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Zeman Miroslav - - 2012
The lipids constitute majority of dry weight of mature human brain. From lipids, 35% is comprised of PUFA with long chain (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of n-3 family and arachidonic acid (AA) of n-6 family. Humans are dependent on dietary intake of both AA and DHA. Interestingly, the dietary ...
Lardeau A - - 2012
Coffee drinking is well known for its stimulating effects on the brain and on cognition. In addition to the most active component, caffeine, coffee contains phenolic acids, which may also have some activity. Dihydrocaffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, caffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, dihydroferuloyl-4-O-sulfate, as well as dihydroferulic, dihydrocaffeic, 5-O-feruloylquinic and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, the major phenolic acid metabolites ...
Zhang Liuyin - - 2012
Delivery of neuropeptides into the central or/and peripheral nervous systems supports development of novel neurotherapeutics for the treatment of pain, epilepsy and other neurological diseases. Our previous work showed that the combination of lipidization and cationization applied to anticonvulsant neuropeptides galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) improved their penetration across ...
Ylikangas Henna - - 2012
Large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is predominantly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and it has a major role in transporting neutral amino acids into the brain. LAT1 has the potential to function as a drug carrier for improved drug brain delivery which makes it an intriguing target protein ...
Serb Alina F - - 2012
Gangliosides (GGs), sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids are involved in many brain functions at the cell and molecular level. Compositional and structural elucidation of GGs in mixtures extracted from human brain is essential for correlating their profile with the specialized function of each brain area in health and disease. As a part ...
Koh Phil-Ok - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by three different NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). It is known that eNOS produces NO, which exerts a protective effect, while iNOS produces NO with neurotoxic effects. Ferulic acid preserves neuronal cells against from cerebral ischemia ...
Nguyen Duc-Toan - - 2012
Organic acids, including keto acids, are key intermediates of central pathways in cellular metabolism. In this study, a comprehensive and reliable method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous measurement of 17 keto acids in various biological samples. The keto acids were converted to solvent extractable forms by ethoximation followed ...
Oboh Ganiyu - - 2012
This study sought to investigate and compare the interaction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and some pro-oxidants (FeSO(4), sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid) induced oxidative stress in rat brain in vitro. The result revealed that caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid inhibited AChE and ...
Carlson Sarah J - - 2012
Dietary consumption of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (LA; ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; ω-3) is necessary for human growth and development. In the past 150 years, the average Western diet has changed dramatically such that humans today consume a much higher proportion of ω-6 fatty acids relative to ...
Hoffman L C - - 2012
Nutritional value of Dorper (n=10) and Merino (n=10) by-products were evaluated. Proximate composition differed between organs and breeds with Merino heart (68.9g/100g), spleen (77.2g/100g) and testicles (83.7g/100g) having higher moisture contents than their Dorper counterparts. Dorper brain (10.1g/100g), heart (15.2g/100g), spleen (20.4g/100g) and testicles (12.9g/100g) had higher protein contents than ...
Santos Tiago - - 2012
Herein, we report the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles as a potent tool to induce the neuronal differentiation of subventricular zone neural stem cells. The intracellular delivery of retinoic acid by the nanoparticles activated nuclear retinoic acid receptors, decreased stemness and increased proneurogenic gene expression. Importantly, this work reports ...
Brownstone Eva - - 2012
Seizures in cerebral X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD) more frequently occur in the early-onset compared to the late-onset form. Here we describe an adult in whom X-ALD deteriorated after head trauma and who developed epilepsy with progression of X-ALD. In a 50years-old Caucasian male, cerebral X-ALD was diagnosed upon progressive gait disturbance, ...
Gerbeth Kathleen - - 2012
Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts (BSE) revealed potent anti-inflammatory actions in preclinical and clinical studies. In 2002 BSE was assigned an orphan drug status by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of peritumoral edema. In the past pharmacological effects of BSE were mainly attributed to 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) ...
Hüsch Jan - - 2012
The anti-inflammatory potential of Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies as well as in pilot clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic studies have evidenced low systemic absorption of boswellic acids (BAs), especially of KBA and AKBA, in rodents and humans. This observation has provided ...
Kimura Atsuko Kakio AK Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2013
Phosphatidylserine (PS), the major anionic phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes, is synthesized by the integral membrane enzymes PS synthase 1 (PSS1) and 2 (PSS2). PSS2 is highly expressed in specific tissues, such as brain and testis, where docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is also highly enriched. The purpose of this work ...
