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Dalpiaz Alessandro - - 2014
Our previous results demonstrated that a prodrug obtained by the conjugation of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents a potential carrier for AZT in the central nervous system, thus possibly increasing AZT efficiency as anti-HIV drug. Based on these results and in order to enhance AZT ...
Nasu Makoto M Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2014
Various mutations have occurred during evolution among orthologues, genes in different species that diverged from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Here we report the remarkable deterioration of a characteristic mammalian maternal behaviour, pup retrieval, in non-mammalised mice, in which the transcription factor Pou3f2 was replaced with the Xenopus orthologue ...
Schnaar Ronald L - - 2014
Every cell in nature carries a rich surface coat of glycans, its glycocalyx, which constitutes the cell's interface with its environment. In eukaryotes, the glycocalyx is composed of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans, the compositions of which vary among different tissues and cell types. Many of the linear and branched glycans ...
Kinawy Amal A AA Biology Department, College of Science, Dammam University, Postal Code 31113, P.O. Box 838, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study was designed to investigate the impact of exposure to the vapours of two kinds of gasoline, a widely used fuel for the internal combustion engines on the levels of the amino acid neurotransmitters of the rat brain. Recent studies provide strong evidence for a causative role for traffic-related ...
Burkhart C S CS Department for Anesthesia, Surgical Intensive Care, Prehospital Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, - - 2014
Data regarding immunomodulatory effects of parenteral n-3 fatty acids in sepsis are conflicting. In this study, the effect of administration of parenteral n-3 fatty acids on markers of brain injury, incidence of sepsis-associated delirium, and inflammatory mediators in septic patients was investigated. Fifty patients with sepsis were randomized to receive ...
Wölfer Johannes J Klinik für Neurochirurgie am Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Münster, - - 2014
The significance of electrophysiological phenomena is well validated in brain ischemia research. A close link with interstitial amino acid levels has not been proved convincingly but is generally assumed. This has given widespread rise to the clinical method of amino acid, especially glutamate, microdialysis. We combined microdialytic and electrophysiological techniques ...
Dahlberg Daniel D Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, 0027 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
Brain abscesses often cause symptoms of brain dysfunction, including seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission. We determined the concentration of extracellular neuroactive amino acids in brain abscesses from 16 human patients. Glutamate was present at 3.6mmol/L (median value, range 0.5-10.8), aspartate at 1.0mmol/L (range 0.09-6.8). For comparison, in cerebroventricular fluid ...
Benn Kiesha K 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, - - 2014
The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA) are essential nervous system components that increase in concentration throughout gestation. The neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) are small basic peptides crucial ...
Gim Sang-A SA Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, - - 2014
Ferulic acid is known to act as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant activity. γ-Enolase is a neuron-specific enolase that also exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we investigated whether ferulic acid regulates the expression level of γ-enolase in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury and glutamate ...
Siller Michal M Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, United - - 2014
Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2U1 has been shown to be expressed, at the mRNA level, in human thymus, brain, and several other tissues. Recombinant P450 2U1 was purified and used as a reagent in a metabolomic search for substrates in bovine brain. In addition to fatty acid oxidation reactions, an oxidation ...
Lin Wei-Cheng WC Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology at CYCU, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, - - 2014
In this study, detection of twenty fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) derivatized-amino acids using a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence method (MEEKC-LIF) was demonstrated. In order to achieve good separation for hydrophobic amino acids, the MEEKC method was employed and obtained detection limits in the range of 0.32-2.2 nM, which is comparable to previous ...
Sugasini Dhavamani - - 2014
Long chain n-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for the normal functioning of the brain. The vegetarian sections of the population get only alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) through their diet as a source of n-3 fatty acids. Hence, in this group of the population, the ALAs need ...
Ferreres Federico F Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus University Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
The phenolic composition of herbal tea (HT) and hydromethanolic extract (HME) obtained from Grindelia robusta Nutt. was studied by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Thirty six flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected, from which thirty are described for the first time in this species. Quantification by HPLC-DAD showed that diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide-3'-O-pentoside+apigenin-7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-pentoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide+diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid+3,4-dicaffeoylquinic ...
Innis Sheila M SM Nutrition and Metabolism Research Program, Child and Family Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, - - 2014
Maternal nutrition has little or no effect on many nutrients in human milk; for others, human milk may not be designed as a primary nutritional source for the infant; and for a few, maternal nutrition can lead to substantial variations in human milk quality. Human milk fatty acids are among ...
Grayson David S DS Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, California 95616, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Casey Eye Institute, and Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, and Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon - - 2014
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys ...
