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Abdel-Salam Omar M E OM 1 Department of Toxicology and Narcotics, National Research Centre , Cairo, - - 2014
Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given ...
Rathod Richa R Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune 411043, - - 2014
Introduction: The consequences of wide spread vegetarianism due to low vitamin B12 on brain development and functioning is gaining importance. However, there are no studies which have evaluated exclusively vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy on brain growth. A series of our animal studies have documented adverse effects of maternal micronutrient ...
Kaczocha Martin M Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of - - 2014
The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, ...
Chen Kuan-Chung KC 0000-0003-0223-1577 School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease is neurodegenerative disorder due to the accumulation of amyloid- β in the brain and causes dementia with ageing. Some researches indicate that the RXR agonist, Targretin, has also been used for treatment of Alzheimer's disease in mouse models. We investigate the potent candidates as RXR agonists from the ...
Ellis-Davies Graham C R - - 2014
Nitroaromatic photochemical protecting groups were developed for organic synthesis in 1966. Since the early 1990s, this type of chromophore has been used by neuroscientists to liberate a wide variety of amino acid neurotransmitters such as ACh, glutamate, GABA, and glycine, among others. Since 2001, several laboratories have used two-photon excitation ...
Ikeda Hiromi H Laboratory of Regulation in Metabolism and Behavior, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8581 - - 2014
Djungarian hamster (P. sungorus) and Roborovskii hamster (P. roborovskii) belong to the same genus of phodopus. Roborovskii hamster shows high locomotor activity and low level of dopamine (DA) in the brain. Administration of L-tyrosine, a precursor of DA, decreases locomotor activity in Roborovskii hamsters. However, the amino acid metabolism in ...
Ruffin Vernon A VA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University OH, - - 2014
Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal ...
Fonteh Alfred N AN Molecular Neurology Program, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena, California, United States of - - 2014
Although saturated (SAFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids are important structural components of neuronal membranes and precursors of signaling molecules, knowledge of their metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is limited. Based on recent discovery that lipids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are distributed in both brain-derived nanoparticles (NP) and ...
Liang Yiran Y Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing, PR - - 2014
The pharmacokinetic and distribution of the enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid were studied in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The two pairs of enantiomers were determined using a validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. Animals were administered quizalofop-ethyl at 10 mg kg-1 orally and intravenously. It was found high concentration ...
Mooranian Armin A Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, - - 2014
The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB). The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic ...
Chowdhury Vishwajit S VS Division for Arts and Science, Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2013
High ambient temperatures (HT) reduce food intake and body weight in young chickens, and HT can cause increased expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. The mechanisms by which HT act, and the effects of HT on cellular homeostasis in the brain, are however not well understood. In the current study lipid peroxidation ...
Wu Kai K The State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, - - 2013
Shunaoxin pills, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) product, have been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China since 2005. The main active components of Shunaoxin pills are ferulic acid and ligustilide from Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, Umbelliferae) and Danggui (Angelica sinensis radix, Umbelliferae). As Shunaoxin shows excellent activity in the ...
Eto Miki M Department of Lipid Signaling, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2013
Glycerophospholipids are important components of cellular membranes, required for constructing structural barriers, and for providing precursors of bioactive lipid mediators. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) are enzymes known to function in the de novo glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathway (Kennedy pathway), using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acyl-CoA to form phosphatidic acid (PA). Until ...
Pinto Mauro Cunha Xavier - - 2013
The analysis of amino acid levels is crucial for neuroscience studies because of the roles of these molecules as neurotransmitters and their influence on behavior. The present study describes the distribution and levels of 16 amino acids (alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, ...
Sacchi Silvia - - 2013
Over the years, accumulating evidence has indicated that D-serine represents the main endogenous ligand of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors. In the brain, the concentration of D-serine stored in cells is defined by the activity of two enzymes: serine racemase (responsible for both the synthesis and degradation) and D-amino acid oxidase (which ...
Oliveira Adriano H AH Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, - - 2013
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained ...
Bauer Isabelle - - 2013
While the cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and mood benefits of omega-3 supplementation containing long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are manifest, there is no scientific consensus regarding their effects on neurocognitive functioning. This review aimed to examine the current literature on LCPUFAs by assessing ...
