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Martin Scott - - 2014
Fenclozic acid (MyalexTM) was developed by ICI pharmaceuticals in the 1960s for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and was a promising compound with a good preclinical safety profile and efficacy. Whilst it did not show adverse hepatic effects in preclinical animal tests or initial studies in man[1, 2] it was ...
Omura Kaoru K Department of Chemistry, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajousui, Setagaya, Tokyo, 156-8550, - - 2014
We report an improved synthesis of the (22R)- and (22S)-epimers of 3α,7α,12α,22-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid and 3α,7α,22-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid from cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), respectively. The principal reactions involved were as follows: (1) oxidative decarboxylation of the bile acid peracetates with lead tetraacetate, and (2) subsequent Reformatsky reaction of the ...
Shah Sayali S School of Chemistry and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. - - 2014
cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. ...
Burnett Christina C Cosmetic Ingredient Review Scientific Analyst/Writer, Washington, DC, - - 2014
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the ...
Gómez Inmaculada I E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, Univ. Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, Pamplona, 31006, - - 2014
The effects of raising the omega-3 fatty acid (FA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), or omega-3 FA plus CLA levels on beef by means of dietary supplementation and of adding grape seed extract (250 mg/kg meat product) in beef patties stored at 2 ± 1 °C in aerobic packaging under simulated ...
Kiep L L Private Laboratory, Brunow, - - 2014
Metabolism studies with selected test substances have shown that a model on the basis of the incubated hen's egg is suitable as a supplement to animal experimentation. Because of its 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl structure veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid), a known human metabolite of mebeverine, was chosen as model substance for the present ...
Pérez-Juan María M IRTA-Monells, Finca Camps i Armet, 17121, Monells, Girona, - - 2014
The effect of different animal diets supplemented with linseed (source of omega-3 fatty acids: n-3) and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CON: control, LIN: 10% linseed, CLA: 2% conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: 10% linseed plus 2% CLA) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d was assessed in 3 ...
Yehuda Shlomo S Psychopharmacology Lab, Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, 52900, Ramat Gan, Israel, - - 2014
Our previous study demonstrated that an olfactory bulbectomy in rats induced short-term, multifaceted, devastating Alzheimer's-like effects, which included cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, hyperthermia, and increased levels of homocysteine and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17A. In addition, the rats exhibited an increase in the hyperphosphorylation of brain Tau proteins and in the number ...
Nguyen Nga T NT Centre for Small Molecule Energy, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan. - - 2014
We report the decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide, catalysed by a NiRu complex originally developed as a [NiFe]hydrogenase model. This is the first example of H2 evolution, catalysed by a [NiFe]hydrogenase model, which does not require additional energy.
Lu Zhaoguang Z State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, PR - - 2014
A goldfish (Carassius auratus) model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was constructed by a single dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) according to previously reported methods. Global metabolite changes in brain of the MPTP induced goldfish model of PD were investigated. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics combined with various statistical methods such as orthogonal partial ...
Hieu Tran Trung TT Department of Plant Biotechnology and Biotransformation, Faculty of Biology, Ho Chi Minh City University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, - - 2014
An assessment was made of the repellency to female stable flies of tamanu nut oil fatty acids or their esters alone (each 0.5 mg cm(-2) ) or in combination with cuminyl alcohol, cuminaldehyde and α-phellandrene (each 0.25 mg cm(-2) ) using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with ...
Jelińska Małgorzata M Department of Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Laboratory Medicine Division, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is thought to exert anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory and weight loss effects. The impact on eicosanoid biosynthesis may be one of the mechanisms of its action. The aim of this study was establish whether CLA mixture supplemented daily after administration of carcinogen (7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, DMBA) influenced the ...
Han Jin J a College of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University , Hangzhou 310053 , - - 2014
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ligustrazine on levels of amino acid transmitters in the extracellular fluid of striatum following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A microdialysis cannula guide was implanted into the right striatum. After recovery, animals underwent a sham operation or middle cerebral artery ...
Burnett Christina L CL Cosmetic Ingredient Review Scientific Analyst/Writer, Washington, DC, - - 2014
PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant ...
Pélerin Hélène H INRA, Nutrition et Régulation Lipidique des Fonctions Cérébrales, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Specific mechanisms for maintaining docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in brain cells but also transporting DHA from the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are not agreed upon. Our main objective was therefore to evaluate the level of gene expression of fatty acid transport and fatty acid binding proteins in the ...
Modi Hiren R HR Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2014
Valproic acid (VPA), a mood stabilizer used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), uncompetitively inhibits acylation of arachidonic acid (AA) by recombinant AA-selective acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (Acsl4) at an enzyme inhibition constant (Ki ) of 25 mM. Inhibition may account for VPA's ability to reduce AA turnover in brain phospholipids of unanesthetized ...
Sonnewald Ursula U Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, - - 2014
The central process in energy production is the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to CO2 by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle. However, this cycle functions also as a biosynthetic pathway from which intermediates leave to be converted primarily to glutamate, GABA, glutamine and aspartate and to a smaller extent ...
