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Wang Li - - 2012
Phenolic acids exert beneficial health effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities and show systemic exposure after consumption of common fruits, vegetables, and beverages. However, knowledge regarding which components convey therapeutic benefits and the mechanism(s) by which they cross cell membranes is extremely limited. Therefore, we determined the inhibitory ...
Pichika Rama - - 2012
Arachidonic acid (AA) is found in high concentrations in brain phospholipids and is released as a second messenger during neurotransmission and much more so during neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. Upregulated brain AA metabolism associated with neuroinflammation has been imaged in rodents using [1-(14)C]AA and with PET in Alzheimer disease patients using ...
Pérez-Esteban Javier - - 2012
A one-step extraction procedure and a leaching column experiment were performed to assess the effects of citric and tartaric acids on Cu and Zn mobilization in naturally contaminated mine soils to facilitate assisted phytoextraction. A speciation modeling of the soil solution and the metal fractionation of soils were performed to ...
Deng Yi - - 2012
Comprehensive cerebral metabolites involved in morphine dependence have not been well explored. To gain a better understanding of morphine dependence and withdrawal therapy in a model highly related to humans, metabolic changes in brain hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rhesus monkeys were measured by (1) H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, ...
Sipos László - - 2012
The enantiomers of four unusual isoxazoline-fused 2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acids were directly separated on chiral stationary phases containing (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid as chiral selector. The nature of the alcoholic modifier (MeOH, EtOH, IPA) exerted a great effect on the retention, whereas the selectivity and resolution did not change substantially. Two types of dependence ...
Cai Wenyi - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) releasing films with a bilayer configuration are fabricated by doping dibutyhexyldiamine diazeniumdiolate (DBHD/N2O2) in a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) layer and further encapsulating this base layer with a silicone rubber top coating. By incorporating pH sensitive dyes within the films, pH changes in the PLGA layer are visualized ...
Okada Kaori - - 2012
We performed sensory evaluations on 141 bottles of sake and analyzed the relationship between the D: -amino acid concentrations, and the taste of the sake using principal component analysis, which yielded seven principal components (PC1-7) that explained 100 % of the total variance in the data. PC1, which explains 33.6 % of ...
Ramos Morales E - - 2012
Ricinoleic acid (RA; 12-hydroxy-cis-9-18:1) is the main fatty acid component of castor oil. Although a precursor for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) synthesis in lactic acid bacteria, RA was found previously not to form CLA in ruminal digesta but to have some inhibitory properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate ...
Sharma V - - 2012
We conducted a study to assess pharmacokinetics of high-dose tranexamic acid for 24 h after administration of the drug in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. High-dose tranexamic acid involved a bolus of 30 mg.kg(-1) infused over 15 min followed by a 16 mg.kg(-1) .h(-1) infusion until chest closure with a 2 mg.kg(-1) load ...
Tigre R C - - 2012
Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the ...
Singh Randhir - - 2012
Abstract It is well documented that stress-adapted microorganisms can develop cross-resistance to other unrelated stress. This study was designed to evaluate the thermal resistance of acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both fresh and finished dairy composts. A three-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7, either acid-adapted or non-adapted (control), was inoculated ...
Delgado-Pelayo Raul - - 2012
The carotenoid composition of sarsaparilla (Smilax aspera L.) berries has been analyzed for the first time. Lycopene was found to be the main carotenoid (242.44 μg/g fresh wt) in the pulp, followed by β-carotene (65.76 μg/g fresh wt) and β-cryptoxanthin (42.14 μg/g fresh wt; including the free and esterified forms). ...
Ochi Hiroshi - - 2012
Metabolic fingerprinting using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to generate a practical metabolomics-based tool for quality evaluation of natural cheese. Hydrophilic low molecular weight components, relating to sensory characteristics, including amino acids, fatty acids, amines, organic acids, and saccharides, were extracted and derivatized prior to the ...
Belcastro Vincenzo - - 2012
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing, nonprotein amino acid reversibly formed and secreted during metabolism of methionine. Elevated total Hcy levels (hyper-tHcy) have been associated with cardiovascular disease in multiple large-scale epidemiologic studies and, in particular, patients with epilepsy exhibit elevated plasma tHcy levels more frequently than the general population caused ...
Dutton Jessica - - 2012
The role of humicacids was investigated over a concentration range of 0 to 20 mg L(-1) in the uptake of three metals (Cd, Cr, and Hg-as both inorganic Hg [Hg(II)] and methylmercury [MeHg]) and a metalloid (As) from the aqueous phase by the killifish (Fundulusheteroclitus). Cadmium uptake showed no relationship with humic ...
Saugspier Michael - - 2012
Bitter acids (BAs) from the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. exhibit multiple beneficial biological properties with promising effects in cancer therapy and prevention, but information regarding the effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is missing. Here, we used two different hop bitter acid extracts enriched for either α-acids or β-acids to ...