Vallerini Gian Paolo - - 2013
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase (3-HAO) is the enzyme responsible for the production of the neurotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN). Elevated brain levels of QUIN are observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, but pharmacological investigation on its role in the pathogenesis of these conditions is difficult, since only one class of substrate-analog ...
Freund Levi Y Y Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, - - 2013
Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 ...
Sable Pratiksha - - 2013
Studies have established the association of maternal nutrition and increased risk for non-communicable diseases. It has been suggested that this involves epigenetic modifications in the genome. However, the role of maternal micronutrients in the one-carbon cycle in influencing brain development of the offspring through methylation is unexplored. It is also ...
Ta Nathan L - - 2013
Cardiolipin is a complex polyglycerol phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and regulates numerous enzyme activities especially those related to oxidative phosphorylation and coupled respiration. Abnormalities in cardiolipin can impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. We recently demonstrated that the ratio of shorter chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty ...
Sugiki Toshihiko - - 2013
Amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins, which consist of 42 amino acids (Aβ1–42), are the major constituent of neuritic plaques that form in the brains of senile patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several reports state that three aspartic acid (Asp) residues at positions 1, 7, and 23 in Aβ1–42 in the plaques of ...
Sitta Angela - - 2013
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to the accumulation of branched-chain keto acids and their corresponding branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients. Treatment involves protein-restricted diet and the supplementation with a specific formula containing essential ...
Fukuda K - - 2013
To pose a new hypothesis of schizophrenia that affirms and unifies conventional hypotheses. Outside the brain, there are 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells that have tryptophan hydroxylase 1 without l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Monoamine oxidase in the liver and lung metabolize 5-HT, rather than 5-HTP, and 5-HTP freely crosses the blood-brain barrier, ...
Sancheti J S JS Departments of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Insitute of Chemical Technology, N. P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai-400 019, - - 2013
A new robust, simple and economic high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid in brain homogenate. The high performance thin layer chromatographic separation of these amino acid was achieved using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (22:3:5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and ...
Du Jianhai J From the Department of - - 2013
Transport of pyruvate into mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is crucial for complete oxidation of glucose and for biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids. Zaprinast is a well known phosphodiesterase inhibitor and lead compound for sildenafil. We found Zaprinast alters the metabolomic profile of mitochondrial intermediates and amino acids ...
Sugiki Toshihiko T Laboratory of physical chemistry, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Musashino University, - - 2013
Amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins, which consist of 42 amino acids (Aβ1-42), are the major constituent of neuritic plaques that form in the brains of senile patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports state that three aspartic acid (Asp) residues at positions 1, 7, and 23 in Aβ1-42 in the plaques of ...
Kalani Anuradha - - 2013
Epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition (nutrition epigenetics) are important in understanding human health. Nutritional supplements, for example folic acid, a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism, regulate epigenetic alterations and may play an important role in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. Folic acid also ameliorates hyperhomocysteinemia, which is a consequence of elevated levels ...
Cipriano Mariateresa - - 2013
Inhibitors of the metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) reduce the gastric damage produced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and synergise with them in experimental pain models. This motivates the design of compounds with joint FAAH/cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity. Here we present data on ...
Mishra Navin - - 2013
Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase directed antibodies are a rare cause of autoimmune limbic encephalitis that is relatively resistant to immunotherapy. Here we report a 15-year-old boy with nonparaneoplastic, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase limbic encephalitis presenting with subacute headache, memory disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. At onset, his memory disturbance manifested as transient ...
Desikan Rahul S - - 2013
Epidemiological and molecular findings suggest a relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dyslipidemia, although the nature of this association is not well understood. Using linear mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between CSF levels of heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), a lipid binding protein involved with fatty acid ...
Meredith M Elizabeth - - 2013
Scope: Ascorbic acid (ascorbate) is required to recycle tetrahydrobiopterin, which is necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis by the rate-limiting enzymes tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases. We sought to determine whether ascorbate might regulate embryonic brain cortex monoamine synthesis utilizing transgenic mouse models with varying intracellular ascorbate levels. Methods and Results: In embryos ...
Peura Lauri - - 2013
Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their prodrug properties ...
Iaccarino Hannah F - - 2013
Kynurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite that is synthesized and released in the brain by astrocytes and acts as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors, both of which are critically involved in cognition as well as neural plasticity and brain development. The concentration of kynurenic acid ...