Yavin Ephraim E National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism(1) NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 IL. Electronic address: - - 2014
Accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the fetal brain is accomplished predominantly via a highly selective flow of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, AA) through the placenta. Little is known regarding the endogenous capability of the fetus to generate its own DHA and AA from lower ...
Jakó Tamás T Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University, - - 2014
Chiral capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for quantitative determination of D-amino acid modulators of NMDA glutamate receptor; D-serine and D-aspartate along with L-glutamate and L-aspartate in biological samples. These ligands are suggested to be involved in regulation of NMDA receptor related brain functions, such as neurogenesis, neuronal plasticity and ...
Wei R R Department of Aquaculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46# Xinkang Road, Yaan, - - 2014
In this study, the full-length neuropeptide Y (npy) complementary (c)DNA was cloned in ya fish Schizothorax prenanti. npy cDNA was composed of 789 nucleotides with a 288 nucleotide open reading frame encoding a protein of 96 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences contained a 28 amino acids signal peptide ...
Tonin Anelise Miotti AM Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital and Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, - - 2014
Long-chain 3-hydroxylated fatty acids (LCHFA) accumulate in long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiencies. Affected patients usually present severe neonatal symptoms involving cardiac and hepatic functions, although long-term neurological abnormalities are also commonly observed. Since the underlying mechanisms of brain damage are practically unknown and have not ...
Nordmann Caroline C Institut für Neurobiochemie, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120, Magdeburg, - - 2014
Ca(2+) -independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2 ) is hypothesized to control mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Here, we modulated the influence of iPLA2 -induced liberation of non-esterified free fatty acids (FFA) on ROS generation associated with the electron transport chain (ETC). We demonstrate enzymatic activity of membrane-associated iPLA2 in rat ...
Chen Chuck T CT Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Fitzgerald Building, 150 College St. Room 306, Ontario, Toronto, M5S 3E2 - - 2014
The brain has a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, with high levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are several orders of magnitude lower. As evidence accumulated that fatty acid entry into the brain was not selective and, in fact, that DHA and EPA ...
Zhao Yi Y Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting of Education Ministry, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR - - 2014
A novel brain targeting l-ascorbic acid derivatives with "lock-in" function were designed and synthesized as prodrugs to achieve the effective delivery of ibuprofen to brain by glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na(+)-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2. Ibuprofen-loaded four prodrugs were tested in the animals. Results from the in vivo distribution ...
Xiong Hui H College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, P. R. - - 2014
Ten new triterpene saponins (1-10) have been isolated from the stems of Entada phaseoloides. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Among these compounds, the aglycons of 6-10 are being reported for the first time, in this study, including 3β,15α,16α-trihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy olean-28,13β-olide (6), 3β,15α,16α-trihydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acids (7 and 8), ...
Nguyen Long N LN Signature Research Program in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, 8 College Road, 169857 - - 2014
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for normal brain growth and cognitive function. Consistent with its importance in the brain, DHA is highly enriched in brain phospholipids. Despite being an abundant fatty acid in brain phospholipids, DHA cannot be de novo synthesized in brain and ...
Vogel Kara R - - 2014
Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) mice entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in ...
Barrett Erin Cernkovich EC DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, - - 2014
Sports-related concussions or mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are becoming increasingly recognized as a major public health concern; however, no effective therapy for these injuries is currently available. ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have important structural and functional roles in the brain, with established clinical benefits ...
Abega Destaing F - - 2014
A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and ...
Wang Jiayin J Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, - - 2014
Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of ...
Nishinaka Takashi T Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, - - 2014
The functional role of brain G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) remains unclear. We investigated GPR40 signaling in depression-related behavior in mice via the forced swim test. A repeated but not a single intracerebroventricular administration of the GPR40 agonist, GW9508, reduced the duration of immobility behavior. Moreover, the levels of hippocampal ...
Ding Xue Feng - - 2014
In vivo electroporation is one of the most efficient methods for introducing the nucleic acids into the target tissues, and thus plays a pivotal role in gene therapeutic studies. In vivo electroporation in rodent brains often involves in injection of nucleic acids into the brain ventricle or specific area and ...
Dalpiaz Alessandro - - 2014
Our previous results demonstrated that a prodrug obtained by the conjugation of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents a potential carrier for AZT in the central nervous system, thus possibly increasing AZT efficiency as anti-HIV drug. Based on these results and in order to enhance AZT ...
Nasu Makoto M Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2014
Various mutations have occurred during evolution among orthologues, genes in different species that diverged from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Here we report the remarkable deterioration of a characteristic mammalian maternal behaviour, pup retrieval, in non-mammalised mice, in which the transcription factor Pou3f2 was replaced with the Xenopus orthologue ...
Schnaar Ronald L - - 2014
Every cell in nature carries a rich surface coat of glycans, its glycocalyx, which constitutes the cell's interface with its environment. In eukaryotes, the glycocalyx is composed of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans, the compositions of which vary among different tissues and cell types. Many of the linear and branched glycans ...
