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Narra Madhusudan Reddy - - 2013
The sublethal stress of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in different tissues of the freshwater crab (Barytelphusa guerini). Crabs were exposed to 1/3 of LC50 concentrations for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. After 28 days, they were released into fresh water and kept for 18 days for recovery. ...
Cherdyntseva Nadezda V - - 2013
Aim: To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G) to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g) were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 ...
Pu Hongjian H State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Institute of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2013
Dietary supplementation with omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids is a safe, economical mean of preventive medicine that has shown protection against several neurologic disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that this method is protective against controlled cortical impact (CCI). Indeed, mice fed with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet for ...
Gao Jian - - 2013
Ischemic stroke, a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology, is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In our previous study, we reported that galangin provided direct protection against ischemic injury and acted as a potential neuroprotective agent. However, its associated neuroprotective mechanism has not yet been clarified. In ...
Verheijden Simon - - 2013
Although peroxisome biogenesis and β-oxidation disorders are well known for their neurodevelopmental defects, patients with these disorders are increasingly diagnosed with neurodegenerative pathologies. In order to investigate the cellular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in these patients, we developed a mouse model lacking multifunctional protein 2 (MFP2, also called D-bifunctional protein), a ...
Kao Tseng-Ting - - 2013
Abstract Folate is a nutrient crucial for rapidly growing tissues, including developing embryos and cancer cells. Folate participates in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, amino acids, S-adenosylmethionine, many neurotransmitters, and some vitamins. The intracellular folate pool consists of different folate adducts, which carry one-carbon units at three different oxidative ...
Gim Sang-A - - 2013
Ferulic acid, a component of the plants Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating various signaling pathways. This study showed that ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced increase of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) in focal cerebral ischemia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) ...
Alvarez-Ordóñez Avelino - - 2013
The survival capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells was monitored in pasteurized yogurt (pH 4.1) and orange juice (pH 3.6) during storage at different temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 37 ). Acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells were obtained by means of their growth for ...
Hildebrandt Herbert - - 2013
Polymers of sialic acid can be produced by pro- and eukaryotic cells. In vertebrates polysialic acid consists of α2,8-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid and is most prominent during nervous system development. Polysialic acid is produced by two complementary sialyltransferases, ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV. The major, but not the only, carrier of polysialic acid ...
Teixeira Antoinette - - 2013
Treatment of rat brain C6 astroglioma cells with furan fatty acid F6 prior to exposure to hydrogen peroxide shows a strong protective effect of F6 against cell death resulting from oxidative stress. This protective effect is obtained only for F6 administered as a free fatty acid and with an intact ...
Guest Jade - - 2013
BACKGROUND: In recent years the physiological and pathological importance of fatty acids in both the periphery and central nervous system (CNS) has become increasingly apparent. However surprisingly limited research has been conducted comparing the fatty acid composition of central and peripheral lipid stores. METHODS: The present study compared the distribution ...
Wajima Daisuke - - 2013
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) can cause massive ischemic cerebral blood flow (CBF) underneath the hematoma, but early surgical evacuation of the mass reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether arundic acid improves the secondary ischemic damage induced by ASDH. Our results confirmed that arundic acid decreases ...
Tajima Yoko - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia among neurodegenerative diseases, afflicts millions of elderly people worldwide. In addition to amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and phosphorylated tau, lipid dysregulation is suggested to participate in AD pathogenesis. However, alterations in individual lipid species and their role in AD disease progression ...
Roy Suchitra - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Our earlier studies have shown that a maternal diet imbalanced with micronutrients like folic acid, vitamin B12 has adverse effects on fatty acid metabolism, global methylation patterns and levels of brain neurotrophins in the offspring at birth. However, it is not clear if these effects are mediated through oxidative ...
Shen Jie - - 2013
PURPOSE: To investigate a fatty acid-based strategy for efficient brain targeted gene delivery and to understand mechanism(s) of this small molecule-mediated brain gene delivery strategy. METHODS: A series of fatty acids (FAs) were conjugated with polyethylenimine (PEI25k). A near-infrared fluorescence probe, IR820, was used to study in vivo and ex ...
Trombino Sonia - - 2013
In this study, stearic acid- and stearyl ferulate-based solid lipid nanoparticles containing trans-ferulic acid (SLN-FA and SLN-SF-FA, respectively), were prepared and characterized for loading efficiency, size and shape. In addition, by using rat brain microsomes, we evaluated in vitro the antioxidant activity of these formulations against three well known initiators ...
Sun Shao-Long - - 2013
To investigate the inhomogeneity of the lignin from sweet sorghum stem, successive alkali treatments were applied to extract lignin fragments in the present study. The successive treatments released 80.3% of the original lignin from the sorghum stem. The chemically structural inhomogeneity of the isolated lignins was comparatively and comprehensively investigated ...