Zhang Meijuan M State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China, Department of Neurology and Center of Cerebrovascular Disease Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, Department of Neurology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282, Department of Neurology and Key Laboratory of Cerebral Microcirculation, University of Shandong, Affiliated Hospital of Taishan Medical College, Taian, Shandong 271000, China, and Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - - 2014
Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) ...
Sarkar Chaitali C Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799 022, West Tripura, - - 2014
Beneficial effects of oleanolic acid on fluoride-induced oxidative stress and certain metabolic dysfunctions were studied in four regions of rat brain. Male Wistar rats were treated with sodium fluoride at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w./day (orally) for 30 days. Results indicate marked reduction in acidic, basic and neutral protein ...
Pottala James V JV From the Department of Internal Medicine (J.V.P., W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls; Health Diagnostic Laboratory Inc. (J.V.P., W.S.H.), Richmond, VA; Department of Psychiatry (K.Y.), University of California Medical Center, San Francisco; Departments of Epidemiology and Internal Medicine (J.R., R.W.), University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City; Department of Biostatistical Services (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; and OmegaQuant Analytics (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, - - 2014
To test whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids measured in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study were related to MRI brain volumes measured 8 years later. RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the ...
Abdel-Salam Omar M E OM 1 Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre , Cairo, - - 2014
Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given ...
Rathod Richa R Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune 411043, - - 2014
Introduction: The consequences of wide spread vegetarianism due to low vitamin B12 on brain development and functioning is gaining importance. However, there are no studies which have evaluated exclusively vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy on brain growth. A series of our animal studies have documented adverse effects of maternal micronutrient ...
Ruffin Vernon A VA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University OH, - - 2014
Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal ...
Kaczocha Martin M Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of - - 2014
The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, ...
Chowdhury Vishwajit S VS Division for Arts and Science, Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2013
High ambient temperatures (HT) reduce food intake and body weight in young chickens, and HT can cause increased expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. The mechanisms by which HT act, and the effects of HT on cellular homeostasis in the brain, are however not well understood. In the current study lipid peroxidation ...
Wu Kai K The State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, - - 2013
Shunaoxin pills, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) product, have been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China since 2005. The main active components of Shunaoxin pills are ferulic acid and ligustilide from Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, Umbelliferae) and Danggui (Angelica sinensis radix, Umbelliferae). As Shunaoxin shows excellent activity in the ...
Eto Miki M Department of Lipid Signaling, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2013
Glycerophospholipids are important components of cellular membranes, required for constructing structural barriers, and for providing precursors of bioactive lipid mediators. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) are enzymes known to function in the de novo glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathway (Kennedy pathway), using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acyl-CoA to form phosphatidic acid (PA). Until ...
Pinto Mauro Cunha Xavier - - 2013
The analysis of amino acid levels is crucial for neuroscience studies because of the roles of these molecules as neurotransmitters and their influence on behavior. The present study describes the distribution and levels of 16 amino acids (alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, ...
Sacchi Silvia - - 2013
Over the years, accumulating evidence has indicated that D-serine represents the main endogenous ligand of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors. In the brain, the concentration of D-serine stored in cells is defined by the activity of two enzymes: serine racemase (responsible for both the synthesis and degradation) and D-amino acid oxidase (which ...
Oliveira Adriano H AH Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, - - 2013
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained ...
Bauer Isabelle - - 2013
While the cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and mood benefits of omega-3 supplementation containing long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are manifest, there is no scientific consensus regarding their effects on neurocognitive functioning. This review aimed to examine the current literature on LCPUFAs by assessing ...
Vallerini Gian Paolo - - 2013
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase (3-HAO) is the enzyme responsible for the production of the neurotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN). Elevated brain levels of QUIN are observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, but pharmacological investigation on its role in the pathogenesis of these conditions is difficult, since only one class of substrate-analog ...
Freund Levi Y Y Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, - - 2013
Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 ...
Sable Pratiksha - - 2013
Studies have established the association of maternal nutrition and increased risk for non-communicable diseases. It has been suggested that this involves epigenetic modifications in the genome. However, the role of maternal micronutrients in the one-carbon cycle in influencing brain development of the offspring through methylation is unexplored. It is also ...
Ta Nathan L - - 2013
Cardiolipin is a complex polyglycerol phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and regulates numerous enzyme activities especially those related to oxidative phosphorylation and coupled respiration. Abnormalities in cardiolipin can impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. We recently demonstrated that the ratio of shorter chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty ...
