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Results 351 - 400 of 3174
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Zhou Huo-Fei - - 2010
A novel kind of chitosan derivatives (CS-LA-TM) were synthesized by grafting hydrophobic molecules of lithocholic acid (LA) and quaternization. CS-LA-TM and micelle-like self-aggregates were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The critical micelles concentration (CMC) ranging from 0.009 mg/mL to 0.030 ...
Betancourt Tania - - 2010
Effective oral delivery of proteins is impeded by steep pH gradients and proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as low absorption of the proteins into the bloodstream because of their size, charge, or solubility. In this work, pH-responsive complexation hydrogels of poly(itaconic acid) (PIA) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ...
Chakraborty B - - 2010
Energy metabolism of Leishmania donovani parasite has been investigated under conditions imitating intralysosomal-like environment in the host organism. Trans-plasma membrane electron transport and oxygen uptake were inhibited progressively when promastigote cells were exposed to pH 5.5 and 37 degrees C. A special feature of the respiratory chain in amastigote was ...
Bulmer David M - - 2010
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Exposure of pig laryngeal mucosa to pepsin and acid will have a differential damaging effect depending on the anatomical site, mirroring the effects seen in the human larynx in laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). This study aims to quantitate damage caused to laryngeal tissue by acid alone, and acid and pepsin, ...
Lee KiBeom - - 2010
We report the acid tolerance response and changes in the level of protein expression of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to transient (1.5 h) acid stress at pH 3.0. Sixteen acid-responsive proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting including members of five broad functional categories: metabolism, transcription/translation, DNA replication/repair, transport and ...
Cavalcanti Alessandro Leite - - 2010
To evaluate in vitro the endogenous pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solid content (TSSC) of mouthwashes available in the Brazilian market. The study sample was composed of 10 commercial brands of mouthwashes based on different active ingredients: Cepacol(R), Clinerize(R), Equate(R), Listerine Cool Citrus(R), Oral-B(R), Periogard(R), Peroxyl(R), Plax Overnight(R), Prevident ...
Kenawy El-Refaie - - 2010
Segmented polyurethanes containing azo aromatic groups in the main chain were synthesized by reaction of 3,3'-azobis(6-hydroxybenzoic acid) (ABHB), 5-[4-(hydroxyphenyl)azo] salicylic acid (HPAS), and 5-[1-hydroxynaphthyl)azo] salicylic acid (HNAS) with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI). All synthesized monomers and polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR spectra, TGA and DSC analysis. All the synthesized ...
Fissore Eliana N - - 2010
Chemical and rheological characteristics of fractions enriched in soluble dietary fiber are reported. These fractions were obtained through acid hydrolysis of butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret) and red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) cell wall enriched powders. Hydrolysis was performed using citric acid at different pH values and ...
Kuligowski Ksawery - - 2010
Ash from thermally gasified piggery waste (GA) was treated with sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) using two extraction methods. First different loads (0.39-0.98 kg H(2)SO(4)/kg ash) and concentrations (0.2-2M) were used in 3h extraction. Second, titration of 1:25 (w/w) ash:water suspension was conducted with 4M H(2)SO(4) to determine ash buffer capacity at ...
Louisse Jochem - - 2010
Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene ...
Johno Hisashi - - 2010
Formazan assay has been used for several decades to evaluate metabolic activity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In particular, it has been often applied for quantitative assessment of viable cells under acidic circumstances caused by, e.g., ischemia and hypoxia. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of acidic ...
Broadbent Jeff R - - 2010
This study investigated features of the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334. To optimize ATR induction, cells were acid adapted for 10 or 20 min at different pH values (range, 3.0 to 5.0) and then acid challenged at pH 2.0. Adaptation over a broad range of pHs ...
Ramani K - - 2010
An isolate exhibiting high extracellular lipolytic activity was identified as Pseudomonas gessardii by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The slaughterhouse waste, goat tallow, was used as a lipid substrate for the production of acidic lipase by P. gessardii. The maximum lipase activity of 156 U/ml was observed at an acidic ...
Teh E-Jen - - 2010
Adsorbed low molecular weight charged molecules are known to give rise to a range of surface forces that affect the rheological behavior of oxide dispersions. The behavior of dicarboxylic acid bolaform compounds in alumina slurry was investigated to determine the influence of the molecular structure on the nanoscale interactions between ...
Ayazi Shahin - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Patients with respiratory and laryngeal symptoms are commonly referred for evaluation of reflux disease as a potential cause. Dual-probe pH monitoring is often performed, although data on normal acid exposure in the proximal esophagus are limited because of the small number of normal subjects and inconsistent placement of the ...
Soltanizadeh Nafiseh - - 2010
The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional values of camel semitendinosus muscles with those of calves. Then, sausages were made from camel meat, beef and equal proportions of each and stored at 4 degrees C for 45 days. The composition, physicochemical characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of ...
Zaini Nurul Aqilah Mohd - - 2010
The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, ...