Han Bingnan B Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, USA. - - 2013
An additional class of endogenous lipid amides, N-arachidonoyl amino acids (Ara-AAs), is growing in significance in the field of endocannabinoids. The development, validation, and application of a sensitive and selective method to simultaneously monitor and quantify the level of Ara-AAs along with anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in mouse ...
Qian Qin - - 2012
Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. ...
Vaka Siva Ram Kiran - - 2012
To develop formulations of carnosic acid nanoparticles and to assess their in vivo efficacy to enhance the expression of neurotrophins in rat model. Carnosic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using central composite design. Response surface methodology was used to assess the effect of three factors ...
Kozaki A - - 2012
An easy fluorimetric assay for measuring D -amino acid oxidase (DAAO) activity by using one of the D-amino acids - D-kynurenine (D-KYN) - as a substrate was applied to assess DAAO activity in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem of Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats. In this assay, DAAO produces kynurenic acid ...
Burrus Caley J - - 2012
Autism is a disorder characterized by difficulty with social interactions, difficulty expressing empathy and intimacy and, in many cases, mild to severe language and learning deficits. Current estimates suggest autism now affects approximately one in 88 children, with rates increasing rapidly, making autism one of the most common and devastating ...
Vogel Kara R KR Section of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6510, - - 2013
Transport of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is facilitated by the L-type amino acid transporter, LAT1. Peripheral accumulation of one LNAA (e.g., phenylalanine (phe) in PKU) is predicted to increase uptake of the offending amino acid to the detriment of others, resulting in disruption ...
van der Kemp W J M - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Membrane abnormalities in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported in schizophrenia and have been associated with brain tissue loss in normal ageing. Therefore PUFA may be involved in the excessive brain tissue loss reported in schizophrenia. METHODS: A systematic MEDLINE database search was conducted to identify studies that ...
Santos Dinamene D I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal. - - 2012
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated ...
Shan Linlin - - 2012
Estrogen has great potential as a therapeutic agent in focal ischemic brain injury. Amino acids as energy resources and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are crucial for proper neuronal function and excitability. The proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 has clear potential in drug absorption. In this paper, human brain ...
Shearer Kirsty D - - 2012
In the central nervous system (CNS) the function of retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is best understood from its action in guiding embryonic development; as development comes to completion, retinoic acid signaling declines. However, it is increasingly recognized that this signaling mechanism does not disappear in the ...
Kim Hee-Yong HY Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, DICBR, NIAAA, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-9410, USA. - - 2013
Docosahexaenoylethanolamide, the structural analog of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide, is synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain. Although docosahexaenoylethanolamide binds weakly to cannabinoid receptors, it stimulates neurite growth, synaptogenesis and glutamatergic synaptic activity in developing hippocampal neurons at concentrations of 10-100 nM. We have previously proposed the ...
Eckert R - - 2012
Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major acid-producing (cariogenic) bacterium. Dietary sugars and other factors may cause an imbalance of oral microflora that enables S. mutans to become dominant in the multi-species biofilms on the tooth surface, which could lead to dental caries. The application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials often ...
Bega Danny D Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., - - 2012
Hyperammonemia is known to cause neuronal injury, and can result from valproic acid exposure. Prompt reduction of elevated ammonia levels may prevent permanent neurological injury. We report a case of fatal hyperammonemic brain injury in a woman exposed to valproic acid. A 38-year-old woman with schizoaffective disorder and recent increase ...
Crushell Ellen - - 2012
We report on the case of a 2-year-old girl recently diagnosed with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency who originally presented in the neonatal period with a distinctive rash. At 11 weeks of age she developed seizures, she had acquired microcephaly and developmental delay. The rash deteriorated dramatically following commencement of phenobarbitone; ...
Reich Marco - - 2012
The acquired pellicle is a tenacious organic layer covering the surface of teeth, protecting the underlying dental hard tissues. Lipids account for about one quarter of the pellicle's dry weight and are assumed to be of considerable importance for their protective properties. Nevertheless, only preliminary information is available about the ...
Esteban-Pretel Guillermo - - 2012
Vitamin A is essential for lung development and pulmonary cell differentiation. Its deficiency leads to altered lung structure and function and to basement membrane architecture and composition disturbances. Previously, we showed that lack of retinoids thickens the alveolar basement membrane and increases collagen IV, which are reversed by retinoic acid, ...
Aydın Erdinç - - 2012
In this study the relationship of serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and peripheral vestibular dysfunction (PVD) was investigated. Forty-one patients (31 females, 10 males; mean age 57.34±14.3 years; range 12 to 80 years) who admitted to Baskent University Hospital Ear Nose and Throat Department between the dates of ...