Inoue Takuya - - 2012
Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal L-glutamate (L-Glu) and 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that ...
Egert Sarah - - 2012
We aimed to investigate the effects of increased intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, or DHA incorporated into a food matrix on the fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and on biomarkers of oxidant/antioxidant status. To this end, a controlled dietary study was conducted in 74 healthy men and women. The ...
Kaki Shiva Shanker - - 2012
The enzymatic conversion of mixtures of multiple substrates was studied quantitatively, based on established methodology used for the enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures, involving the use of competitive factors: ratios of specificity constants (k(cat) /K(M) ) of substrate pairs. The competitive factors of the substrates were defined in relation ...
Kraguljac Nina V - - 2012
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) allows the non-invasive measurement of several metabolites, including N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), an amino acid exclusively synthesized in the mitochondria of neurons, and glutamate, an amino acid involved in excitatory neurotransmission and metabolism. In view of recent postmortem studies in schizophrenia (SZ) revealing mitochondrial abnormalities as well ...
Aspenström-Fagerlund Bitte - - 2012
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux restricts intestinal absorption of substances like heterocyclic amines, mycotoxins and certain human and veterinary drugs. Fat rich meals seem to increase absorption of drugs which are BCRP substrates or inhibitors. We therefore hypothesize that absorption of toxicants normally effluxed by BCRP are increased by ...
Mildner-Szkudlarz Sylwia - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Grapes are one of the world's staple fruit crops, with about 80% of the yield being utilised for winemaking. Since grape by-products still contain large amounts of secondary metabolites, uses other than as fertilisers might be appropriate. In this study, white grape pomace (WGP) was incorporated in wheat flour ...
Usenik Valentina - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Plums are a rich source of nutritive and bioactive compounds. The objective was to evaluate the impact of fruit tissue (flesh and peel), ripening stage and cultivar on the composition of phytochemicals in plums (Prunus domestica L.) and to analyse the relation between total antioxidant activity (TAA) and the ...
Rodríguez-Arteche Iñigo - - 2012
The complex dielectric permittivity of eight different amino acids in water solutions was determined in the frequency range from 0.2 to 20 GHz at room temperature, trying to span the whole range of solubility in each case. Two relaxations were observed at room temperature in this frequency range, which can ...
Drzewicz Przemysław - - 2012
Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands in Alberta, Canada. The degradation of a model naphthenic acid, cyclohexanoic acid (CHA), and real naphthenic acids (NAs) from OSPW were investigated in the presence of peroxydisulfate (S2O82-) and zero valent iron ...
Groen Joost - - 2012
Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and ...
Wu Xiaoyu - - 2012
One-pot preparation of methyl levulinate (MLA) from cellulose in near-critical methanol was studied. Acids containing SO(3)H group were proven to be effective catalysts for the production of MLA from cellulose's catalytic alcoholysis. The effects of different reaction conditions, such as an initial cellulose concentration of 10-30g/L, a temperature range from ...
Denk Gerald Ulrich - - 2012
PURPOSE: β-muricholic acid (βMCA) is a trihydroxylated bile acid that constitutes the major bile acid in rat and mouse. βMCA is more hydrophilic than ursodeoxycholic acid and has been evaluated for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Since it is unknown if βMCA has beneficial effects on hepatocyte cell death we determined ...
Liu Dong - - 2012
Exogenous addition of a low concentration of acetate (2 g/L sodium acetate) effectively decreased acetic acid excretion and lowered the ATP content in Sporolactobacillus sp. Y2-8 without any growth defect although the acetate could not be utilized at an initial glucose concentration of 150 g/L. This induced an enhanced glycolytic flux with ...
Llano Tamara - - 2012
Spent Sulphite Liquor is a lignocellulosic residue obtained in the acid sulphite pulping process after the digestion of hardwood chips, and composed mainly by lignosulphonates and hemicelluloses. The aim of this work is to study the main process variables at different digestion conditions: maximum temperature, heating rate, and total SO(2) ...
Kandil Amin - - 2012
The presence of phenolic acids in cereal grain is thought to influence starch hydrolysis during liquefaction and saccharification of grain flours in bioethanol industry. As a basis for remodeling starch hydrolysis systems and for understanding inhibition mechanisms, the composition and concentration of phenolic acids in whole grain flours of triticale, ...
Fröhlich Janaina Kieling - - 2012
Jatropha isabellei Müll Arg. belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The antioxidant capacity of this plant was evaluated by the DPPH method and inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the best antioxidant capacity against the DPPH free radical and its profile was similar to ascorbic acid. ...
Kadu Caroline A C - - 2012
Prunus africana - an evergreen tree found in Afromontane forests - is used in traditional medicine to cure benign prostate hyperplasia. Different bioactive constituents derived from bark extracts from 20 tree populations sampled throughout the species' natural range in Africa were studied by means of GC-MSD. The average concentration [mg/kgw/w] ...
