...
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