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Santos Dinamene D I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal. - - 2012
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated ...
Shan Linlin - - 2012
Estrogen has great potential as a therapeutic agent in focal ischemic brain injury. Amino acids as energy resources and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are crucial for proper neuronal function and excitability. The proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 has clear potential in drug absorption. In this paper, human brain ...
Shearer Kirsty D - - 2012
In the central nervous system (CNS) the function of retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is best understood from its action in guiding embryonic development; as development comes to completion, retinoic acid signaling declines. However, it is increasingly recognized that this signaling mechanism does not disappear in the ...
Kim Hee-Yong HY Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, DICBR, NIAAA, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-9410, USA. - - 2013
Docosahexaenoylethanolamide, the structural analog of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide, is synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain. Although docosahexaenoylethanolamide binds weakly to cannabinoid receptors, it stimulates neurite growth, synaptogenesis and glutamatergic synaptic activity in developing hippocampal neurons at concentrations of 10-100 nM. We have previously proposed the ...
Eckert R - - 2012
Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major acid-producing (cariogenic) bacterium. Dietary sugars and other factors may cause an imbalance of oral microflora that enables S. mutans to become dominant in the multi-species biofilms on the tooth surface, which could lead to dental caries. The application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials often ...
Bega Danny D Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., - - 2012
Hyperammonemia is known to cause neuronal injury, and can result from valproic acid exposure. Prompt reduction of elevated ammonia levels may prevent permanent neurological injury. We report a case of fatal hyperammonemic brain injury in a woman exposed to valproic acid. A 38-year-old woman with schizoaffective disorder and recent increase ...
Crushell Ellen - - 2012
We report on the case of a 2-year-old girl recently diagnosed with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency who originally presented in the neonatal period with a distinctive rash. At 11 weeks of age she developed seizures, she had acquired microcephaly and developmental delay. The rash deteriorated dramatically following commencement of phenobarbitone; ...
Reich Marco - - 2012
The acquired pellicle is a tenacious organic layer covering the surface of teeth, protecting the underlying dental hard tissues. Lipids account for about one quarter of the pellicle's dry weight and are assumed to be of considerable importance for their protective properties. Nevertheless, only preliminary information is available about the ...
Esteban-Pretel Guillermo - - 2012
Vitamin A is essential for lung development and pulmonary cell differentiation. Its deficiency leads to altered lung structure and function and to basement membrane architecture and composition disturbances. Previously, we showed that lack of retinoids thickens the alveolar basement membrane and increases collagen IV, which are reversed by retinoic acid, ...
Aydın Erdinç - - 2012
In this study the relationship of serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and peripheral vestibular dysfunction (PVD) was investigated. Forty-one patients (31 females, 10 males; mean age 57.34±14.3 years; range 12 to 80 years) who admitted to Baskent University Hospital Ear Nose and Throat Department between the dates of ...
Zhou Kuangguo - - 2012
A homocysteine-independent role for B-group vitamins on venous thrombosis (VT) development has been reported. However, related research findings remain inconsistent. PUBMED, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched to collect information on all eligible studies to make a meta-analysis about the relationship between B-group vitamins and VT. Literature search results did ...
Stoermer Doris - - 2012
A series of thiol-based glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors have been synthesized with either a 3-(mercaptomethyl)benzoic acid or 2-(2-mercaptoethyl)benzoic acid scaffold. Potent inhibitors were identified from each of the two scaffolds with IC(50) values in the single-digit nanomolar range, including 2-(3-carboxybenzyloxy)-5-(mercaptomethyl)benzoic acid 27c and 3-(2-mercaptoethyl)biphenyl-2,3'-dicarboxylic acid 35c. The latter compound ...
Haghdoost-Yazdi Hashem - - 2012
Several lines of evidence show that homocysteine (Hcy) levels are increased in blood and CSF of patients with Parkinson's disease. B vitamins are necessary for Hcy metabolism and their deficiencies cause hyperhomocysteinemia and neurodegeneration. In present study, effect of B vitamin supplementation on the severity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinsonism was ...
Chumbhale Ds - - 2012
To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC ...
Tayler Michael C D - - 2012
Hyperpolarized singlet order is available immediately after dissolution-DNP, avoiding need for additional preparation steps. We demonstrate this procedure on a sample of [1,2-13C2] pyruvic acid.
Wilton Jeanne M - - 2012
Heavy menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, af ects approximately one-third of women. Treatments have included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and oral contraceptives, although neither is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for this use. Lysteda® (tranexamic acid) has recently been approved as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding. This article ...
Patrício José P H - - 2012
Current scientific evidence indicates that anemia in pregnancy, regardless of severity, is associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal mortality. There is little published information about the bioavailability and bioequivalence of formulations containing both iron and folic acid. However, in vitro dissolution studies can provide important information on ...