Pudlik Agata M - - 2012
Oxaloacetate is an intermediate of the citrate fermentation pathway that accumulates in the cytoplasm of Lactococcus lactis ILCitM(pFL3) at a high concentration due to the inactivation of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. An excess of toxic oxaloacetate is excreted into the medium in exchange for citrate by the citrate transporter CitP (A. M. ...
Blanch Maria - - 2012
This paper deals with the impact of low temperature and high CO2 levels on flavonols, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, synthesized via branched pathways from common precursors, in strawberries (Fragaria vesca L.). Flavonoids were identified with Q-TOF equipment and quantified by HPLC-quadrupole. Proantocyanin B1 and B3 accumulated in CO2-treated strawberries, whereas in ...
Musthafa Khadar Syed - - 2012
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) autoinducer known as acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) acts as a key regulator in the expression of pathogenic characters. In this work, the efficiency of phenylacetic acid (PAA) in reducing the production of AHL-dependent factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1 was studied. PAA at a concentration ...
Du Yinfeng - - 2012
pH-sensitive degradable chimaeric polymersomes were developed based on asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2,4,6-trimethoxybenzylidene-1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane methacrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-PTTMA-PAA) triblock copolymers for active loading as well as triggered intracellular release of hydrophilic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl). PEG-PTTMA-PAA copolymers were readily prepared with M(n PAA) ranging from 1.5, 2.1 to 2.7 kg/mol by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer ...
Um Byung-Hwan - - 2012
The concept of reaction severity, which combines residence time and temperature, is often used in the pulp and paper and biorefining industries. The influence of corn stover pretreatment severity on yield of sugar and major degradation products and subsequent effects on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The pretreatment residence time ...
Angelova Petya - - 2012
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on erythrocyte membrane (EM) lipid composition and physico-chemical properties in hypogonadal men. Methods: EM isolated from three patients before and after TRT with injectable testosterone undecanoate or testosterone gel were used for analysis of ...
Boroujerdi Arezue F B - - 2012
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to obtain metabolic profiles of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, leading to the identification of a novel metabolite in this organism. Initial results from an ongoing metabolomics study have led to the discovery of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, CAS: 107-36-8) as a ...
Plattner Sabine - - 2012
Electrospray ionization (ESI) involves the dispersion of a liquid containing analytes of interest into a fine aerosol by applying a high potential difference to the sample solution with respect to a counter electrode. Thus, from the electrochemical point of view, the ESI source represents a two-electrode controlled-current electrochemical flow cell. ...
Kim Joon-Woo - - 2012
There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including ...
Harwati Theresia Umi - - 2012
A green microalgae strain, Chlorococcum sp. was obtained from tropical freshwater in Indonesia. The effects of pH on growth, effects of salt, carbon dioxide level, nitrate, acetate, and photoperiod on biomass and lipid production were studied. The fatty acids composition was also investigated. This study shows that the strain had ...
Sullivan Michael L - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In red clover, oxidation of endogenous o-diphenols by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inhibits post-harvest proteolyis. This system is transferable to alfalfa by providing PPO (via a transgene) and o-diphenol PPO substrates (via exogenous application). To exploit the PPO system for protein protection, it would be advantageous to produce PPO substrates ...
Jia Liguo - - 2012
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are the main products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in seeds, but their biological function during seed germination is still unclear. We observed that seed germination is delayed with the increase of exogenous PA concentration in Arabidopsis. A similar inhibitory effect occurred in peeled Brassica napus seeds, which ...
Caseiro Alexandre - - 2012
The particulate emissions from biomass burning are a growing concern due to the recent evidence of their ubiquitous and important contribution to the ambient aerosol load. A possible strategy to apportion the biomass burning share of particulate matter is the use of organic molecular tracers. Anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), ...
Zhao Zhen - - 2012
The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009-2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the ...
Vaidyanathan Vidya - - 2012
The goal of this study was to determine whether administration of the CB₁ cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant would alter fatty acid flux in nonhuman primates. Five adult baboons (Papio Sp) aged 12.1 ± 4.7 yr (body weight: 31.9 ± 2.1 kg) underwent repeated metabolic tests to determine fatty acid and ...
Garst Andrew D AD Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, 596 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0596, - - 2012
A prevalent means of regulating gene expression in bacteria is by riboswitches found within mRNA leader sequences. Like protein repressors, these RNA elements must bind an effector molecule with high specificity against a background of other cellular metabolites of similar chemical structure to elicit the appropriate regulatory response. Current crystal ...
Abouzarzadeh Atefeh - - 2012
For the first time in this work, uniform molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles were prepared using nalidixic acid as a template. The MIP nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by precipitation polymerization applying methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as a cross-linking monomer at different mole ratios. ...
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