Sugiki Toshihiko - - 2013
Amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins, which consist of 42 amino acids (Aβ1–42), are the major constituent of neuritic plaques that form in the brains of senile patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several reports state that three aspartic acid (Asp) residues at positions 1, 7, and 23 in Aβ1–42 in the plaques of ...
Sitta Angela - - 2013
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to the accumulation of branched-chain keto acids and their corresponding branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients. Treatment involves protein-restricted diet and the supplementation with a specific formula containing essential ...
Fukuda K - - 2013
To pose a new hypothesis of schizophrenia that affirms and unifies conventional hypotheses. Outside the brain, there are 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells that have tryptophan hydroxylase 1 without l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Monoamine oxidase in the liver and lung metabolize 5-HT, rather than 5-HTP, and 5-HTP freely crosses the blood-brain barrier, ...
Du Jianhai - - 2013
Transport of pyruvate into mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is crucial for complete oxidation of glucose and for biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids. Zaprinast is a well-known phosphodiesterase inhibitor and lead compound for Sildenafil. We found Zaprinast alters the metabolomic profile of mitochondrial intermediates and amino acids in ...
Sancheti J S JS Departments of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Insitute of Chemical Technology, N. P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai-400 019, - - 2013
A new robust, simple and economic high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid in brain homogenate. The high performance thin layer chromatographic separation of these amino acid was achieved using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (22:3:5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and ...
Sugiki Toshihiko T Laboratory of physical chemistry, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Musashino University, - - 2013
Amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins, which consist of 42 amino acids (Aβ1-42), are the major constituent of neuritic plaques that form in the brains of senile patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports state that three aspartic acid (Asp) residues at positions 1, 7, and 23 in Aβ1-42 in the plaques of ...
Kalani Anuradha - - 2013
Epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition (nutrition epigenetics) are important in understanding human health. Nutritional supplements, for example folic acid, a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism, regulate epigenetic alterations and may play an important role in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. Folic acid also ameliorates hyperhomocysteinemia, which is a consequence of elevated levels ...
Cipriano Mariateresa - - 2013
Inhibitors of the metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) reduce the gastric damage produced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and synergise with them in experimental pain models. This motivates the design of compounds with joint FAAH/cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity. Here we present data on ...
Mishra Navin - - 2013
Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase directed antibodies are a rare cause of autoimmune limbic encephalitis that is relatively resistant to immunotherapy. Here we report a 15-year-old boy with nonparaneoplastic, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase limbic encephalitis presenting with subacute headache, memory disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. At onset, his memory disturbance manifested as transient ...
Desikan Rahul S - - 2013
Epidemiological and molecular findings suggest a relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dyslipidemia, although the nature of this association is not well understood. Using linear mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between CSF levels of heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), a lipid binding protein involved with fatty acid ...
Meredith M Elizabeth - - 2013
Scope: Ascorbic acid (ascorbate) is required to recycle tetrahydrobiopterin, which is necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis by the rate-limiting enzymes tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases. We sought to determine whether ascorbate might regulate embryonic brain cortex monoamine synthesis utilizing transgenic mouse models with varying intracellular ascorbate levels. Methods and Results: In embryos ...
Peura Lauri - - 2013
Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their prodrug properties ...
Iaccarino Hannah F - - 2013
Kynurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite that is synthesized and released in the brain by astrocytes and acts as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors, both of which are critically involved in cognition as well as neural plasticity and brain development. The concentration of kynurenic acid ...
Kim Sun Hee - - 2013
The cDNA coding for a polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase (McELOVL5) was isolated from the brain of the pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) being based on available sequences in 23 types of fish. Four sequence variants were identified with different amino acid substitutions as compared with two clones of McELOVL5 gene (McELOVL5 ...
Brose Stephen A - - 2013
Previously, we, and others, have demonstrated a rapid and significant post-mortem increase in brain prostanoid (PG) levels analyzed without microwave fixation, and this is not the result of PG trapping or destruction in microwave-irradiated brain tissue. In the present study, we demonstrate a dramatic increase in kidney eicosanoid levels when ...
Liu Rutao - - 2013
Many brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, are associated with genetic abnormalities. The search for more effective therapeutic approaches involving nucleic acids like interfering RNA, antisense oligonucleotides and mRNA has drawn much attention in the development of alternatives to virus-based gene therapy. Potentially, nucleic acids could not only specifically down-regulate and ...
Kong Kin Weng - - 2014
The polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots (leaves and stems) were explored. Two methods, freeze drying and air drying, for preparation of the shoots, were also compared. Freeze drying was better as air drying caused 5-41% reduction of polyphenols. Three phenolic acids and ...
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