Bu Weiming - - 2012
A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with ...
Harlioglu A Gül - - 2012
The proximate analysis (dry matter, protein, fat and ash), cholesterol, fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin compositions of the tail muscle of wild caught and captive crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) were investigated. Captive crayfish contained higher moisture and fat content than wild crayfish. In contrast, wild crayfish contained a higher level of ...
Jung Sun Hee - - 2012
Total synthesis of (+)-ambuic acid has been accomplished from the readily available stereocontrolled Diels-Alder adduct of cyclopentadiene and iodo-1,4-benzoquinone monoketal through efficient series of steps. A new method for the highly commendable synthesis of alpha-brominated Diels-Alder adduct is described.
Becker Judith - - 2012
With a world market of more than four million tons per year, l-amino acids are among the most important products in industrial biotechnology. The recent years have seen a tremendous progress in the development of tailor-made strains for such products, intensively driven from systems metabolic engineering, which upgrades strain engineering ...
Greener Jesse - - 2012
We demonstrate continuous flow acid-base titration reactions as an educational microfluidic platform for undergraduate and graduate analytical chemistry courses. A series of equations were developed for controlling and predicting the results of acid-base neutralisation reactions conducted in a microfluidic format, including the combinations of (i) a strong base and a ...
Gu Liping - - 2012
Amino acids extracted from a biological matrix can be resolved and measured using a 6-min per sample method through high-performance liquid chromatography with a short C18 column and rapid gradient using the ion-pairing reagent perfluoroheptanoic acid. LC-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions selective for each compound allows ...
Liu Jia - - 2012
Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo relies on the genetic reassignment of nonsense or quadruplet codons. Here, we describe a general procedure for the random introduction of these codons into open reading frames resulting in protein libraries that are scanned with unnatural amino acid residues. These ...
Hinz Marty - - 2012
Two primary categories of nutritional deficiency exist. An absolute nutritional deficiency occurs when nutrient intake is not sufficient to meet the normal needs of the system, and a relative nutritional deficiency exists when nutrient intake and systemic levels of nutrients are normal, while a change occurs in the system that ...
Stöckl Doris - - 2012
Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and ...
Mathias Rasika A - - 2012
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for brain structure, development, and function, and adequate dietary quantities of LC-PUFAs are thought to have been necessary for both brain expansion and the increase in brain complexity observed during modern human evolution. Previous studies conducted in largely European populations suggest that ...
Moullé Valentine S F - - 2012
Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA) derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we ...
Lee Jieun J Department of Biological Chemistry, Center for Metabolism and Obesity Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2012
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1c (CPT1c) is a neuron specific homologue of the carnitine acyltransferase family of enzymes. CPT1 isoenzymes transfer long chain acyl groups to carnitine. This constitutes a rate setting step for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation by facilitating the initial step in acyl transfer to the mitochondrial matrix. In general, neurons ...
Duong Cindy T - - 2011
Free fatty acid (FFA) compositions are examined in feedstock for biodiesel production, as source-specific markers in soil, and because of their role in cellular signaling. However, sample preparation of FFAs for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis can be time and labor intensive. Therefore, to increase sample preparation throughput, a glass ...
Denmark Scott E - - 2012
A binary catalyst system for the enantioselective bromocycloetherification of 5-arylpentenols is described. The combination of an achiral Lewis base and a chiral Brønsted acid affords good enantioselectivities for the cyclization of Z configured 5-arylpentenols to form bromomethyltetrahydrofurans. The constitutional site selectivity is highly dependent upon the aromatic substituent and the ...
van den Broek Bas A M W - - 2011
Epoxidation of both terminal and non-terminal olefins with peroxy acids is a well-established and powerful tool in a wide variety of chemical processes. In an additional step, the epoxide can be readily converted into the corresponding trans-diol. Batch-wise scale-up, however, is often troublesome because of the thermal instability and explosive ...
Noha Stefan M - - 2012
The release of arachidonic acid, a precursor in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, is achieved by activity of the cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA(2)α). Signaling mediated by this class of bioactive lipids, which are collectively referred to as eicosanoids, has numerous effects in physiological and pathological processes. Herein, we report ...
Huang Jeff - - 2011
Generation of process waters contaminated by naphthenic acids is a serious environmental concern associated with processing of the oil sands. This together with the necessity for sustainable use of water highlights the need for development of effective technologies such as bioremediation for treatment of these contaminated waters. In this work, ...
Higuera Gustavo A - - 2012
The nutritional requirements of stem cells have not been determined; in particular, the amino acid metabolism of stem cells is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the amino acid metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), with focus on two questions: Which amino acids are consumed and/or secreted by ...
