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Modi Hiren R HR Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2014
Valproic acid (VPA), a mood stabilizer used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), uncompetitively inhibits acylation of arachidonic acid (AA) by recombinant AA-selective acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (Acsl4) at an enzyme inhibition constant (Ki ) of 25 mM. Inhibition may account for VPA's ability to reduce AA turnover in brain phospholipids of unanesthetized ...
Sonnewald Ursula U Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, - - 2014
The central process in energy production is the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to CO2 by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle. However, this cycle functions also as a biosynthetic pathway from which intermediates leave to be converted primarily to glutamate, GABA, glutamine and aspartate and to a smaller extent ...
Yavin Ephraim E National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism(1) NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 IL. Electronic address: - - 2014
Accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the fetal brain is accomplished predominantly via a highly selective flow of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, AA) through the placenta. Little is known regarding the endogenous capability of the fetus to generate its own DHA and AA from lower ...
Jakó Tamás T Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University, - - 2014
Chiral capillary electrophoresis method has been developed for quantitative determination of D-amino acid modulators of NMDA glutamate receptor; D-serine and D-aspartate along with L-glutamate and L-aspartate in biological samples. These ligands are suggested to be involved in regulation of NMDA receptor related brain functions, such as neurogenesis, neuronal plasticity and ...
Wei R R Department of Aquaculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46# Xinkang Road, Yaan, - - 2014
In this study, the full-length neuropeptide Y (npy) complementary (c)DNA was cloned in ya fish Schizothorax prenanti. npy cDNA was composed of 789 nucleotides with a 288 nucleotide open reading frame encoding a protein of 96 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences contained a 28 amino acids signal peptide ...
Tonin Anelise Miotti AM Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital and Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, - - 2014
Long-chain 3-hydroxylated fatty acids (LCHFA) accumulate in long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiencies. Affected patients usually present severe neonatal symptoms involving cardiac and hepatic functions, although long-term neurological abnormalities are also commonly observed. Since the underlying mechanisms of brain damage are practically unknown and have not ...
Nordmann Caroline C Institut für Neurobiochemie, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120, Magdeburg, - - 2014
Ca(2+) -independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2 ) is hypothesized to control mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Here, we modulated the influence of iPLA2 -induced liberation of non-esterified free fatty acids (FFA) on ROS generation associated with the electron transport chain (ETC). We demonstrate enzymatic activity of membrane-associated iPLA2 in rat ...
Chen Chuck T CT Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Fitzgerald Building, 150 College St. Room 306, Ontario, Toronto, M5S 3E2 - - 2014
The brain has a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, with high levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are several orders of magnitude lower. As evidence accumulated that fatty acid entry into the brain was not selective and, in fact, that DHA and EPA ...
Zhao Yi Y Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting of Education Ministry, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR - - 2014
A novel brain targeting l-ascorbic acid derivatives with "lock-in" function were designed and synthesized as prodrugs to achieve the effective delivery of ibuprofen to brain by glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na(+)-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2. Ibuprofen-loaded four prodrugs were tested in the animals. Results from the in vivo distribution ...
Xiong Hui H College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, P. R. - - 2014
Ten new triterpene saponins (1-10) have been isolated from the stems of Entada phaseoloides. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Among these compounds, the aglycons of 6-10 are being reported for the first time, in this study, including 3β,15α,16α-trihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy olean-28,13β-olide (6), 3β,15α,16α-trihydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acids (7 and 8), ...
Nguyen Long N LN Signature Research Program in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, 8 College Road, 169857 - - 2014
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for normal brain growth and cognitive function. Consistent with its importance in the brain, DHA is highly enriched in brain phospholipids. Despite being an abundant fatty acid in brain phospholipids, DHA cannot be de novo synthesized in brain and ...
Vogel Kara R - - 2014
Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) mice entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in ...
Barrett Erin Cernkovich EC DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, - - 2014
Sports-related concussions or mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are becoming increasingly recognized as a major public health concern; however, no effective therapy for these injuries is currently available. ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have important structural and functional roles in the brain, with established clinical benefits ...
Wang Jiayin J Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, - - 2014
Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of ...
Nishinaka Takashi T Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, - - 2014
The functional role of brain G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) remains unclear. We investigated GPR40 signaling in depression-related behavior in mice via the forced swim test. A repeated but not a single intracerebroventricular administration of the GPR40 agonist, GW9508, reduced the duration of immobility behavior. Moreover, the levels of hippocampal ...
Ding Xue Feng - - 2014
In vivo electroporation is one of the most efficient methods for introducing the nucleic acids into the target tissues, and thus plays a pivotal role in gene therapeutic studies. In vivo electroporation in rodent brains often involves in injection of nucleic acids into the brain ventricle or specific area and ...
Dalpiaz Alessandro - - 2014
Our previous results demonstrated that a prodrug obtained by the conjugation of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents a potential carrier for AZT in the central nervous system, thus possibly increasing AZT efficiency as anti-HIV drug. Based on these results and in order to enhance AZT ...