Kinawy Amal A AA Biology Department, College of Science, Dammam University, Postal Code 31113, P.O. Box 838, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study was designed to investigate the impact of exposure to the vapours of two kinds of gasoline, a widely used fuel for the internal combustion engines on the levels of the amino acid neurotransmitters of the rat brain. Recent studies provide strong evidence for a causative role for traffic-related ...
Burkhart C S CS Department for Anesthesia, Surgical Intensive Care, Prehospital Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, - - 2014
Data regarding immunomodulatory effects of parenteral n-3 fatty acids in sepsis are conflicting. In this study, the effect of administration of parenteral n-3 fatty acids on markers of brain injury, incidence of sepsis-associated delirium, and inflammatory mediators in septic patients was investigated. Fifty patients with sepsis were randomized to receive ...
Wölfer Johannes J Klinik für Neurochirurgie am Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Münster, - - 2014
The significance of electrophysiological phenomena is well validated in brain ischemia research. A close link with interstitial amino acid levels has not been proved convincingly but is generally assumed. This has given widespread rise to the clinical method of amino acid, especially glutamate, microdialysis. We combined microdialytic and electrophysiological techniques ...
Dahlberg Daniel D Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, 0027 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
Brain abscesses often cause symptoms of brain dysfunction, including seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission. We determined the concentration of extracellular neuroactive amino acids in brain abscesses from 16 human patients. Glutamate was present at 3.6mmol/L (median value, range 0.5-10.8), aspartate at 1.0mmol/L (range 0.09-6.8). For comparison, in cerebroventricular fluid ...
Benn Kiesha K 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, - - 2014
The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA) are essential nervous system components that increase in concentration throughout gestation. The neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) are small basic peptides crucial ...
Gim Sang-A SA Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, - - 2014
Ferulic acid is known to act as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant activity. γ-Enolase is a neuron-specific enolase that also exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we investigated whether ferulic acid regulates the expression level of γ-enolase in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury and glutamate ...
Siller Michal M Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, United - - 2014
Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2U1 has been shown to be expressed, at the mRNA level, in human thymus, brain, and several other tissues. Recombinant P450 2U1 was purified and used as a reagent in a metabolomic search for substrates in bovine brain. In addition to fatty acid oxidation reactions, an oxidation ...
Lin Wei-Cheng WC Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology at CYCU, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, - - 2014
In this study, detection of twenty fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) derivatized-amino acids using a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence method (MEEKC-LIF) was demonstrated. In order to achieve good separation for hydrophobic amino acids, the MEEKC method was employed and obtained detection limits in the range of 0.32-2.2 nM, which is comparable to previous ...
Sugasini Dhavamani - - 2014
Long chain n-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for the normal functioning of the brain. The vegetarian sections of the population get only alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) through their diet as a source of n-3 fatty acids. Hence, in this group of the population, the ALAs need ...
Ferreres Federico F Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus University Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
The phenolic composition of herbal tea (HT) and hydromethanolic extract (HME) obtained from Grindelia robusta Nutt. was studied by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Thirty six flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected, from which thirty are described for the first time in this species. Quantification by HPLC-DAD showed that diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide-3'-O-pentoside+apigenin-7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-pentoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide+diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid+3,4-dicaffeoylquinic ...
Innis Sheila M SM Nutrition and Metabolism Research Program, Child and Family Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, - - 2014
Maternal nutrition has little or no effect on many nutrients in human milk; for others, human milk may not be designed as a primary nutritional source for the infant; and for a few, maternal nutrition can lead to substantial variations in human milk quality. Human milk fatty acids are among ...
Grayson David S DS Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, California 95616, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Casey Eye Institute, and Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, and Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon - - 2014
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys ...
Zhang Meijuan M State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China, Department of Neurology and Center of Cerebrovascular Disease Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, Department of Neurology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282, Department of Neurology and Key Laboratory of Cerebral Microcirculation, University of Shandong, Affiliated Hospital of Taishan Medical College, Taian, Shandong 271000, China, and Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - - 2014
Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) ...
Sarkar Chaitali C Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799 022, West Tripura, - - 2014
Beneficial effects of oleanolic acid on fluoride-induced oxidative stress and certain metabolic dysfunctions were studied in four regions of rat brain. Male Wistar rats were treated with sodium fluoride at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w./day (orally) for 30 days. Results indicate marked reduction in acidic, basic and neutral protein ...
Pottala James V JV From the Department of Internal Medicine (J.V.P., W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls; Health Diagnostic Laboratory Inc. (J.V.P., W.S.H.), Richmond, VA; Department of Psychiatry (K.Y.), University of California Medical Center, San Francisco; Departments of Epidemiology and Internal Medicine (J.R., R.W.), University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City; Department of Biostatistical Services (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; and OmegaQuant Analytics (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, - - 2014
To test whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids measured in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study were related to MRI brain volumes measured 8 years later. RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the ...
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