Rasheed Arun - - 2010
The gastrointestinal toxicity associated with aceclofenac can be reduced by condensing its carboxylic acid group with methyl esters of amino acids like histidine and alanine to give amide linkage by the Schotten-Baumann method. Physicochemical characterization of the conjugates was carried out by various analytical and spectral methods. The synthesized conjugates ...
Yang Jinli - - 2010
Following screening of 4 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E32511, E318N, H4420N, and R508N) for acid tolerance, strain H4420N was selected for further study into the influence of pH on bactericidal activity of 6 fatty acids (capric, lauric, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic). Strain H4420N was cultured for 6 h ...
Matsui Robert - - 2010
Since its discovery in 1924 by J Clarke, Streptococcus mutans has been the focus of rigorous research efforts due to its involvement in caries initiation and progression. Its ability to ferment a range of dietary carbohydrates can rapidly drop the external environmental pH, thereby making dental plaque inhabitable to many ...
Schlenk Andrea - - 2010
3-Acyltetramic acids, including delicate 3-oligoenoyl derivatives, such as the Penicillium metabolite ravenic acid, were prepared in two high-yielding steps. Reaction of tetramic acids with the ylide Ph(3)PCCO afforded exclusively the corresponding 3-acylylidenetetramic acids. These were amenable to Wittig olefinations with aliphatic, aromatic, saturated and unsaturated aldehydes after deprotonation with KOtBu. ...
Cebrián G - - 2010
The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to develop stress resistance responses was investigated. Exponential growth phase cells of S. aureus CECT 4459 were exposed to sublethal conditions (acid and alkaline pH, hydrogen peroxide, and heat) and then the acquisition of resistance to acid (pH 2.5), alkali (pH 12.0), hydrogen peroxide (50mM), ...
Li Yecong - - 2010
The effect of pH on hydrogen production from liquid swine manure supplemented with glucose by a mixed culture of fermentative bacteria in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was evaluated in this study. At 37 +/- 1 degrees C, five pH values ranging from 4.7 to 5.9 at an increment of ...
Steele Terry W J - - 2010
PURPOSE: Improved polycation-based non-viral DNA vectors were sought by preparing dendrimers with polyethylenimine cores surrounded by various shells incorporating structural features intended to facilitate steps in transfection mechanisms. Dendrimeric vectors were designed with (a) an outer oligocation shell, intended to facilitate DNA release inside cells, (b) a hydrophobic C-16 alkyl ...
Cui Zhong-Kai - - 2010
The phase behavior of mixtures formed with palmitic acid (PA) and one of the following sterols (dihydrocholesterol, ergosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, stigmasterol and stigmastanol), in a PA/sterol molar ratio of 3/7, has been characterized by IR and (2)H NMR spectroscopy at different pH. Our study shows that it is possible to form ...
Colin Damien Yann - - 2010
Cystic fibrosis is associated with pancreatic insufficiency and acidic intraluminal conditions that limit the action of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, especially that of lipase. Directed evolution combined with rational design was used in the aim of improving the performances of the human pancreatic lipase at acidic pH. We set up ...
Deshmukh Manjeet M Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, - - 2010
The objective of the present study was to identify a camptothecin (CPT) prodrug with optimal release and cytotoxicity properties for immobilization on a passively targeted microparticle delivery system. A series of alpha-amino acid ester prodrugs of CPT were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated. Four CPT prodrugs were synthesized with increasing aliphatic ...
Furukawa Fumiya - - 2010
Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, is easily acclimated to highly acidic water, and thus presents a useful model to unravel endocrine regulation of adaptation to acidic water in fish. We analyzed gene expression of somatolactin (sl), growth hormone (gh) and prolactin (prl), in the pituitary gland and size distribution of mitochondria-rich ...
Lagzi Istv?n - - 2010
Droplets emitting surface-active chemicals exhibit chemotaxis toward low-pH regions. Such droplets are self-propelled and navigate through a complex maze to seek a source of acid placed at one of the maze's exits. In doing so, the droplets find the shortest path through the maze. Chemotaxis and maze solving are due ...
Speake P F - - 2010
Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) activity regulates intracellular pH (pH(i)) in the placental syncytiotrophoblast. In other tissues aldosterone and cortisol have been shown to up-regulate NHE activity via an acute, non-genomic effect. Here we tested the hypothesis that these corticosteroids stimulate NHE in the syncytiotrophoblast. Villous fragments from term placentas were loaded ...
Birk Tina - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine whether marination of chicken meat in different food ingredients can be used to reduce populations of Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni strains were exposed to different organic acids (tartaric, acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids) and food marinating ingredients at 4 degrees C ...
Yang Qiong - - 2010
Ceramidases catalyze the hydrolysis of ceramides to generate sphingosine (SPH) and fatty acids, and ceramide metabolism is implicated in various biological responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report the cloning, biochemical characterization, and functional analysis of a Drosophila alkaline ceramidase (Dacer). Dacer, a membrane-bound protein of 284 amino acids, shares ...
