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Das Undurti N - - 2013
Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric ...
Khan Kafeel A - - 2013
Literature favours the in vitro neuroprotective role of caffeic acid, a naturally derived polyphenolic compound. This study was aimed to investigate the role of caffeic acid in experimental model of Alzheimer's disease. Firstly, caffeic acid was tested for in vitro anticholinesterase potential using rat brain homogenate. Later, in vivo antidementia ...
Yang Lei - - 2013
Peroxisomal β-oxidation is primarily responsible for the degradation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), dicarboxylic acids, unsaturated fatty acids and branched fatty acids. The genes encoding β-oxidation enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Age-related decreases in acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) activity, a key enzyme involved ...
Jia Ling-Yun - - 2013
A new compound 3-acetyloxy-epicycloeucalenol-24-one (1), with 11 known compounds 3α-acetyloxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cycloergost-24-oic acid (2), 3-epicycloeucalenol (3), 3-epicycloeucalenyl-24-one (4), 3-epicycloeucalenyl acetate (5), 4β,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-9β,19-cyclo-24(31)-en-3β-hydroxy-4α-carboxylic acid (6), cycloeucalenone (7), friedelin (8), epifriedelanol (9), lup-20 (29)-en-3β,30-diol (10), betulin (11), lupeol (12), was isolated from the stems and leaves of Quercus variabilis Blume. Seven compounds (1-7) showed ...
Bröer Stefan - - 2013
Amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family mediate the Na+-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into neurons and epithelial cells of the intestine, kidney and other organs. They are integral parts of amino acid homeostasis in the whole body and the brain. In the intestine they are involved in protein ...
Yang Heejung - - 2013
Juvenile hormone III (JH III) is a larval metamorphosis-regulating hormone present in most insect species. JH III was first isolated from the plant, Cyperus iria L., but the presence of JH III has not been reported in other plant species. In the present study, proof of the existence of JH ...
Wang Zhi-Wei - - 2013
A phytochemical study on the ethanolic extract of the stem barks of Uncaria laevigata leads to the isolation and characterization of 18 triterpenoid compounds. Ten of these are new, including one novel heptanortriterpenoid (1), four ursane triterpenes (2-4, 10), and five oleanane triterpenes (5-9). Their structures were established by spectroscopic ...
Sable Pratiksha S - - 2013
Our earlier studies show that maternal diets imbalanced in micronutrients like folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the offspring at birth and postnatal d21. This study followed the offspring till 3months to examine the ...
Chen Chuck T - - 2013
Brain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels are 250-300 folds lower than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at least partly, because EPA is rapidly β-oxidized and lost from brain phospholipids. Therefore, we examined if β-oxidation was necessary for maintaining low EPA levels by inhibiting β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP). Furthermore, because other metabolic differences ...
Thang Tran D - - 2013
Essential oils hydrodistilled from the leaves and stem barks of Goniothalamus macrocalyx Ban., Goniothalamus albiflorus Ban. and Goniothalamus tamirensis Pierre ex Fin. & Gagnep. growing in Vietnam were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-coupled with mass spectrometry. α-Pinene (1.7-50.0%), β-pinene (tr-6.8%), β-myrcene (tr-1.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (tr-4.6%), β-caryophyllene (9.9-12.8%), aromadendrene (0.2-6.0%), ...
Moreno-Sanz Guillermo G Drug Discovery and Development, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova, - - 2013
The peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB937 (3, cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) is extruded from the brain and spinal cord by the Abcg2 efflux transporter. Despite its inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS), 3 exerts profound antinociceptive effects in mice and rats, which result from ...
Barry Denis S - - 2013
Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that perform vital metabolic functions. They have been extensively studied in the hepatic and renal systems, yet their pivotal roles in facilitating central nervous system patterning and in disease pathogenesis are only recently being firmly established by the neuroscience community. Peroxisomal functions including the break-down of ...
Kuratko Connye N - - 2013
Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal ...
Narra Madhusudan Reddy - - 2013
The sublethal stress of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in different tissues of the freshwater crab (Barytelphusa guerini). Crabs were exposed to 1/3 of LC50 concentrations for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. After 28 days, they were released into fresh water and kept for 18 days for recovery. ...
Cherdyntseva Nadezda V - - 2013
Aim: To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G) to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g) were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 ...
Pu Hongjian H State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2013
Dietary supplementation with omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids is a safe, economical mean of preventive medicine that has shown protection against several neurologic disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that this method is protective against controlled cortical impact (CCI). Indeed, mice fed with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet for ...
Gao Jian - - 2013
Ischemic stroke, a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology, is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In our previous study, we reported that galangin provided direct protection against ischemic injury and acted as a potential neuroprotective agent. However, its associated neuroprotective mechanism has not yet been clarified. In ...