Nasu Makoto M Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2014
Various mutations have occurred during evolution among orthologues, genes in different species that diverged from a common ancestral gene by speciation. Here we report the remarkable deterioration of a characteristic mammalian maternal behaviour, pup retrieval, in non-mammalised mice, in which the transcription factor Pou3f2 was replaced with the Xenopus orthologue ...
Schnaar Ronald L - - 2014
Every cell in nature carries a rich surface coat of glycans, its glycocalyx, which constitutes the cell's interface with its environment. In eukaryotes, the glycocalyx is composed of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans, the compositions of which vary among different tissues and cell types. Many of the linear and branched glycans ...
Kinawy Amal A AA Biology Department, College of Science, Dammam University, Postal Code 31113, P.O. Box 838, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study was designed to investigate the impact of exposure to the vapours of two kinds of gasoline, a widely used fuel for the internal combustion engines on the levels of the amino acid neurotransmitters of the rat brain. Recent studies provide strong evidence for a causative role for traffic-related ...
Burkhart C S CS Department for Anesthesia, Surgical Intensive Care, Prehospital Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, - - 2014
Data regarding immunomodulatory effects of parenteral n-3 fatty acids in sepsis are conflicting. In this study, the effect of administration of parenteral n-3 fatty acids on markers of brain injury, incidence of sepsis-associated delirium, and inflammatory mediators in septic patients was investigated. Fifty patients with sepsis were randomized to receive ...
Wölfer Johannes J Klinik für Neurochirurgie am Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Münster, - - 2014
The significance of electrophysiological phenomena is well validated in brain ischemia research. A close link with interstitial amino acid levels has not been proved convincingly but is generally assumed. This has given widespread rise to the clinical method of amino acid, especially glutamate, microdialysis. We combined microdialytic and electrophysiological techniques ...
Dahlberg Daniel D Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, 0027 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
Brain abscesses often cause symptoms of brain dysfunction, including seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission. We determined the concentration of extracellular neuroactive amino acids in brain abscesses from 16 human patients. Glutamate was present at 3.6mmol/L (median value, range 0.5-10.8), aspartate at 1.0mmol/L (range 0.09-6.8). For comparison, in cerebroventricular fluid ...
Benn Kiesha K 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, - - 2014
The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA) are essential nervous system components that increase in concentration throughout gestation. The neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) are small basic peptides crucial ...
Gim Sang-A SA Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, - - 2014
Ferulic acid is known to act as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant activity. γ-Enolase is a neuron-specific enolase that also exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we investigated whether ferulic acid regulates the expression level of γ-enolase in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury and glutamate ...
Siller Michal M Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, United - - 2014
Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2U1 has been shown to be expressed, at the mRNA level, in human thymus, brain, and several other tissues. Recombinant P450 2U1 was purified and used as a reagent in a metabolomic search for substrates in bovine brain. In addition to fatty acid oxidation reactions, an oxidation ...
Lin Wei-Cheng WC Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology at CYCU, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, - - 2014
In this study, detection of twenty fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) derivatized-amino acids using a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence method (MEEKC-LIF) was demonstrated. In order to achieve good separation for hydrophobic amino acids, the MEEKC method was employed and obtained detection limits in the range of 0.32-2.2 nM, which is comparable to previous ...
Sugasini Dhavamani - - 2014
Long chain n-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are essential for the normal functioning of the brain. The vegetarian sections of the population get only alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) through their diet as a source of n-3 fatty acids. Hence, in this group of the population, the ALAs need ...
Ferreres Federico F Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS (CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus University Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
The phenolic composition of herbal tea (HT) and hydromethanolic extract (HME) obtained from Grindelia robusta Nutt. was studied by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Thirty six flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected, from which thirty are described for the first time in this species. Quantification by HPLC-DAD showed that diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide-3'-O-pentoside+apigenin-7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-pentoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide+diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid+3,4-dicaffeoylquinic ...
Innis Sheila M SM Nutrition and Metabolism Research Program, Child and Family Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, - - 2014
Maternal nutrition has little or no effect on many nutrients in human milk; for others, human milk may not be designed as a primary nutritional source for the infant; and for a few, maternal nutrition can lead to substantial variations in human milk quality. Human milk fatty acids are among ...
Grayson David S DS Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, California 95616, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Casey Eye Institute, and Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, and Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon - - 2014
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys ...
Zhang Meijuan M State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China, Department of Neurology and Center of Cerebrovascular Disease Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, Department of Neurology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China, Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mylan School of Pharmacy, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282, Department of Neurology and Key Laboratory of Cerebral Microcirculation, University of Shandong, Affiliated Hospital of Taishan Medical College, Taian, Shandong 271000, China, and Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - - 2014
Ischemic stroke is a debilitating clinical disorder that affects millions of people, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. Fish oil is known to exert beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying protective mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) ...