Maucler Caroline C INSERM U1028; CNRS UMR5292 Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, AniRA-Neurochem technological platform, team WAKING, Lyon, - - 2013
D-serine, a co-agonist of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has been implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebral ischemia, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, or schizophrenia. D-serine signaling represents an important pharmacological target for treating these diseases; however, the biochemical mechanisms controlling extracellular D-serine levels in vivo are still unclear. D-serine ...
Kasuya Fumiyo - - 2013
The acyl-CoA levels and the acyl-CoA synthetase activities in 7 areas of mouse brain were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty-one acyl-CoA esters of C2:0, C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:0, C20:4, C20:5, C22:0, C22:5, C22:6 and C24:0 were detected ...
Kang J X - - 2013
The mammalian brain and central nervous system are especially dependent on the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for normative signaling and function, and research suggests that n-3 fatty acid deficiencies are one contributing factor in the increasing prevalence of depressive disorders. However, the reasons for which n-3 fatty ...
Pacetti Deborah - - 2013
The total fatty acid composition, especially the furan fatty acid (F-acids) profile, from edible muscle (fillet) and organ tissues (brain, eye, ovaries and testes) of spawning and non-spawning sardine and anchovy were examined. The spawning season had no effect on F-acids profiles of the fillet and all organ tissues, for ...
Honoré Jean-Claude - - 2013
Nitro-oxidative stress exerts a significant role in the genesis of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We previously reported that the ω-6 long chain fatty acids, transarachidonic acids (TAAs), which are nitrative stress-induced nonenzymatically generated arachidonic acid derivatives, trigger selective microvascular endothelial cell death in neonatal neural tissue. The primary molecular target ...
Verhaaren Benjamin F J - - 2013
Background: Uric acid has been associated with focal vascular brain disease. However, it is unknown whether uric acid also relates to global brain changes such as brain atrophy. We therefore studied the relation of uric acid to brain atrophy and whether this is accompanied by worse cognitive function. Methods: In ...
Davies Leela R L - - 2013
The sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) differ by a single oxygen atom and are widely found at the terminal position of glycans on vertebrate cell surfaces. In animals capable of synthesizing Neu5Gc, most tissues and cell types express both sialic acids, in proportions that vary between ...
Moriguchi Toru - - 2013
Decreases in brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been associated with losses in brain function leading to an interest in the conditions which lead to such brain decreases, and such variables as age. Also of relevance would be the rate of repletion of DHA when the n-3 dietary deficiency is reversed. ...
Rowland Laura M - - 2013
This study is the first to show a relationship between in-vivo brain gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels and auditory inhibitory electrophysiological measures in schizophrenia. Results revealed a strong association between GABA levels and gating of the theta-alpha and beta activities in schizophrenia.
Esters Virginie - - 2013
In the course of our investigations on Umutambasha in order to identify its convulsant principles, small quantities of monofluoroacetate were observed in stem bark, leaves, and fruits of this plant newly identified as Dichapetalum michelsonii Hauman. Conclusive evidence for a monofluoroacetate presence came from its isolation from the freeze-dried extract ...
Sengupta Avery - - 2013
With a view to investigate the ameliorative effects of sitosterol esters against degenerative effects of hypercholesterolemia brain antioxidant enzyme assays, brain lipid profile, brain phospholipid compositional change and brain neurotransmitter concentrates (glutamic acid, asparctic acid, glycine) were measured in hypercholesterolemic rats. The results indicated that phytosterol esters have a role ...
Hagebeuk Eveline E O - - 2013
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by cognitive and locomotor regression and stereotypic hand movements. The disorder is caused by mutations in the X chromosomal MECP2 a gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein. It has been associated with disturbances of cerebral folate homeostasis, as well as with speculations on a ...
Yang Lin - - 2013
Ten new abietane diterpenoids, aquilarabietic acids A-J (1-10), and a new podocarpane diterpenoid, aquilarabietic acid K (11), were isolated from the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Chinese eaglewood. Among them, 3, 9, and 10 are artifacts. Their structures were established on the basis of data from extensive spectroscopic and ...
Suganuma Hiroki - - 2013
Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), comprise a major component of brain membrane phospholipids. The effect of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults on brain fatty acid composition is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in brain fatty acid composition during development ...
Hasadsri Linda - - 2013
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a global public health epidemic. In the US alone, more than 3 million people sustain a TBI annually. It is one of the most disabling injuries as it results in motor and sensory deficits as well as severe cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial impairment, crippling many ...