Wei Maochen - - 2010
Microbial generation of nocathiacin acid from nocathiacin I by manipulating enzymatic activities related to C-terminal dehydroalanine hydrolysis in Amycolatopsis fastidiosa LCB1001 was investigated by comparing the effects of various factors including metal ions, amino acid precursors and starting pH on the transformation. CuCl(2) and cysteine significantly increased bioconversion yields, and ...
Higgins Paul G - - 2010
This study compared the activity of finafloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone which shows enhanced activity under acidic pH, and that of ciprofloxacin against Acinetobacter baumannii under standard conditions (pH 7.2) and at a pH of 5.8. Overall, finafloxacin demonstrated superior activity to ciprofloxacin under acidic conditions. Furthermore, finafloxacin showed comparable activity ...
Can?ado Fabiane C - - 2010
Structures of digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from housefly (MdL1 and MdL2) show that S106-T107 delimit a polar pocket around E32 (catalytic acid/base) and N46 contributes to the positioning of D50 (catalytic nucleophile), whereas those residues are replaced by V109-A110 and D48 in the non-digestive lysozyme from hen egg-white (HEWL). ...
Mols Maarten - - 2010
Acid stress resistance of the food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus may contribute to its survival in acidic environments, such as encountered in soil, food and the human gastrointestinal tract. The acid stress responses of B. cereus strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 were analysed in aerobically grown cultures acidified to ...
Bitziou Eleni - - 2010
The acid secretion mechanism can be studied by measuring a series of metabolic markers and neurotransmitters from in vitro isolated tissue. A microelectrode array was used to monitor proton concentration and histamine levels from isolated guinea pig stomach tissue. The device was partially modified using iridium oxide to form a ...
Li Cong - - 2010
A novel dextran-based nanoprobe was synthesized and demonstrated the pH-activated near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence in the physiologically acidic aqueous solutions and acidic compartments in human glioblastoma cancer cells.
Pohanka Miroslav - - 2010
A dipstick for fast assay of nerve agents and organophosphate pesticides was developed. Indicator pH papers were used as detectors. The principle of the assay is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline by acetylcholinesterase. Acidification of the reaction medium due to accumulation of acetic acid ...
Springauf Andreas - - 2010
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated Na(+) channels. They are implicated in synaptic transmission, detection of painful acidosis, and possibly sour taste. The typical ASIC current is a transient, completely desensitizing current that can be blocked by the diuretic amiloride. ASICs are present in chordates but are absent in other ...
Zenobi Mar?a C - - 2010
An ATR-FTIR study of the vibrational spectra of N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) aminomethylphosphonic acid (BHAMP), 1-hydroxyethane-1,1'-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) and nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) (NTMP) adsorbed onto boehmite is presented. The study was performed in the pH range from 5 to 9, and bands assignments are given in the 1200-900 cm(-1) wavenumber range, where the bands ...
Scheler Stefan - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate functional interactions between sorbic acid, alcoholic cosolvents, and pH with respect to pharmacopeial requirements for the antimicrobial preservation of oral liquids. Twenty-seven test formulations of sugar-free syrups with varying amounts of glycerol (18-36%), propylene glycol (4-21%), and sorbic acid (0-0.15%) and with ...
Isobe Kimiyasu - - 2010
A simple enzymatic method for production of a wide variety of D-amino acids was developed by kinetic resolution of DL-amino acids using L-amino acid oxidase (L-AAO) with broad substrate specificity from Rhodococcus sp. AIU Z-35-1. The optimum pH of the L-AAO reaction was classified into three groups depending on the ...
Lemme André - - 2010
BACKGROUND: One of the key virulence determinants of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, is its strong acid tolerance. The acid tolerance response (ATR) of S. mutans comprises several mechanisms that are induced at low pH and allow the cells to quickly adapt to a lethal ...
Block Bradley B - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in vitro exposure of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMEECs) to conditions that mimic physiologic reflux upregulates Muc5b gene expression and alters cell viability. DESIGN: In vitro mMEEC model. SETTING: Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC. PARTICIPANTS: Cells from the immortalized ...
Murata Tomoyoshi - - 2010
The present study was performed to examine the effects of soluble organic matter and pH on the solubility of Bi in relation to inference with the behavior of metallic Bi dispersed in soil and water environments using EDTA, citric acid, tartaric acid, L-cysteine, soil humic acids (HA), and dissolved organic ...
Eslami Angelique C - - 2010
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is found in a wide variety of plants; it is extensively used in tanning, ink dyes, as well as in the manufacturing of paper. The gallate moiety is a key component of many functional phytochemicals. In this work electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) was used to detect ...
Maeda Yusuke - - 2010
Proteins and glycolipids are modified by various modes of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. It is well known that the lumen of the Golgi is acidic and compromising acidification by chemical compounds causes impaired glycosylation and transport of proteins (Axelsson et al., 2001; Chapman and ...
Park Seongjun - - 2010
Recent studies on shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR), which use the concept of denitrification from nitrite, have reported the key factors affecting nitrite build-up, such as dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation, pH, and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. This study extends the concept of the traditional minimum ...
Noguchi Ken - - 2010
Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2) production involves consumption of 2H(+), hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive ...
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