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Results 401 - 450 of 3177
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Maeda Yusuke - - 2010
Proteins and glycolipids are modified by various modes of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. It is well known that the lumen of the Golgi is acidic and compromising acidification by chemical compounds causes impaired glycosylation and transport of proteins (Axelsson et al., 2001; Chapman and ...
Park Seongjun - - 2010
Recent studies on shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR), which use the concept of denitrification from nitrite, have reported the key factors affecting nitrite build-up, such as dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation, pH, and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. This study extends the concept of the traditional minimum ...
Noguchi Ken - - 2010
Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2) production involves consumption of 2H(+), hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive ...
Na Byoung-Kuk - - 2010
Multiple cysteine proteases of malaria parasites are required for maintenance of parasite metabolic homeostasis and egress from the host erythrocyte. In Plasmodium falciparum these proteases appear to mediate the processing of hemoglobin and aspartic proteases (plasmepsins) in the acidic food vacuole and the hydrolysis of erythrocyte structural proteins at neutral ...
Whalen Kristen E - - 2010
Intense consumer pressure strongly affects the structural organization and function of marine ecosystems, while also having a profound effect on the phenotype of both predator and prey. Allelochemicals produced by prey often render their tissues unpalatable or toxic to a majority of potential consumers, yet some marine consumers have evolved ...
Chan Eng-Seng - - 2010
The aim of this work was to develop a standard quantitative method to measure the acid tolerance of probiotic cells when exposed to a simulated gastric fluid. Three model strains of different cell concentrations were exposed to a standard simulated gastric fluid of fixed volume. The fluid pH ranged from ...
Hwang Yu Sik - - 2010
To better understand the behavior of low molecular weight organic acids in subsurface environments, the transport of three dicarboxylic acids (phthalic, maleic, and fumaric acid) in water-saturated columns packed with a hematite-coated sand was investigated in single and binary organic acid systems. Experiments were conducted at a single ionic strength ...
T?lp Holger C - - 2009
Due to their increased polarity, many contemporary biologically active chemicals exhibit acid functions and may thus dissociate to their anionic conjugated base at pH values typically present in the environment. Despite its negative charge, soil organic matter (SOM) has been demonstrated to be the main sorbent in soils, even for ...
Parry-Hanson Angela A - - 2010
Cross-protection of acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 against inimical stresses is mediated by the glucose-repressed sigma factor RpoS. However, many food systems in which E. coli O157:H7 occurs are complex and contain glucose. This study was aimed at investigating the contribution of acid and lactoperoxidase (LP)-inducible genes to cross-protection of E. ...
Nilsen Tom O - - 2010
Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is involved, through its role as a major driving force for electrochemical gradients, in a range of transmembrane transport processes. Maintenance of homeostasis in anadromous salmonids requires modulation of several gill ion secretory proteins as part of the preparatory adaptation and acclimation to marine life. Atlantic salmon ...
Viota J L - - 2010
The synthesis of nanoparticles consisting of a magnetite core coated with one or more layers of amino acid (L-arginine, L-lysine, glycine, and L-glutamine) is described in this paper. For all the amino acids it is found that adsorption increases with concentration in solution in the range 0.5-10 mg/mL. The adsorption, ...
Moon Won - - 2009
Pharyngeal pH monitoring is the standard diagnostic approach for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). However, the normal values for Asian populations are still unknown. We evaluated the results of ambulatory 24-h pharyngeal pH monitoring in healthy volunteers to determine the normal reference values in the Korean population. Thirty healthy subjects underwent ambulatory ...
Mormile Melanie R - - 2009
Unique, shallow interdune lakes and groundwaters with extremely low pH and high salinity exist in Australia, along with nearby lakes that possess higher pH values. These acidic hypersaline environments are possibly the best modern terrestrial analogues for past martian environments. However, no previous microbiological analyses of these lakes have been ...
Elbaz Johann - - 2009
A DNA tweezer consisting of C-rich arms is kept in the "closed" form by hybridization of the arms with a nucleic acid cross-linker. At acidic pH (pH = 5.2), the arms are stabilized through the formation of the i-motif, C-quadruplex structures, releasing the cross-linking nucleic acid and transforming the tweezer ...
Sadananda P - - 2009
ATP, released from urothelial cells, modulates afferent nerve firing from the urinary bladder. Here, we have characterized ATP release from the rat bladder mucosa in response to acid, capsaicin, electrical field stimulation (EFS) and stretch, using agonists and antagonists at transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion ...
de Melo H F - - 2010
This work aimed to identify the molecular mechanism that allows yeast cells to survive at low pH environments such as those of bioethanol fermentation. The industrial strain JP1 cells grown at pH 2 was evaluated by microarray analysis showing that most of the genes induced at low pH were part ...
Gupta Shiffalli - - 2010
The interactions of gallic acid and tannic acid with purified brush border sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48) from mouse intestine have been studied. These findings indicate that both gallic acid and tannic acid inhibit sucrase activity, which is pH dependent. Kinetic analysis revealed that enzyme inhibition by gallic acid is a pure ...
