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Wu Kai K The State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, - - 2013
Shunaoxin pills, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) product, have been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China since 2005. The main active components of Shunaoxin pills are ferulic acid and ligustilide from Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, Umbelliferae) and Danggui (Angelica sinensis radix, Umbelliferae). As Shunaoxin shows excellent activity in the ...
Eto Miki M Department of Lipid Signaling, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, - - 2013
Glycerophospholipids are important components of cellular membranes, required for constructing structural barriers, and for providing precursors of bioactive lipid mediators. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) are enzymes known to function in the de novo glycerophospholipid biosynthetic pathway (Kennedy pathway), using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and acyl-CoA to form phosphatidic acid (PA). Until ...
Pinto Mauro Cunha Xavier - - 2013
The analysis of amino acid levels is crucial for neuroscience studies because of the roles of these molecules as neurotransmitters and their influence on behavior. The present study describes the distribution and levels of 16 amino acids (alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, ...
Sacchi Silvia - - 2013
Over the years, accumulating evidence has indicated that D-serine represents the main endogenous ligand of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors. In the brain, the concentration of D-serine stored in cells is defined by the activity of two enzymes: serine racemase (responsible for both the synthesis and degradation) and D-amino acid oxidase (which ...
Oliveira Adriano H AH Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, - - 2013
In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained ...
Bauer Isabelle - - 2013
While the cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and mood benefits of omega-3 supplementation containing long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are manifest, there is no scientific consensus regarding their effects on neurocognitive functioning. This review aimed to examine the current literature on LCPUFAs by assessing ...
Vallerini Gian Paolo - - 2013
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase (3-HAO) is the enzyme responsible for the production of the neurotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN). Elevated brain levels of QUIN are observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, but pharmacological investigation on its role in the pathogenesis of these conditions is difficult, since only one class of substrate-analog ...
Freund Levi Y Y Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, - - 2013
Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 ...
Sable Pratiksha - - 2013
Studies have established the association of maternal nutrition and increased risk for non-communicable diseases. It has been suggested that this involves epigenetic modifications in the genome. However, the role of maternal micronutrients in the one-carbon cycle in influencing brain development of the offspring through methylation is unexplored. It is also ...
Ta Nathan L - - 2013
Cardiolipin is a complex polyglycerol phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and regulates numerous enzyme activities especially those related to oxidative phosphorylation and coupled respiration. Abnormalities in cardiolipin can impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. We recently demonstrated that the ratio of shorter chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty ...
Sugiki Toshihiko - - 2013
Amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins, which consist of 42 amino acids (Aβ1–42), are the major constituent of neuritic plaques that form in the brains of senile patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Several reports state that three aspartic acid (Asp) residues at positions 1, 7, and 23 in Aβ1–42 in the plaques of ...
Sitta Angela - - 2013
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to the accumulation of branched-chain keto acids and their corresponding branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients. Treatment involves protein-restricted diet and the supplementation with a specific formula containing essential ...
Fukuda K - - 2013
To pose a new hypothesis of schizophrenia that affirms and unifies conventional hypotheses. Outside the brain, there are 5-HTP-containing argyrophil cells that have tryptophan hydroxylase 1 without l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. Monoamine oxidase in the liver and lung metabolize 5-HT, rather than 5-HTP, and 5-HTP freely crosses the blood-brain barrier, ...
Sancheti J S JS Departments of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Insitute of Chemical Technology, N. P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai-400 019, - - 2013
A new robust, simple and economic high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of L-glutamic acid and γ-amino butyric acid in brain homogenate. The high performance thin layer chromatographic separation of these amino acid was achieved using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (22:3:5 v/v/v) as mobile phase and ...
Du Jianhai J From the Department of - - 2013
Transport of pyruvate into mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is crucial for complete oxidation of glucose and for biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids. Zaprinast is a well known phosphodiesterase inhibitor and lead compound for sildenafil. We found Zaprinast alters the metabolomic profile of mitochondrial intermediates and amino acids ...
Sugiki Toshihiko T Laboratory of physical chemistry, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Musashino University, - - 2013
Amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins, which consist of 42 amino acids (Aβ1-42), are the major constituent of neuritic plaques that form in the brains of senile patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports state that three aspartic acid (Asp) residues at positions 1, 7, and 23 in Aβ1-42 in the plaques of ...