Sarkar Chaitali C Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799 022, West Tripura, - - 2014
Beneficial effects of oleanolic acid on fluoride-induced oxidative stress and certain metabolic dysfunctions were studied in four regions of rat brain. Male Wistar rats were treated with sodium fluoride at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w./day (orally) for 30 days. Results indicate marked reduction in acidic, basic and neutral protein ...
Pottala James V JV From the Department of Internal Medicine (J.V.P., W.S.H.), Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls; Health Diagnostic Laboratory Inc. (J.V.P., W.S.H.), Richmond, VA; Department of Psychiatry (K.Y.), University of California Medical Center, San Francisco; Departments of Epidemiology and Internal Medicine (J.R., R.W.), University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City; Department of Biostatistical Services (M.A.E.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; and OmegaQuant Analytics (W.S.H.), Sioux Falls, - - 2014
To test whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids measured in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study were related to MRI brain volumes measured 8 years later. RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the ...
Abdel-Salam Omar M E OM 1 Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre , Cairo, - - 2014
Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given ...
Rathod Richa R Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune 411043, - - 2014
Introduction: The consequences of wide spread vegetarianism due to low vitamin B12 on brain development and functioning is gaining importance. However, there are no studies which have evaluated exclusively vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy on brain growth. A series of our animal studies have documented adverse effects of maternal micronutrient ...
Kaczocha Martin M Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of - - 2014
The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, ...
Chen Kuan-Chung KC 0000-0003-0223-1577 School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease is neurodegenerative disorder due to the accumulation of amyloid- β in the brain and causes dementia with ageing. Some researches indicate that the RXR agonist, Targretin, has also been used for treatment of Alzheimer's disease in mouse models. We investigate the potent candidates as RXR agonists from the ...
Ellis-Davies Graham C R - - 2014
Nitroaromatic photochemical protecting groups were developed for organic synthesis in 1966. Since the early 1990s, this type of chromophore has been used by neuroscientists to liberate a wide variety of amino acid neurotransmitters such as ACh, glutamate, GABA, and glycine, among others. Since 2001, several laboratories have used two-photon excitation ...
Ikeda Hiromi H Laboratory of Regulation in Metabolism and Behavior, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8581 - - 2014
Djungarian hamster (P. sungorus) and Roborovskii hamster (P. roborovskii) belong to the same genus of phodopus. Roborovskii hamster shows high locomotor activity and low level of dopamine (DA) in the brain. Administration of L-tyrosine, a precursor of DA, decreases locomotor activity in Roborovskii hamsters. However, the amino acid metabolism in ...
Ruffin Vernon A VA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University OH, - - 2014
Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal ...
Fonteh Alfred N AN Molecular Neurology Program, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena, California, United States of - - 2014
Although saturated (SAFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids are important structural components of neuronal membranes and precursors of signaling molecules, knowledge of their metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is limited. Based on recent discovery that lipids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are distributed in both brain-derived nanoparticles (NP) and ...
Liang Yiran Y Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing, PR - - 2014
The pharmacokinetic and distribution of the enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid were studied in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The two pairs of enantiomers were determined using a validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. Animals were administered quizalofop-ethyl at 10 mg kg-1 orally and intravenously. It was found high concentration ...
- - 2014
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092698.].
Chowdhury Vishwajit S VS Division for Arts and Science, Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2013
High ambient temperatures (HT) reduce food intake and body weight in young chickens, and HT can cause increased expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. The mechanisms by which HT act, and the effects of HT on cellular homeostasis in the brain, are however not well understood. In the current study lipid peroxidation ...
Wu Kai K The State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, - - 2013
Shunaoxin pills, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) product, have been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China since 2005. The main active components of Shunaoxin pills are ferulic acid and ligustilide from Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, Umbelliferae) and Danggui (Angelica sinensis radix, Umbelliferae). As Shunaoxin shows excellent activity in the ...
Eto Miki M Department of Lipid Signaling, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2013
Glycerophospholipids are important components of cellular membranes, required for constructing structural barriers, and for providing precursors of bioactive lipid mediators. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) are enzymes known to function in the de novo glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathway (Kennedy pathway), using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acyl-CoA to form phosphatidic acid (PA). Until ...
Pinto Mauro Cunha Xavier - - 2013
The analysis of amino acid levels is crucial for neuroscience studies because of the roles of these molecules as neurotransmitters and their influence on behavior. The present study describes the distribution and levels of 16 amino acids (alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, ...
Sacchi Silvia - - 2013
Over the years, accumulating evidence has indicated that D-serine represents the main endogenous ligand of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors. In the brain, the concentration of D-serine stored in cells is defined by the activity of two enzymes: serine racemase (responsible for both the synthesis and degradation) and D-amino acid oxidase (which ...
Oliveira Adriano H AH Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, - - 2013
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained ...
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