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Hasadsri Linda - - 2013
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a global public health epidemic. In the US alone, more than 3 million people sustain a TBI annually. It is one of the most disabling injuries as it results in motor and sensory deficits as well as severe cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial impairment, crippling many ...
Torres Felipe Vasconcelos - - 2013
Glutamate concentration at the synaptic level must be kept low in order to prevent excitotoxicity. Astrocytes play a key role in brain energetics, and also astrocytic glutamate transporters are responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in CNS. Experiments with primary astrocytic cultures suggest that increased influx of glutamate ...
Mühlenhoff Martina - - 2013
The glycan polysialic acid is well-known as a unique posttranslational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. Despite remarkable acceptor specificity, however, a few other proteins can be targets of polysialylation. Here, we recapitulate the biosynthesis of polysialic acid by the two polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4 and highlight the ...
Parpura Vladimir - - 2013
Amino acids appear in prebiotic period being one of the first organic molecules on Earth. For neurobiologists, it is of importance that AAs are not only representing building blocks of life, but are also the essential part of metabolism and cellular signaling. In the mammalian brain, the most common excitatory ...
Gueli Maria Concetta - - 2013
To study brain free amino acids and their relation with dementia we measured, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the concentration of eight free amino acids, amines and related compounds. We used temporal cortex (TC) samples obtained from 13 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and an equal number of age-matched controls (AC). ...
Modi Hiren R HR Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2013
Mood stabilizers used for treating bipolar disorder (BD) selectively downregulate arachidonic acid (AA) turnover (deacylation-reacylation) in brain phospholipids, when given chronically to rats. In vitro studies suggest that one of these, valproic acid (VPA), which is teratogenic, reduces AA turnover by inhibiting the brain long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl)4 mediated acylation ...
Sinha Amit Kumar - - 2013
Many teleosts have evolved mechanisms to cope with ammonia toxicity in the brain when confronted with high environmental ammonia (HEA). In the present study, the possible role of conversion of accumulated ammonia to glutamine and other free amino acids in the brain of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities ...
Peura Lauri - - 2013
PURPOSE: Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. METHODS: Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their ...
Koh Phil-Ok - - 2013
Ferulic acid provides a neuroprotective effect during cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant function. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine and threonine phosphatase that contributes broadly to normal brain function. This study investigated whether ferulic acid regulates PP2A subunit B in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model and ...
Rizzi Thais S - - 2013
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that fatty acids (FA) play an important role in cognitive function. However, little is known about the functional genetic pathways involved in cognition. The main goals of this study were to replicate previously reported interaction effects between breast feeding (BF) and FA desaturase (FADS) genetic ...
Joseph Susan - - 2013
The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, and can cause infections in all age groups. Of particular concern is C. sakazakii, as this species is strongly associated with severe and often fatal cases of necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis in neonates and infants. Whole genome sequencing has revealed that the ...
Barrière David A - - 2013
The discovery that paracetamol is metabolized to the potent TRPV1 activator N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide (AM404) and that this metabolite contributes to paracetamol's antinociceptive effect in rodents via activation of TRPV1 in the central nervous system (CNS) has provided a potential strategy for developing novel analgesics. Here we validated this strategy by examining ...
Drgonova Jana - - 2013
Brain pathways, including those in hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract, influence food intake, nutrient preferences, metabolism and development of obesity in ways that often differ between males and females. Branched chain amino acids, including leucine, can suppress food intake, alter metabolism and change vulnerability to obesity. The SLC6A15 ...
Bazan Nicolas G - - 2013
The significance of the selective enrichment in omega-3 essential fatty acids (docosahexaenoyl - DHA - chains of membrane phospholipids, 22C and 6 double bonds) in the nervous system (e.g. synaptic membranes and dendrites) has remained, until recently, incompletely understood. While studying mechanisms of neuronal survival, we contributed to the discovery ...
Virtanen Jyrki K - - 2013
Consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish, but not fried fish, is associated with fewer subclinical brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated the association between plasma phospholipid omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), objective biomarkers of exposure, and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI. In the community-based ...
van Vliet Erwin E Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Institut Clinic de Ginecologia, Obstetricia i Neonatologia-ICGON, Hospital Clinic and Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer-IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, - - 2013
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the ...
Inceoglu Bora B Department of Entomology and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, United States of - - 2013
In the brain, seizures lead to release of large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (ARA). ARA is a substrate for three major enzymatic routes of metabolism by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 enzymes. These enzymes convert ARA to potent lipid mediators including prostanoids, leukotrienes and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids ...