Kalani Anuradha - - 2013
Epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition (nutrition epigenetics) are important in understanding human health. Nutritional supplements, for example folic acid, a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism, regulate epigenetic alterations and may play an important role in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. Folic acid also ameliorates hyperhomocysteinemia, which is a consequence of elevated levels ...
Cipriano Mariateresa - - 2013
Inhibitors of the metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) reduce the gastric damage produced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and synergise with them in experimental pain models. This motivates the design of compounds with joint FAAH/cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity. Here we present data on ...
Mishra Navin - - 2013
Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase directed antibodies are a rare cause of autoimmune limbic encephalitis that is relatively resistant to immunotherapy. Here we report a 15-year-old boy with nonparaneoplastic, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase limbic encephalitis presenting with subacute headache, memory disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. At onset, his memory disturbance manifested as transient ...
Desikan Rahul S - - 2013
Epidemiological and molecular findings suggest a relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dyslipidemia, although the nature of this association is not well understood. Using linear mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between CSF levels of heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), a lipid binding protein involved with fatty acid ...
Meredith M Elizabeth - - 2013
Scope: Ascorbic acid (ascorbate) is required to recycle tetrahydrobiopterin, which is necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis by the rate-limiting enzymes tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases. We sought to determine whether ascorbate might regulate embryonic brain cortex monoamine synthesis utilizing transgenic mouse models with varying intracellular ascorbate levels. Methods and Results: In embryos ...
Peura Lauri - - 2013
Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their prodrug properties ...
Iaccarino Hannah F - - 2013
Kynurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite that is synthesized and released in the brain by astrocytes and acts as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors, both of which are critically involved in cognition as well as neural plasticity and brain development. The concentration of kynurenic acid ...
Kim Sun Hee - - 2013
The cDNA coding for a polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase (McELOVL5) was isolated from the brain of the pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) being based on available sequences in 23 types of fish. Four sequence variants were identified with different amino acid substitutions as compared with two clones of McELOVL5 gene (McELOVL5 ...
Brose Stephen A - - 2013
Previously, we, and others, have demonstrated a rapid and significant post-mortem increase in brain prostanoid (PG) levels analyzed without microwave fixation, and this is not the result of PG trapping or destruction in microwave-irradiated brain tissue. In the present study, we demonstrate a dramatic increase in kidney eicosanoid levels when ...
Liu Rutao - - 2013
Many brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, are associated with genetic abnormalities. The search for more effective therapeutic approaches involving nucleic acids like interfering RNA, antisense oligonucleotides and mRNA has drawn much attention in the development of alternatives to virus-based gene therapy. Potentially, nucleic acids could not only specifically down-regulate and ...
Kong Kin Weng - - 2014
The polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots (leaves and stems) were explored. Two methods, freeze drying and air drying, for preparation of the shoots, were also compared. Freeze drying was better as air drying caused 5-41% reduction of polyphenols. Three phenolic acids and ...
Yang Tao - - 2013
This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant and sedative effects of paederosidic acid isolated from Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill. in mice and rats. In the present study, anticonvulsant activities of paederosidic acid were evaluated by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in male mice. Then, pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time and ...
She Pengxiang P From the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey - - 2013
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism is regulated by branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase, an enzyme complex that is inhibited when phosphorylated by its kinase (BDK). Loss of BDK function in mice and humans causes BCAA deficiency and epilepsy with autistic features. In response to amino acid deficiency, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation ...
Yiş Uluç - - 2013
Population-based studies suggest that seizure incidence is highest during the first year of life, and early-life seizures frequently result in the development of epilepsy and behavioral alterations later in life. The early-life insults like status epilepticus often lead to epileptogenesis, a process in which initial brain injury triggers cascades of ...
Adarme-Vega T Catalina TC Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, - - 2013
Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards ...
Lee Ji-Hyuk JH Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, - - 2013
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease ...
Elsherbiny Marwa E - - 2013
Malignant gliomas are the most common adult brain cancers. In spite of aggressive treatment, recurrence occurs in the great majority of patients and is invariably fatal. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are abundant in brain, particularly ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Although the levels of ω-6 and ω-3 ...
