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Results 351 - 400 of 3147
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Li Yecong - - 2010
The effect of pH on hydrogen production from liquid swine manure supplemented with glucose by a mixed culture of fermentative bacteria in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was evaluated in this study. At 37 +/- 1 degrees C, five pH values ranging from 4.7 to 5.9 at an increment of ...
Steele Terry W J - - 2010
PURPOSE: Improved polycation-based non-viral DNA vectors were sought by preparing dendrimers with polyethylenimine cores surrounded by various shells incorporating structural features intended to facilitate steps in transfection mechanisms. Dendrimeric vectors were designed with (a) an outer oligocation shell, intended to facilitate DNA release inside cells, (b) a hydrophobic C-16 alkyl ...
Cui Zhong-Kai - - 2010
The phase behavior of mixtures formed with palmitic acid (PA) and one of the following sterols (dihydrocholesterol, ergosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, stigmasterol and stigmastanol), in a PA/sterol molar ratio of 3/7, has been characterized by IR and (2)H NMR spectroscopy at different pH. Our study shows that it is possible to form ...
Colin Damien Yann - - 2010
Cystic fibrosis is associated with pancreatic insufficiency and acidic intraluminal conditions that limit the action of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, especially that of lipase. Directed evolution combined with rational design was used in the aim of improving the performances of the human pancreatic lipase at acidic pH. We set up ...
Deshmukh Manjeet M Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, - - 2010
The objective of the present study was to identify a camptothecin (CPT) prodrug with optimal release and cytotoxicity properties for immobilization on a passively targeted microparticle delivery system. A series of alpha-amino acid ester prodrugs of CPT were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated. Four CPT prodrugs were synthesized with increasing aliphatic ...
Furukawa Fumiya - - 2010
Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, is easily acclimated to highly acidic water, and thus presents a useful model to unravel endocrine regulation of adaptation to acidic water in fish. We analyzed gene expression of somatolactin (sl), growth hormone (gh) and prolactin (prl), in the pituitary gland and size distribution of mitochondria-rich ...
Lagzi Istv?n - - 2010
Droplets emitting surface-active chemicals exhibit chemotaxis toward low-pH regions. Such droplets are self-propelled and navigate through a complex maze to seek a source of acid placed at one of the maze's exits. In doing so, the droplets find the shortest path through the maze. Chemotaxis and maze solving are due ...
Speake P F - - 2010
Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) activity regulates intracellular pH (pH(i)) in the placental syncytiotrophoblast. In other tissues aldosterone and cortisol have been shown to up-regulate NHE activity via an acute, non-genomic effect. Here we tested the hypothesis that these corticosteroids stimulate NHE in the syncytiotrophoblast. Villous fragments from term placentas were loaded ...
Birk Tina - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine whether marination of chicken meat in different food ingredients can be used to reduce populations of Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni strains were exposed to different organic acids (tartaric, acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids) and food marinating ingredients at 4 degrees C ...
Yang Qiong - - 2010
Ceramidases catalyze the hydrolysis of ceramides to generate sphingosine (SPH) and fatty acids, and ceramide metabolism is implicated in various biological responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report the cloning, biochemical characterization, and functional analysis of a Drosophila alkaline ceramidase (Dacer). Dacer, a membrane-bound protein of 284 amino acids, shares ...
Wei Maochen - - 2010
Microbial generation of nocathiacin acid from nocathiacin I by manipulating enzymatic activities related to C-terminal dehydroalanine hydrolysis in Amycolatopsis fastidiosa LCB1001 was investigated by comparing the effects of various factors including metal ions, amino acid precursors and starting pH on the transformation. CuCl(2) and cysteine significantly increased bioconversion yields, and ...
Higgins Paul G - - 2010
This study compared the activity of finafloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone which shows enhanced activity under acidic pH, and that of ciprofloxacin against Acinetobacter baumannii under standard conditions (pH 7.2) and at a pH of 5.8. Overall, finafloxacin demonstrated superior activity to ciprofloxacin under acidic conditions. Furthermore, finafloxacin showed comparable activity ...
Can?ado Fabiane C - - 2010
Structures of digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from housefly (MdL1 and MdL2) show that S106-T107 delimit a polar pocket around E32 (catalytic acid/base) and N46 contributes to the positioning of D50 (catalytic nucleophile), whereas those residues are replaced by V109-A110 and D48 in the non-digestive lysozyme from hen egg-white (HEWL). ...
Mols Maarten - - 2010
Acid stress resistance of the food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus may contribute to its survival in acidic environments, such as encountered in soil, food and the human gastrointestinal tract. The acid stress responses of B. cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were analysed in aerobically grown cultures acidified to ...
Bitziou Eleni - - 2010
The acid secretion mechanism can be studied by measuring a series of metabolic markers and neurotransmitters from in vitro isolated tissue. A microelectrode array was used to monitor proton concentration and histamine levels from isolated guinea pig stomach tissue. The device was partially modified using iridium oxide to form a ...
Li Cong - - 2010
A novel dextran-based nanoprobe was synthesized and demonstrated the pH-activated near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence in the physiologically acidic aqueous solutions and acidic compartments in human glioblastoma cancer cells.