Kim Sun Hee - - 2013
The cDNA coding for a polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase (McELOVL5) was isolated from the brain of the pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) being based on available sequences in 23 types of fish. Four sequence variants were identified with different amino acid substitutions as compared with two clones of McELOVL5 gene (McELOVL5 ...
Brose Stephen A SA Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota, 501 N. Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9037, - - 2013
Previously, we, and others, have demonstrated a rapid and significant post-mortem increase in brain prostanoid (PG) levels analyzed without microwave fixation, and this is not the result of PG trapping or destruction in microwave-irradiated brain tissue. In the present study, we demonstrate a dramatic increase in kidney eicosanoid levels when ...
Liu Rutao - - 2013
Many brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, are associated with genetic abnormalities. The search for more effective therapeutic approaches involving nucleic acids like interfering RNA, antisense oligonucleotides and mRNA has drawn much attention in the development of alternatives to virus-based gene therapy. Potentially, nucleic acids could not only specifically down-regulate and ...
Kong Kin Weng - - 2014
The polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots (leaves and stems) were explored. Two methods, freeze drying and air drying, for preparation of the shoots, were also compared. Freeze drying was better as air drying caused 5-41% reduction of polyphenols. Three phenolic acids and ...
Yang Tao - - 2013
This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant and sedative effects of paederosidic acid isolated from Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill. in mice and rats. In the present study, anticonvulsant activities of paederosidic acid were evaluated by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in male mice. Then, pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time and ...
She Pengxiang P From the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey - - 2013
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism is regulated by branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase, an enzyme complex that is inhibited when phosphorylated by its kinase (BDK). Loss of BDK function in mice and humans causes BCAA deficiency and epilepsy with autistic features. In response to amino acid deficiency, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation ...
Yiş Uluç - - 2013
Population-based studies suggest that seizure incidence is highest during the first year of life, and early-life seizures frequently result in the development of epilepsy and behavioral alterations later in life. The early-life insults like status epilepticus often lead to epileptogenesis, a process in which initial brain injury triggers cascades of ...
Adarme-Vega T Catalina TC Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, - - 2013
Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards ...
Lee Ji-Hyuk JH Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, - - 2013
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease ...
Elsherbiny Marwa E - - 2013
Malignant gliomas are the most common adult brain cancers. In spite of aggressive treatment, recurrence occurs in the great majority of patients and is invariably fatal. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are abundant in brain, particularly ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Although the levels of ω-6 and ω-3 ...
Rosa Antonella - - 2013
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many mammals, ovine scrapie being the archetypal prion disease. Several independent studies in murine and cell-based models of scrapie have highlighted the presence of a link between prion generation and lipid alterations; yet, no data on natural disease are available. In this study ...
Vogel Kara R - - 2013
Our laboratory seeks a pharmacotherapeutic intervention for PKU that utilizes non-physiological amino acids (NPAAs) to block the accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe) in the brain. In previous studies (Vogel et al. 2013), methylation of the amino group of 2-aminoisobutyrate (AIB) provided an enhanced degree of selectivity for Phe restriction into the ...
Ioroi Tadaaki - - 2013
Serofendic acid is a low-molecular-weight compound extracted from fetal calf serum. We previously reported that intracerebroventricular administration of serofendic acid prevents cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effect of peripheral administration of serofendic acid on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been examined. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ...
Miyazaki Celine - - 2013
We studied the altered molecular species of lipids in brain and liver tissues, and fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome (ZS). ZS cerebellum samples contained a higher amount of sphingomyelin with shorter chain fatty acids compared to that in normal controls. The amount of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was less than half ...
Schönfeld Peter P Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Medical Faculty of Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, - - 2013
It is puzzling that hydrogen-rich fatty acids are used only poorly as fuel in the brain. The long-standing belief that a slow passage of fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier might be the reason. However, this has been corrected by experimental results. Otherwise, accumulated nonesterified fatty acids or their activated ...
Rajemiarimiraho Manitriniaina - - 2013
From the stem bark of a Madagascan endemic plant, Millettia richardiana Baill., lonchocarpenin and betulinic acid were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods. The analysis of dichloromethane fractions suggested the presence of beta-amyrin, lupeol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid. Except for beta-amyrin and lupeol, these compounds ...
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