Hardas Sarita S SS Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055, USA ; Center for Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055, USA ; Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055, - - 2013
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of three pathological hallmarks: synapse loss, extracellular senile plaques (SP) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The major component of SP is amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), which has been shown to induce oxidative stress. The AD brain shows increased levels ...
Hussain Ghulam G UMR_S 1118, Université de Strasbourg Strasbourg, France ; Mécanismes Centraux et Périphériques de la Neurodégénérescence, U1118, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg Strasbourg, - - 2013
Fatty acids are of paramount importance to all cells, since they provide energy, function as signaling molecules, and sustain structural integrity of cellular membranes. In the nervous system, where fatty acids are found in huge amounts, they participate in its development and maintenance throughout life. Growing evidence strongly indicates that ...
Iuliano Luigi L Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnology, Vascular Biology and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, - - 2013
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series have been linked to brain physiology and cognitive decline, but little is known about the other components of the complex fatty acids category. Here, we compared 30 molecular species pertaining to saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids, measured in plasma by ...
Wang Luke Y-J - - 2013
We report the synthesis of vesicles containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and their proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra. These vesicles were constructed to more closely mimic the intracellular environment wherein GABA exists. For this study, these GABA-containing vesicles were examined under (1)H NMR as a potential platform for future ...
Scholtz Susan A SA University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, and University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, - - 2013
The current report provides a brief background introducing 30 years of research on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and infant development, but focuses mainly on challenges for future studies. Infants fed formulas containing only vegetable fats were found to have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) status ...
Zeman Miroslav - - 2012
The lipids constitute majority of dry weight of mature human brain. From lipids, 35% is comprised of PUFA with long chain (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of n-3 family and arachidonic acid (AA) of n-6 family. Humans are dependent on dietary intake of both AA and DHA. Interestingly, the dietary ...
Lardeau A - - 2012
Coffee drinking is well known for its stimulating effects on the brain and on cognition. In addition to the most active component, caffeine, coffee contains phenolic acids, which may also have some activity. Dihydrocaffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, caffeoyl-3-O-sulfate, dihydroferuloyl-4-O-sulfate, as well as dihydroferulic, dihydrocaffeic, 5-O-feruloylquinic and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, the major phenolic acid metabolites ...
Zhang Liuyin - - 2012
Delivery of neuropeptides into the central or/and peripheral nervous systems supports development of novel neurotherapeutics for the treatment of pain, epilepsy and other neurological diseases. Our previous work showed that the combination of lipidization and cationization applied to anticonvulsant neuropeptides galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) improved their penetration across ...
Ylikangas Henna - - 2012
Large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is predominantly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and it has a major role in transporting neutral amino acids into the brain. LAT1 has the potential to function as a drug carrier for improved drug brain delivery which makes it an intriguing target protein ...
Serb Alina F - - 2012
Gangliosides (GGs), sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids are involved in many brain functions at the cell and molecular level. Compositional and structural elucidation of GGs in mixtures extracted from human brain is essential for correlating their profile with the specialized function of each brain area in health and disease. As a part ...
Koh Phil-Ok - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by three different NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). It is known that eNOS produces NO, which exerts a protective effect, while iNOS produces NO with neurotoxic effects. Ferulic acid preserves neuronal cells against from cerebral ischemia ...
Nguyen Duc-Toan - - 2012
Organic acids, including keto acids, are key intermediates of central pathways in cellular metabolism. In this study, a comprehensive and reliable method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous measurement of 17 keto acids in various biological samples. The keto acids were converted to solvent extractable forms by ethoximation followed ...
Oboh Ganiyu - - 2012
This study sought to investigate and compare the interaction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and some pro-oxidants (FeSO(4), sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid) induced oxidative stress in rat brain in vitro. The result revealed that caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid inhibited AChE and ...
Carlson Sarah J - - 2012
Dietary consumption of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid (LA; ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; ω-3) is necessary for human growth and development. In the past 150 years, the average Western diet has changed dramatically such that humans today consume a much higher proportion of ω-6 fatty acids relative to ...
Hoffman L C - - 2012
Nutritional value of Dorper (n=10) and Merino (n=10) by-products were evaluated. Proximate composition differed between organs and breeds with Merino heart (68.9g/100g), spleen (77.2g/100g) and testicles (83.7g/100g) having higher moisture contents than their Dorper counterparts. Dorper brain (10.1g/100g), heart (15.2g/100g), spleen (20.4g/100g) and testicles (12.9g/100g) had higher protein contents than ...
Santos Tiago - - 2012
Herein, we report the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles as a potent tool to induce the neuronal differentiation of subventricular zone neural stem cells. The intracellular delivery of retinoic acid by the nanoparticles activated nuclear retinoic acid receptors, decreased stemness and increased proneurogenic gene expression. Importantly, this work reports ...