Pohanka Miroslav - - 2010
A dipstick for fast assay of nerve agents and organophosphate pesticides was developed. Indicator pH papers were used as detectors. The principle of the assay is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline by acetylcholinesterase. Acidification of the reaction medium due to accumulation of acetic acid ...
Springauf Andreas - - 2010
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated Na(+) channels. They are implicated in synaptic transmission, detection of painful acidosis, and possibly sour taste. The typical ASIC current is a transient, completely desensitizing current that can be blocked by the diuretic amiloride. ASICs are present in chordates but are absent in other ...
Zenobi Mar?a C - - 2010
An ATR-FTIR study of the vibrational spectra of N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) aminomethylphosphonic acid (BHAMP), 1-hydroxyethane-1,1'-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) and nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) adsorbed onto boehmite is presented. The study was performed in the pH range from 5 to 9, and bands assignments are given in the 1200-900 cm(-1) wavenumber range, where the bands ...
Scheler Stefan - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate functional interactions between sorbic acid, alcoholic cosolvents, and pH with respect to pharmacopeial requirements for the antimicrobial preservation of oral liquids. Twenty-seven test formulations of sugar-free syrups with varying amounts of glycerol (18-36%), propylene glycol (4-21%), and sorbic acid (0-0.15%) and with ...
Isobe Kimiyasu - - 2010
A simple enzymatic method for production of a wide variety of D-amino acids was developed by kinetic resolution of DL-amino acids using L-amino acid oxidase (L-AAO) with broad substrate specificity from Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1. The optimum pH of the L-AAO reaction was classified into three groups depending on the ...
Lemme André - - 2010
BACKGROUND: One of the key virulence determinants of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, is its strong acid tolerance. The acid tolerance response (ATR) of S. mutans comprises several mechanisms that are induced at low pH and allow the cells to quickly adapt to a lethal ...
Block Bradley B - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in vitro exposure of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMEECs) to conditions that mimic physiologic reflux upregulates Muc5b gene expression and alters cell viability. DESIGN: In vitro mMEEC model. SETTING: Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC. PARTICIPANTS: Cells from the immortalized ...
Murata Tomoyoshi - - 2010
The present study was performed to examine the effects of soluble organic matter and pH on the solubility of Bi in relation to inference with the behavior of metallic Bi dispersed in soil and water environments using EDTA, citric acid, tartaric acid, L-cysteine, soil humic acids (HA), and dissolved organic ...
Eslami Angelique C - - 2010
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is found in a wide variety of plants; it is extensively used in tanning, ink dyes, as well as in the manufacturing of paper. The gallate moiety is a key component of many functional phytochemicals. In this work electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) was used to detect ...
Maeda Yusuke - - 2010
Proteins and glycolipids are modified by various modes of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. It is well known that the lumen of the Golgi is acidic and compromising acidification by chemical compounds causes impaired glycosylation and transport of proteins (Axelsson et al., 2001; Chapman and ...
Park Seongjun - - 2010
Recent studies on shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR), which use the concept of denitrification from nitrite, have reported the key factors affecting nitrite build-up, such as dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation, pH, and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. This study extends the concept of the traditional minimum ...
Noguchi Ken - - 2010
Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2) production involves consumption of 2H(+), hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive ...
Na Byoung-Kuk - - 2010
Multiple cysteine proteases of malaria parasites are required for maintenance of parasite metabolic homeostasis and egress from the host erythrocyte. In Plasmodium falciparum these proteases appear to mediate the processing of hemoglobin and aspartic proteases (plasmepsins) in the acidic food vacuole and the hydrolysis of erythrocyte structural proteins at neutral ...
Whalen Kristen E - - 2010
Intense consumer pressure strongly affects the structural organization and function of marine ecosystems, while also having a profound effect on the phenotype of both predator and prey. Allelochemicals produced by prey often render their tissues unpalatable or toxic to a majority of potential consumers, yet some marine consumers have evolved ...
Chan Eng-Seng - - 2010
The aim of this work was to develop a standard quantitative method to measure the acid tolerance of probiotic cells when exposed to a simulated gastric fluid. Three model strains of different cell concentrations were exposed to a standard simulated gastric fluid of fixed volume. The fluid pH ranged from ...
Hwang Yu Sik - - 2010
To better understand the behavior of low molecular weight organic acids in subsurface environments, the transport of three dicarboxylic acids (phthalic, maleic, and fumaric acid) in water-saturated columns packed with a hematite-coated sand was investigated in single and binary organic acid systems. Experiments were conducted at a single ionic strength ...
T?lp Holger C - - 2009
Due to their increased polarity, many contemporary biologically active chemicals exhibit acid functions and may thus dissociate to their anionic conjugated base at pH values typically present in the environment. Despite its negative charge, soil organic matter (SOM) has been demonstrated to be the main sorbent in soils, even for ...
Parry-Hanson Angela A - - 2010
Cross-protection of acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 against inimical stresses is mediated by the glucose-repressed sigma factor RpoS. However, many food systems in which E. coli O157:H7 occurs are complex and contain glucose. This study was aimed at investigating the contribution of acid and lactoperoxidase (LP)-inducible genes to cross-protection of E. ...