Verheijden Simon - - 2013
Although peroxisome biogenesis and β-oxidation disorders are well known for their neurodevelopmental defects, patients with these disorders are increasingly diagnosed with neurodegenerative pathologies. In order to investigate the cellular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in these patients, we developed a mouse model lacking multifunctional protein 2 (MFP2, also called D-bifunctional protein), a ...
Kao Tseng-Ting TT College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University , Tainan, - - 2013
Folate is a nutrient crucial for rapidly growing tissues, including developing embryos and cancer cells. Folate participates in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, amino acids, S-adenosylmethionine, many neurotransmitters, and some vitamins. The intracellular folate pool consists of different folate adducts, which carry one-carbon units at three different oxidative states ...
Gim Sang-A - - 2013
Ferulic acid, a component of the plants Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating various signaling pathways. This study showed that ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced increase of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) in focal cerebral ischemia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) ...
Alvarez-Ordóñez Avelino - - 2013
The survival capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells was monitored in pasteurized yogurt (pH 4.1) and orange juice (pH 3.6) during storage at different temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 37 ). Acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells were obtained by means of their growth for ...
Hildebrandt Herbert - - 2013
Polymers of sialic acid can be produced by pro- and eukaryotic cells. In vertebrates polysialic acid consists of α2,8-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid and is most prominent during nervous system development. Polysialic acid is produced by two complementary sialyltransferases, ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV. The major, but not the only, carrier of polysialic acid ...
Teixeira Antoinette - - 2013
Treatment of rat brain C6 astroglioma cells with furan fatty acid F6 prior to exposure to hydrogen peroxide shows a strong protective effect of F6 against cell death resulting from oxidative stress. This protective effect is obtained only for F6 administered as a free fatty acid and with an intact ...
Guest Jade - - 2013
BACKGROUND: In recent years the physiological and pathological importance of fatty acids in both the periphery and central nervous system (CNS) has become increasingly apparent. However surprisingly limited research has been conducted comparing the fatty acid composition of central and peripheral lipid stores. METHODS: The present study compared the distribution ...
Wajima Daisuke - - 2013
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) can cause massive ischemic cerebral blood flow (CBF) underneath the hematoma, but early surgical evacuation of the mass reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether arundic acid improves the secondary ischemic damage induced by ASDH. Our results confirmed that arundic acid decreases ...
Tajima Yoko - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia among neurodegenerative diseases, afflicts millions of elderly people worldwide. In addition to amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and phosphorylated tau, lipid dysregulation is suggested to participate in AD pathogenesis. However, alterations in individual lipid species and their role in AD disease progression ...
Roy Suchitra - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Our earlier studies have shown that a maternal diet imbalanced with micronutrients like folic acid, vitamin B12 has adverse effects on fatty acid metabolism, global methylation patterns and levels of brain neurotrophins in the offspring at birth. However, it is not clear if these effects are mediated through oxidative ...
Shen Jie - - 2013
PURPOSE: To investigate a fatty acid-based strategy for efficient brain targeted gene delivery and to understand mechanism(s) of this small molecule-mediated brain gene delivery strategy. METHODS: A series of fatty acids (FAs) were conjugated with polyethylenimine (PEI25k). A near-infrared fluorescence probe, IR820, was used to study in vivo and ex ...
Trombino Sonia - - 2013
In this study, stearic acid- and stearyl ferulate-based solid lipid nanoparticles containing trans-ferulic acid (SLN-FA and SLN-SF-FA, respectively), were prepared and characterized for loading efficiency, size and shape. In addition, by using rat brain microsomes, we evaluated in vitro the antioxidant activity of these formulations against three well known initiators ...
Sun Shao-Long - - 2013
To investigate the inhomogeneity of the lignin from sweet sorghum stem, successive alkali treatments were applied to extract lignin fragments in the present study. The successive treatments released 80.3% of the original lignin from the sorghum stem. The chemically structural inhomogeneity of the isolated lignins was comparatively and comprehensively investigated ...
Maucler Caroline C INSERM U1028; CNRS UMR5292 Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, AniRA-Neurochem technological platform, team WAKING, Lyon, - - 2013
D-serine, a co-agonist of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has been implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebral ischemia, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, or schizophrenia. D-serine signaling represents an important pharmacological target for treating these diseases; however, the biochemical mechanisms controlling extracellular D-serine levels in vivo are still unclear. D-serine ...
Kasuya Fumiyo - - 2013
The acyl-CoA levels and the acyl-CoA synthetase activities in 7 areas of mouse brain were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty-one acyl-CoA esters of C2:0, C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:0, C20:4, C20:5, C22:0, C22:5, C22:6 and C24:0 were detected ...
Kang J X - - 2013
The mammalian brain and central nervous system are especially dependent on the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for normative signaling and function, and research suggests that n-3 fatty acid deficiencies are one contributing factor in the increasing prevalence of depressive disorders. However, the reasons for which n-3 fatty ...