Nancucheo Ivan - - 2010
Glycolic acid was detected as an exudate in actively growing cultures of three chemolithotrophic acidophiles that are important in biomining operations, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus (At.) ferrooxidans, and At. caldus. Although similar concentrations of glycolic acid were found in all cases, the concentrations corresponded to ca. 24% of the total dissolved ...
Millotti Gioconda - - 2009
Thiolated chitosans are relatively new thiolated biopolymers exhibiting mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory, and permeation enhancing properties. A drawback, however, is their pH dependent reactivity. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a novel thiolated chitosan showing a non pH dependent reactivity of its thiol groups. For this purpose, 6-mercaptonicotinic ...
Draghi Walter O - - 2010
Sinorhizobium meliloti associates with Medicago and Melilotus species to develop nitrogen-fixing symbioses. The agricultural relevance of these associations, the worldwide distribution of acid soils, and the remarkable acid sensitivity of the microsymbiont have all stimulated research on the responses of the symbionts to acid environments. We show here that an ...
Clark T M - - 2009
The role of serotonin in the regulation of larval Aedes aegypti hemolymph composition was investigated in vivo using two reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), alaproclate HCl and 6-nitroquipazine maleate, and the receptor antagonist methiothepin mesylate. Larvae were placed in media differing in pH and salinity in the presence and absence of serotonergic ...
Over K F - - 2009
Foodborne illness due to consumption of products contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.c.) results in many deaths and significant economic losses each year. In this study, acetic (AA), citric acid (CA), lactic acid (LA), malic acid (MA), and tartaric acid (TA) and grape ...
Somolinos M - - 2010
Stationary growth phase cells of Escherichiacoli were more pulsed electric fields (PEF) resistant in citrate-phosphate McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. The greater PEF resistance was also confirmed in fruit juices of similar acid pH. In this work we studied whether the higher PEF resistance of E. ...
Meyer Edward A - - 2010
In fish, exposure to waters of low pH causes significant damage to the gill resulting in fatal iono- and osmoregulatory disturbance. In amphibians, exposure to acid waters also disrupts ionic homeostasis, however the extent and nature of injuries to amphibian larvae from acid exposure are poorly understood. Changes in gross ...
Picotti Paola - - 2009
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin that is predominantly expressed in the brain, retina and other nerve tissues of human and other vertebrates. Ngb has been shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, promoting neuronal survival in conditions of hypoxic-ischemic insult, such as those occurring during stroke. In this ...
Ali Mubarak - - 2009
Single-track conical nanopores functionalized with polyprotic acid chains have pH-sensitive fixed charge groups and show three levels of conductance that allow integrating several functions on a single nanofluidic diode. Nanometer-scaled pores have previously been employed in separation and sensing but not in logic devices, despite the fact that biological ion ...
Kui Hong - - 2010
An endo-beta-1,4-xylanase-encoding gene, xyn11NX, was cloned from Nesterenkonia xinjiangensis CCTCC AA001025 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a 192-amino acid polypeptide and a putative 50-amino acid signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited a high degree of similarity with the xylanases from Streptomyces thermocyaneoviolaceus (68%) and Thermobifida ...
Eersels Jos L H - - 2010
Nucleophilic Cu(+)-assisted radioiodination can be optimally performed at pH approximately 2.3 by using conventional reducing agents such as gentisic acid and SnSO(4), mixed or separately. A mechanistic overview of the Cu(+)-radioiodination method is presented in the extended pH-range of 1-4.4. At lower pH, these usual reducing agents show a distinct ...
Stratford Malcolm - - 2009
Fungal spoilage of many foods is prevented by weak-acid preservatives such as sorbic acid or acetic acid. We show that sorbic and acetic acids do not both inhibit cells by lowering of internal pH alone and that the "classical weak-acid theory" must be revised. The "classical weak-acid theory" suggests that ...
Alvarez-Ord??ez Avelino - - 2010
Salmonella Typhimurium CECT 443 inactivation at pH 2.5 in Mineral Medium (MM) and MM supplemented with 0.01% (w/v) arginine, lysine or glutamic acid was studied using stationary-phase cells grown in buffered BHI pH 7.0 (non-acid adapted cells) and acidified BHI up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric ...
Cohen Yariv - - 2009
Large amounts of phosphorus are present in organic waste, mainly in sewage sludge and animal by-products. Increasingly, the waste is incinerated and phosphorus ends up in the ash. Sustainable waste management requires the beneficial reuse of phosphorus present in such ash. The first necessary step when recovering phosphorus from ash ...
Dong Haitao - - 2009
The pK(a) values for polymeric acids are very useful quantities for many applications including separations using ion-exchange membranes and catalysis using polymeric acids. However, the pK(a) value of a polymeric acid is typically different from the corresponding monomer value and is generally unknown. The pK(a) value of a particular acid ...
Locke Julie M - - 2009
5-Fluorouracil in combination with its biomodulator folinic acid maintains a pivotal position in current anticancer treatment regimens. However, limitations in clinical management persist with the administration of these drugs. These limitations are associated with the use of a high pH to maintain 5-fluorouracil in solution, resulting in high rates of ...