Nilsen Tom O - - 2010
Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is involved, through its role as a major driving force for electrochemical gradients, in a range of transmembrane transport processes. Maintenance of homeostasis in anadromous salmonids requires modulation of several gill ion secretory proteins as part of the preparatory adaptation and acclimation to marine life. Atlantic salmon ...
Viota J L - - 2010
The synthesis of nanoparticles consisting of a magnetite core coated with one or more layers of amino acid (L-arginine, L-lysine, glycine, and L-glutamine) is described in this paper. For all the amino acids it is found that adsorption increases with concentration in solution in the range 0.5-10 mg/mL. The adsorption, ...
Moon Won - - 2009
Pharyngeal pH monitoring is the standard diagnostic approach for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). However, the normal values for Asian populations are still unknown. We evaluated the results of ambulatory 24-h pharyngeal pH monitoring in healthy volunteers to determine the normal reference values in the Korean population. Thirty healthy subjects underwent ambulatory ...
Mormile Melanie R - - 2009
Unique, shallow interdune lakes and groundwaters with extremely low pH and high salinity exist in Australia, along with nearby lakes that possess higher pH values. These acidic hypersaline environments are possibly the best modern terrestrial analogues for past martian environments. However, no previous microbiological analyses of these lakes have been ...
Elbaz Johann - - 2009
A DNA tweezer consisting of C-rich arms is kept in the "closed" form by hybridization of the arms with a nucleic acid cross-linker. At acidic pH (pH = 5.2), the arms are stabilized through the formation of the i-motif, C-quadruplex structures, releasing the cross-linking nucleic acid and transforming the tweezer ...
Sadananda P - - 2009
ATP, released from urothelial cells, modulates afferent nerve firing from the urinary bladder. Here, we have characterized ATP release from the rat bladder mucosa in response to acid, capsaicin, electrical field stimulation (EFS) and stretch, using agonists and antagonists at transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion ...
de Melo H F - - 2010
This work aimed to identify the molecular mechanism that allows yeast cells to survive at low pH environments such as those of bioethanol fermentation. The industrial strain JP1 cells grown at pH 2 was evaluated by microarray analysis showing that most of the genes induced at low pH were part ...
Gupta Shiffalli - - 2010
The interactions of gallic acid and tannic acid with purified brush border sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48) from mouse intestine have been studied. These findings indicate that both gallic acid and tannic acid inhibit sucrase activity, which is pH dependent. Kinetic analysis revealed that enzyme inhibition by gallic acid is a pure ...
Nancucheo Ivan - - 2010
Glycolic acid was detected as an exudate in actively growing cultures of three chemolithotrophic acidophiles that are important in biomining operations, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus (At.) ferrooxidans, and At. caldus. Although similar concentrations of glycolic acid were found in all cases, the concentrations corresponded to ca. 24% of the total dissolved ...
Millotti Gioconda - - 2009
Thiolated chitosans are relatively new thiolated biopolymers exhibiting mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory, and permeation enhancing properties. A drawback, however, is their pH dependent reactivity. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a novel thiolated chitosan showing a non pH dependent reactivity of its thiol groups. For this purpose, 6-mercaptonicotinic ...
Draghi Walter O - - 2010
Sinorhizobium meliloti associates with Medicago and Melilotus species to develop nitrogen-fixing symbioses. The agricultural relevance of these associations, the worldwide distribution of acid soils, and the remarkable acid sensitivity of the microsymbiont have all stimulated research on the responses of the symbionts to acid environments. We show here that an ...
Clark T M - - 2009
The role of serotonin in the regulation of larval Aedes aegypti hemolymph composition was investigated in vivo using two reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), alaproclate HCl and 6-nitroquipazine maleate, and the receptor antagonist methiothepin mesylate. Larvae were placed in media differing in pH and salinity in the presence and absence of serotonergic ...
Over K F - - 2009
Foodborne illness due to consumption of products contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.c.) results in many deaths and significant economic losses each year. In this study, acetic (AA), citric acid (CA), lactic acid (LA), malic acid (MA), and tartaric acid (TA) and grape ...
Somolinos M - - 2010
Stationary growth phase cells of Escherichiacoli were more pulsed electric fields (PEF) resistant in citrate-phosphate McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. The greater PEF resistance was also confirmed in fruit juices of similar acid pH. In this work we studied whether the higher PEF resistance of E. ...
Meyer Edward A - - 2010
In fish, exposure to waters of low pH causes significant damage to the gill resulting in fatal iono- and osmoregulatory disturbance. In amphibians, exposure to acid waters also disrupts ionic homeostasis, however the extent and nature of injuries to amphibian larvae from acid exposure are poorly understood. Changes in gross ...
Picotti Paola - - 2009
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin that is predominantly expressed in the brain, retina and other nerve tissues of human and other vertebrates. Ngb has been shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, promoting neuronal survival in conditions of hypoxic-ischemic insult, such as those occurring during stroke. In this ...
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