Zhou Kuangguo - - 2012
A homocysteine-independent role for B-group vitamins on venous thrombosis (VT) development has been reported. However, related research findings remain inconsistent. PUBMED, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched to collect information on all eligible studies to make a meta-analysis about the relationship between B-group vitamins and VT. Literature search results did ...
Stoermer Doris - - 2012
A series of thiol-based glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors have been synthesized with either a 3-(mercaptomethyl)benzoic acid or 2-(2-mercaptoethyl)benzoic acid scaffold. Potent inhibitors were identified from each of the two scaffolds with IC(50) values in the single-digit nanomolar range, including 2-(3-carboxybenzyloxy)-5-(mercaptomethyl)benzoic acid 27c and 3-(2-mercaptoethyl)biphenyl-2,3'-dicarboxylic acid 35c. The latter compound ...
Haghdoost-Yazdi Hashem - - 2012
Several lines of evidence show that homocysteine (Hcy) levels are increased in blood and CSF of patients with Parkinson's disease. B vitamins are necessary for Hcy metabolism and their deficiencies cause hyperhomocysteinemia and neurodegeneration. In present study, effect of B vitamin supplementation on the severity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinsonism was ...
Chumbhale Ds - - 2012
To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC ...
Tayler Michael C D - - 2012
Hyperpolarized singlet order is available immediately after dissolution-DNP, avoiding need for additional preparation steps. We demonstrate this procedure on a sample of [1,2-13C2] pyruvic acid.
Wilton Jeanne M - - 2012
Heavy menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, af ects approximately one-third of women. Treatments have included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and oral contraceptives, although neither is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for this use. Lysteda® (tranexamic acid) has recently been approved as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding. This article ...
Patrício José P H - - 2012
Current scientific evidence indicates that anemia in pregnancy, regardless of severity, is associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal mortality. There is little published information about the bioavailability and bioequivalence of formulations containing both iron and folic acid. However, in vitro dissolution studies can provide important information on ...
Bu Weiming - - 2012
A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with ...
Harlioglu A Gül - - 2012
The proximate analysis (dry matter, protein, fat and ash), cholesterol, fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin compositions of the tail muscle of wild caught and captive crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) were investigated. Captive crayfish contained higher moisture and fat content than wild crayfish. In contrast, wild crayfish contained a higher level of ...
Jung Sun Hee - - 2012
Total synthesis of (+)-ambuic acid has been accomplished from the readily available stereocontrolled Diels-Alder adduct of cyclopentadiene and iodo-1,4-benzoquinone monoketal through efficient series of steps. A new method for the highly commendable synthesis of alpha-brominated Diels-Alder adduct is described.
Becker Judith - - 2012
With a world market of more than four million tons per year, l-amino acids are among the most important products in industrial biotechnology. The recent years have seen a tremendous progress in the development of tailor-made strains for such products, intensively driven from systems metabolic engineering, which upgrades strain engineering ...
Greener Jesse - - 2012
We demonstrate continuous flow acid-base titration reactions as an educational microfluidic platform for undergraduate and graduate analytical chemistry courses. A series of equations were developed for controlling and predicting the results of acid-base neutralisation reactions conducted in a microfluidic format, including the combinations of (i) a strong base and a ...
Gu Liping - - 2012
Amino acids extracted from a biological matrix can be resolved and measured using a 6-min per sample method through high-performance liquid chromatography with a short C18 column and rapid gradient using the ion-pairing reagent perfluoroheptanoic acid. LC-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions selective for each compound allows ...
Hinz Marty - - 2012
Two primary categories of nutritional deficiency exist. An absolute nutritional deficiency occurs when nutrient intake is not sufficient to meet the normal needs of the system, and a relative nutritional deficiency exists when nutrient intake and systemic levels of nutrients are normal, while a change occurs in the system that ...
Stöckl Doris - - 2012
Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and ...
Moullé Valentine S F - - 2012
Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA) derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we ...
Lee Jieun J Department of Biological Chemistry, Center for Metabolism and Obesity Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2012
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1c (CPT1c) is a neuron specific homologue of the carnitine acyltransferase family of enzymes. CPT1 isoenzymes transfer long chain acyl groups to carnitine. This constitutes a rate setting step for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation by facilitating the initial step in acyl transfer to the mitochondrial matrix. In general, neurons ...
Mathias Rasika A RA Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. - - 2012
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for brain structure, development, and function, and adequate dietary quantities of LC-PUFAs are thought to have been necessary for both brain expansion and the increase in brain complexity observed during modern human evolution. Previous studies conducted in largely European populations suggest that ...
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