Allen Gilman B - - 2009
The role of gastroesophageal reflux and micro-aspiration as a trigger of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with asthma is controversial. The role of acid reflux and aspiration as a direct cause of AHR in normal subjects is also unclear. We speculated that aspiration of a weak acid with a pH ...
Hu Fu-Qiang - - 2009
Doxorubicin conjugated stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide polymeric micelles (DOX-CSO-SA) was synthesized via cis-aconityl bond between the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and stearic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO-SA) in this paper. The CSO-SA micelles had been demonstrated faster internalization ability into tumor cells. Here, the CSO-SA with 6.47% amino substituted degree (SD%) ...
Booth Natha J - - 2009
Genomic analysis indicated that Edwardsiella ictaluri encodes a putative urease pathogenicity island containing the products of nine open reading frames, including urea and ammonium transporters. In vitro studies with wild-type E. ictaluri and a ureG::kan urease mutant strain indicated that E. ictaluri is significantly tolerant of acid conditions (pH 3.0) ...
Harvey Ronald W - - 2010
The effects of a dilute (ionic strength=5x10(-3)M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, ...
Shashi - - 2009
Acidity and alkalinity are independent parameters and they directly or indirectly regulate the pH of a medium. These are the prime factors which control the nature of the reactions in a medium. The present study was designed to explore the numerical interdependence of the three parameters and also, to develop ...
Stoodley Paul - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology and activity of tonsilloliths, demonstrating oxygen respiration, denitrification, and acidification on exposure to sucrose. STUDY DESIGN: Tonsilloliths were extracted in atraumatic conditions during tonsillectomy from 16 adults and sent to two different laboratories for histological, bacteriological, and biofilm studies under sterile conditions. SETTING: Multicenter laboratory ...
Kim Kang Min - - 2009
The identification and characterization of Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2 (B. polyfermenticus KJS-2) was conducted using TEM, an API 50CHB kit, 16S rDNA sequencing, a phylogenetic tree, and catalase and oxidase testing. The conversion rate of glucose to lactic acid by B. polyfermenticus KJS-2 was found to be 60.71+/-4.9%. In addition, treatment ...
Abdel-Latif Mohamed M M - - 2009
The molecular mechanisms by which gastric acid causes epithelial injury in the stomach and initiates an inflammatory reaction are poorly understood. We aimed in the present study to investigate the role of the early growth response gene Egr-1 and ERK in gastric epithelial cells following acid exposure, and the signaling ...
Heyder J - - 2009
Sixteen beagle dogs were housed in four large chambers under minimum restraint. They were exposed for 16 months to clean air and individual baseline data of markers were obtained. For 13 months, eight dogs were further exposed to clean air and eight dogs for 6 h/d to 1-microm MMAD (mass ...
Waddington L - - 2010
To investigate the effect of pH on the viability and the acid tolerance response (ATR) of bifidobacteria. The impact of low pH on the viability of five species of bifidobacteria was examined under conditions of strict anaerobiosis. Although differences in the ability to resist the lethal effects of low pH ...
Mackie A - - 2010
Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained material produced during the manufacture of cement. Current reuse options are limited and the bulk of CKD not reused in the cement manufacturing process is sent to landfills or stored on-site. Due to the calcium oxide (CaO) content of CKD, it has the ...
Moslehi-Jenabian Saloomeh - - 2009
Survival and ability to respond to various environmental stresses such as low pH are important factors for lactobacilli for their function as probiotics. LuxS-mediated quorum sensing mechanism, which is based on the production of universal signal molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2), regulates important physiological traits and a variety of adaptive processes ...
Senadheera D - - 2009
The regulation of acid production in and the tolerance to low pH of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans have garnered considerable attention since both of these properties contribute substantially to the virulence of this organism. Frequent or prolonged exposure to acid end products, mainly lactic acid, that are present following ...
Celli Jonathan P - - 2009
The ulcer-causing gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the only bacterium known to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the human stomach. H. pylori survives in acidic conditions by producing urease, which catalyzes hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia thus elevating the pH of its environment. However, the manner in which ...
Zhou Tong - - 2009
The tolerance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kefir grains to gastrointestinal tract conditions was evaluated in vitro. The effects of pH values and bile salts on the viability of LAB were investigated. The results demonstrated that pH value showed a significant effect on the viability. The viable counts exhibited ...
Barboza-Silva E - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The arginine deiminase system (ADS) of oral bacteria is a major generator of alkali (ammonia) in dental plaque and is considered to have anticaries effects. However, many of the antimicrobial agents used in oral care products may reduce alkali production by the ADS. The objective of our work was ...
Fu Dawei - - 2009
A new phytase (APPA) with optimum pH 2.5--substantially lower than that of most of microbial phytases (pH 4.5-6.0)--was cloned from Yersinia frederiksenii and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Containing the highly conserved motifs typical of histidine acid phosphatases, APPA has the highest identity (84%) to the Yersinia intermedia phytase (optimal ...
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