Brownstone Eva - - 2012
Seizures in cerebral X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD) more frequently occur in the early-onset compared to the late-onset form. Here we describe an adult in whom X-ALD deteriorated after head trauma and who developed epilepsy with progression of X-ALD. In a 50years-old Caucasian male, cerebral X-ALD was diagnosed upon progressive gait disturbance, ...
Gerbeth Kathleen - - 2012
Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts (BSE) revealed potent anti-inflammatory actions in preclinical and clinical studies. In 2002 BSE was assigned an orphan drug status by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of peritumoral edema. In the past pharmacological effects of BSE were mainly attributed to 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) ...
Hüsch Jan - - 2012
The anti-inflammatory potential of Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies as well as in pilot clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic studies have evidenced low systemic absorption of boswellic acids (BAs), especially of KBA and AKBA, in rodents and humans. This observation has provided ...
Kimura Atsuko Kakio AK Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2013
Phosphatidylserine (PS), the major anionic phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes, is synthesized by the integral membrane enzymes PS synthase 1 (PSS1) and 2 (PSS2). PSS2 is highly expressed in specific tissues, such as brain and testis, where docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is also highly enriched. The purpose of this work ...
Han Bingnan B Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, USA. - - 2013
An additional class of endogenous lipid amides, N-arachidonoyl amino acids (Ara-AAs), is growing in significance in the field of endocannabinoids. The development, validation, and application of a sensitive and selective method to simultaneously monitor and quantify the level of Ara-AAs along with anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in mouse ...
Qian Qin - - 2012
Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. ...
Vaka Siva Ram Kiran - - 2012
To develop formulations of carnosic acid nanoparticles and to assess their in vivo efficacy to enhance the expression of neurotrophins in rat model. Carnosic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using central composite design. Response surface methodology was used to assess the effect of three factors ...
Kozaki A - - 2012
An easy fluorimetric assay for measuring D -amino acid oxidase (DAAO) activity by using one of the D-amino acids - D-kynurenine (D-KYN) - as a substrate was applied to assess DAAO activity in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem of Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats. In this assay, DAAO produces kynurenic acid ...
Burrus Caley J - - 2012
Autism is a disorder characterized by difficulty with social interactions, difficulty expressing empathy and intimacy and, in many cases, mild to severe language and learning deficits. Current estimates suggest autism now affects approximately one in 88 children, with rates increasing rapidly, making autism one of the most common and devastating ...
Vogel Kara R KR Section of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6510, - - 2013
Transport of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is facilitated by the L-type amino acid transporter, LAT1. Peripheral accumulation of one LNAA (e.g., phenylalanine (phe) in PKU) is predicted to increase uptake of the offending amino acid to the detriment of others, resulting in disruption ...
van der Kemp W J M - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Membrane abnormalities in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported in schizophrenia and have been associated with brain tissue loss in normal ageing. Therefore PUFA may be involved in the excessive brain tissue loss reported in schizophrenia. METHODS: A systematic MEDLINE database search was conducted to identify studies that ...
Santos Dinamene D I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal. - - 2012
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated ...
Shan Linlin - - 2012
Estrogen has great potential as a therapeutic agent in focal ischemic brain injury. Amino acids as energy resources and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are crucial for proper neuronal function and excitability. The proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 has clear potential in drug absorption. In this paper, human brain ...
Shearer Kirsty D - - 2012
In the central nervous system (CNS) the function of retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is best understood from its action in guiding embryonic development; as development comes to completion, retinoic acid signaling declines. However, it is increasingly recognized that this signaling mechanism does not disappear in the ...
Kim Hee-Yong HY Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, DICBR, NIAAA, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-9410, USA. - - 2013
Docosahexaenoylethanolamide, the structural analog of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide, is synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain. Although docosahexaenoylethanolamide binds weakly to cannabinoid receptors, it stimulates neurite growth, synaptogenesis and glutamatergic synaptic activity in developing hippocampal neurons at concentrations of 10-100 nM. We have previously proposed the ...
Eckert R - - 2012
Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major acid-producing (cariogenic) bacterium. Dietary sugars and other factors may cause an imbalance of oral microflora that enables S. mutans to become dominant in the multi-species biofilms on the tooth surface, which could lead to dental caries. The application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials often ...
Bega Danny D Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., - - 2012
Hyperammonemia is known to cause neuronal injury, and can result from valproic acid exposure. Prompt reduction of elevated ammonia levels may prevent permanent neurological injury. We report a case of fatal hyperammonemic brain injury in a woman exposed to valproic acid. A 38-year-old woman with schizoaffective disorder and recent increase ...
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