Dhami Manpreet K - - 2011
The quantity and chemical composition of honeydew produced by scale insects may influence wider community structure, but little is known about the detailed chemical composition of the honeydew found in forest ecosystems. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine the amino acid and carbohydrate composition of honeydew from three New ...
Kandra Prameela - - 2011
The production of shrimp waste from shrimp processing industries has undergone a dramatic increase in recent years. Continued production of this biomaterial without corresponding development of utilizing technology has resulted in waste collection, disposal, and pollution problems. Currently used chemical process releases toxic chemicals such as HCl, acetic acid, and ...
Wada Yusuke - - 2011
In this study, a high-throughput and high-sensitivity profiling system for β-cryptoxanthin (βCX) and β-cryptoxanthin fatty acid ester (βCXFA) was constructed by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQMS). βCX and nine βCXFAs were successfully separated within 20 min using a column packed with octadecylsilyl-bonded silica particles. The ...
Rodriguez-Granillo Agustina - - 2011
Judicious incorporation of D-amino acids in engineered proteins confers many advantages such as preventing degradation by endogenous proteases and promoting novel structures and functions not accessible to homochiral polypeptides. Glycine to D-alanine substitutions at the carboxy termini can stabilize α-helices by reducing conformational entropy. Beyond alanine, we propose additional side ...
Sankaranarayanan Kamatchi - - 2011
The viscosity of amino acids enclosed in giant lipid vesicles (η(out)) subjected to a shear flow near a solid surface has been studied using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). This viscosity has been compared with shear viscosity for the different amino acids adsorbed on supported bilayers (SLBs) (η(in)) of the lipids ...
Swartz Joshua David - - 2011
An antibody-free diagnostic reagent has been developed based on the aggregation-induced colorimetric change of Ni(II)NTA functionalized colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles. This diagnostic strategy utilizes the high binding affinity of histidine-rich proteins with Ni(II)NTA to capture and crosslink the histidine-rich protein mimics with the silver and gold nanoparticles. In model ...
Calandra Pietro - - 2011
The physico-chemical properties of Bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine (BEEA) plus octanoic acid (OA) mixtures have been investigated by IR, SAXS, WAXS, viscosimetry, and AC complex impedance spectroscopy in the whole composition range. Mainly driven by proton transfer from the acidic OA to the basic BEEA, the formation of stoichiometrically well-defined adducts takes place ...
Hoff Lars - - 2011
The ultrasound contrast agents Echovist(®) and Levovist(®) (Bayer AG, Schering AG, Germany) are based on the release of gas bubbles from milled α-d-galactose. In diagnostic ultrasound, for this class of contrast agents, there is a need for prolonged contrast duration. To investigate if new carbohydrate compositions could prolong the lifetime ...
Urban Jiri - - 2012
An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the ...
Smaltz Daniel J DJ Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United - - 2011
An efficient four-step synthetic route to the useful chiral building block (2R,3S)-dihydroxybutyric acid acetonide in >95% ee is detailed. The sequence is readily scaled, requires no chromatography, and allows for efficient recycling of p-phenylbenzyl alcohol, an expedient for enantio- and diastereoenrichment by recrystallization.
Bergmann M E Henry - - 2011
Regeneration of spent accumulator acid could be an alternative process for crystallization, neutralisation and disposal. Therefore, for the first time in a study of the possibilities of electrochemical removal of antimony and accumulator acid regeneration on a laboratory scale, two synthetic and several real systems containing sulfuric acid of concentrations ...
Moloudi Rohallah - - 2011
Gastro-esophageal reflux currently is widespread disorders with dangerous complications. GLP-2 is a peptide that has trophic and anti-inflammatory effects on gastrointestinal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of GLP-2 in esophageal mucosa lesion due to perfusion acid-pepsin. Thirty-six male rats were used in this ...
Draelos Zoe Diana - - 2011
Background  A variety of prescription devices have been developed to improve barrier function in persons with atopic dermatitis. These products are based primarily on the use of occlusive agents to decrease transepidermal water loss, creating an environment for optimal healing. Aim  A newly developed hyaluronic acid based, pH neutral foam ...
Ding Shangjun - - 2011
Amino acids, as a particularly important type of biomolecules, have been used as multifunctional templates to intelligently construct mesoporous TiO(2) hollow structures through a simple solvothermal reaction. The structure-directing behaviors of various amino acids were systematically investigated, and it was found that these biomolecules possess the general capability to assist ...
Kuster S - - 2011
Buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic instabilities of acid-base fronts are studied both experimentally and theoretically in the case where an aqueous solution of a strong acid is put above a denser aqueous solution of a color indicator in the gravity field. The neutralization reaction between the acid and the color indicator as well ...
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