Pacetti Deborah - - 2013
The total fatty acid composition, especially the furan fatty acid (F-acids) profile, from edible muscle (fillet) and organ tissues (brain, eye, ovaries and testes) of spawning and non-spawning sardine and anchovy were examined. The spawning season had no effect on F-acids profiles of the fillet and all organ tissues, for ...
Honoré Jean-Claude - - 2013
Nitro-oxidative stress exerts a significant role in the genesis of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We previously reported that the ω-6 long chain fatty acids, transarachidonic acids (TAAs), which are nitrative stress-induced nonenzymatically generated arachidonic acid derivatives, trigger selective microvascular endothelial cell death in neonatal neural tissue. The primary molecular target ...
Verhaaren Benjamin F J - - 2013
Background: Uric acid has been associated with focal vascular brain disease. However, it is unknown whether uric acid also relates to global brain changes such as brain atrophy. We therefore studied the relation of uric acid to brain atrophy and whether this is accompanied by worse cognitive function. Methods: In ...
Davies Leela R L - - 2013
The sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) differ by a single oxygen atom and are widely found at the terminal position of glycans on vertebrate cell surfaces. In animals capable of synthesizing Neu5Gc, most tissues and cell types express both sialic acids, in proportions that vary between ...
Moriguchi Toru - - 2013
Decreases in brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been associated with losses in brain function leading to an interest in the conditions which lead to such brain decreases, and such variables as age. Also of relevance would be the rate of repletion of DHA when the n-3 dietary deficiency is reversed. ...
Rowland Laura M - - 2013
This study is the first to show a relationship between in-vivo brain gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels and auditory inhibitory electrophysiological measures in schizophrenia. Results revealed a strong association between GABA levels and gating of the theta-alpha and beta activities in schizophrenia.
Esters Virginie - - 2013
In the course of our investigations on Umutambasha in order to identify its convulsant principles, small quantities of monofluoroacetate were observed in stem bark, leaves, and fruits of this plant newly identified as Dichapetalum michelsonii Hauman. Conclusive evidence for a monofluoroacetate presence came from its isolation from the freeze-dried extract ...
Sengupta Avery - - 2013
With a view to investigate the ameliorative effects of sitosterol esters against degenerative effects of hypercholesterolemia brain antioxidant enzyme assays, brain lipid profile, brain phospholipid compositional change and brain neurotransmitter concentrates (glutamic acid, asparctic acid, glycine) were measured in hypercholesterolemic rats. The results indicated that phytosterol esters have a role ...
Hagebeuk Eveline E O - - 2013
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by cognitive and locomotor regression and stereotypic hand movements. The disorder is caused by mutations in the X chromosomal MECP2 a gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein. It has been associated with disturbances of cerebral folate homeostasis, as well as with speculations on a ...
Yang Lin - - 2013
Ten new abietane diterpenoids, aquilarabietic acids A-J (1-10), and a new podocarpane diterpenoid, aquilarabietic acid K (11), were isolated from the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Chinese eaglewood. Among them, 3, 9, and 10 are artifacts. Their structures were established on the basis of data from extensive spectroscopic and ...
Suganuma Hiroki - - 2013
Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), comprise a major component of brain membrane phospholipids. The effect of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults on brain fatty acid composition is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in brain fatty acid composition during development ...
Hasadsri Linda - - 2013
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a global public health epidemic. In the US alone, more than 3 million people sustain a TBI annually. It is one of the most disabling injuries as it results in motor and sensory deficits as well as severe cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial impairment, crippling many ...
Torres Felipe Vasconcelos - - 2013
Glutamate concentration at the synaptic level must be kept low in order to prevent excitotoxicity. Astrocytes play a key role in brain energetics, and also astrocytic glutamate transporters are responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in CNS. Experiments with primary astrocytic cultures suggest that increased influx of glutamate ...
Mühlenhoff Martina - - 2013
The glycan polysialic acid is well-known as a unique posttranslational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. Despite remarkable acceptor specificity, however, a few other proteins can be targets of polysialylation. Here, we recapitulate the biosynthesis of polysialic acid by the two polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4 and highlight the ...
Parpura Vladimir - - 2013
Amino acids appear in prebiotic period being one of the first organic molecules on Earth. For neurobiologists, it is of importance that AAs are not only representing building blocks of life, but are also the essential part of metabolism and cellular signaling. In the mammalian brain, the most common excitatory ...
Gueli Maria Concetta - - 2013
To study brain free amino acids and their relation with dementia we measured, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the concentration of eight free amino acids, amines and related compounds. We used temporal cortex (TC) samples obtained from 13 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and an equal number of age-matched controls (AC). ...
Modi Hiren R HR Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2013
Mood stabilizers used for treating bipolar disorder (BD) selectively downregulate arachidonic acid (AA) turnover (deacylation-reacylation) in brain phospholipids, when given chronically to rats. In vitro studies suggest that one of these, valproic acid (VPA), which is teratogenic, reduces AA turnover by inhibiting the brain long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl)4 mediated acylation ...
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