Torres Felipe Vasconcelos - - 2013
Glutamate concentration at the synaptic level must be kept low in order to prevent excitotoxicity. Astrocytes play a key role in brain energetics, and also astrocytic glutamate transporters are responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in CNS. Experiments with primary astrocytic cultures suggest that increased influx of glutamate ...
Mühlenhoff Martina - - 2013
The glycan polysialic acid is well-known as a unique posttranslational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. Despite remarkable acceptor specificity, however, a few other proteins can be targets of polysialylation. Here, we recapitulate the biosynthesis of polysialic acid by the two polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4 and highlight the ...
Parpura Vladimir - - 2013
Amino acids appear in prebiotic period being one of the first organic molecules on Earth. For neurobiologists, it is of importance that AAs are not only representing building blocks of life, but are also the essential part of metabolism and cellular signaling. In the mammalian brain, the most common excitatory ...
Gueli Maria Concetta - - 2013
To study brain free amino acids and their relation with dementia we measured, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the concentration of eight free amino acids, amines and related compounds. We used temporal cortex (TC) samples obtained from 13 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and an equal number of age-matched controls (AC). ...
Modi Hiren R HR Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2013
Mood stabilizers used for treating bipolar disorder (BD) selectively downregulate arachidonic acid (AA) turnover (deacylation-reacylation) in brain phospholipids, when given chronically to rats. In vitro studies suggest that one of these, valproic acid (VPA), which is teratogenic, reduces AA turnover by inhibiting the brain long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl)4 mediated acylation ...
Sinha Amit Kumar - - 2013
Many teleosts have evolved mechanisms to cope with ammonia toxicity in the brain when confronted with high environmental ammonia (HEA). In the present study, the possible role of conversion of accumulated ammonia to glutamine and other free amino acids in the brain of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities ...
Peura Lauri - - 2013
PURPOSE: Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. METHODS: Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their ...
Koh Phil-Ok - - 2013
Ferulic acid provides a neuroprotective effect during cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant function. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine and threonine phosphatase that contributes broadly to normal brain function. This study investigated whether ferulic acid regulates PP2A subunit B in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model and ...
Rizzi Thais S - - 2013
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that fatty acids (FA) play an important role in cognitive function. However, little is known about the functional genetic pathways involved in cognition. The main goals of this study were to replicate previously reported interaction effects between breast feeding (BF) and FA desaturase (FADS) genetic ...
Joseph Susan - - 2013
The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, and can cause infections in all age groups. Of particular concern is C. sakazakii, as this species is strongly associated with severe and often fatal cases of necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis in neonates and infants. Whole genome sequencing has revealed that the ...
Barrière David A - - 2013
The discovery that paracetamol is metabolized to the potent TRPV1 activator N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide (AM404) and that this metabolite contributes to paracetamol's antinociceptive effect in rodents via activation of TRPV1 in the central nervous system (CNS) has provided a potential strategy for developing novel analgesics. Here we validated this strategy by examining ...
Drgonova Jana - - 2013
Brain pathways, including those in hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract, influence food intake, nutrient preferences, metabolism and development of obesity in ways that often differ between males and females. Branched chain amino acids, including leucine, can suppress food intake, alter metabolism and change vulnerability to obesity. The SLC6A15 ...
Bazan Nicolas G - - 2013
The significance of the selective enrichment in omega-3 essential fatty acids (docosahexaenoyl - DHA - chains of membrane phospholipids, 22C and 6 double bonds) in the nervous system (e.g. synaptic membranes and dendrites) has remained, until recently, incompletely understood. While studying mechanisms of neuronal survival, we contributed to the discovery ...
Virtanen Jyrki K - - 2013
Consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish, but not fried fish, is associated with fewer subclinical brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated the association between plasma phospholipid omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), objective biomarkers of exposure, and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI. In the community-based ...
van Vliet Erwin E Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Institut Clinic de Ginecologia, Obstetricia i Neonatologia-ICGON, Hospital Clinic and Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer-IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, - - 2013
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the ...
Inceoglu Bora B Department of Entomology and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, United States of - - 2013
In the brain, seizures lead to release of large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (ARA). ARA is a substrate for three major enzymatic routes of metabolism by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 enzymes. These enzymes convert ARA to potent lipid mediators including prostanoids, leukotrienes and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids ...
Hardas Sarita S SS Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055, USA ; Center for Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055, USA ; Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055, - - 2013
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of three pathological hallmarks: synapse loss, extracellular senile plaques (SP) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The major component of SP is amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), which has been shown to induce oxidative stress. The AD brain shows increased levels ...
Scholtz Susan A SA University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, and University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, - - 2013
The current report provides a brief background introducing 30 years of research on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and infant development, but focuses mainly on challenges for future studies. Infants fed formulas containing only vegetable fats were found to have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) status ...
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