Rosa Antonella - - 2013
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many mammals, ovine scrapie being the archetypal prion disease. Several independent studies in murine and cell-based models of scrapie have highlighted the presence of a link between prion generation and lipid alterations; yet, no data on natural disease are available. In this study ...
Vogel Kara R - - 2013
Our laboratory seeks a pharmacotherapeutic intervention for PKU that utilizes non-physiological amino acids (NPAAs) to block the accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe) in the brain. In previous studies (Vogel et al. 2013), methylation of the amino group of 2-aminoisobutyrate (AIB) provided an enhanced degree of selectivity for Phe restriction into the ...
Ioroi Tadaaki - - 2013
Serofendic acid is a low-molecular-weight compound extracted from fetal calf serum. We previously reported that intracerebroventricular administration of serofendic acid prevents cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effect of peripheral administration of serofendic acid on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been examined. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ...
Schönfeld Peter - - 2013
It is puzzling that hydrogen-rich fatty acids are used only poorly as fuel in the brain. The long-standing belief that a slow passage of fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier might be the reason. However, this has been corrected by experimental results. Otherwise, accumulated nonesterified fatty acids or their activated ...
Miyazaki Celine - - 2013
We studied the altered molecular species of lipids in brain and liver tissues, and fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome (ZS). ZS cerebellum samples contained a higher amount of sphingomyelin with shorter chain fatty acids compared to that in normal controls. The amount of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was less than half ...
Rajemiarimiraho Manitriniaina - - 2013
From the stem bark of a Madagascan endemic plant, Millettia richardiana Baill., lonchocarpenin and betulinic acid were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods. The analysis of dichloromethane fractions suggested the presence of beta-amyrin, lupeol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid. Except for beta-amyrin and lupeol, these compounds ...
Das Undurti N - - 2013
Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric ...
Khan Kafeel A - - 2013
Literature favours the in vitro neuroprotective role of caffeic acid, a naturally derived polyphenolic compound. This study was aimed to investigate the role of caffeic acid in experimental model of Alzheimer's disease. Firstly, caffeic acid was tested for in vitro anticholinesterase potential using rat brain homogenate. Later, in vivo antidementia ...
Yang Lei - - 2013
Peroxisomal β-oxidation is primarily responsible for the degradation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), dicarboxylic acids, unsaturated fatty acids and branched fatty acids. The genes encoding β-oxidation enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Age-related decreases in acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) activity, a key enzyme involved ...
Jia Ling-Yun - - 2013
A new compound 3-acetyloxy-epicycloeucalenol-24-one (1), with 11 known compounds 3α-acetyloxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cycloergost-24-oic acid (2), 3-epicycloeucalenol (3), 3-epicycloeucalenyl-24-one (4), 3-epicycloeucalenyl acetate (5), 4β,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-9β,19-cyclo-24(31)-en-3β-hydroxy-4α-carboxylic acid (6), cycloeucalenone (7), friedelin (8), epifriedelanol (9), lup-20 (29)-en-3β,30-diol (10), betulin (11), lupeol (12), was isolated from the stems and leaves of Quercus variabilis Blume. Seven compounds (1-7) showed ...
Bröer Stefan - - 2013
Amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family mediate the Na+-dependent uptake of neutral amino acids into neurons and epithelial cells of the intestine, kidney and other organs. They are integral parts of amino acid homeostasis in the whole body and the brain. In the intestine they are involved in protein ...
Yang Heejung - - 2013
Juvenile hormone III (JH III) is a larval metamorphosis-regulating hormone present in most insect species. JH III was first isolated from the plant, Cyperus iria L., but the presence of JH III has not been reported in other plant species. In the present study, proof of the existence of JH ...
Wang Zhi-Wei - - 2013
A phytochemical study on the ethanolic extract of the stem barks of Uncaria laevigata leads to the isolation and characterization of 18 triterpenoid compounds. Ten of these are new, including one novel heptanortriterpenoid (1), four ursane triterpenes (2-4, 10), and five oleanane triterpenes (5-9). Their structures were established by spectroscopic ...
Sable Pratiksha S - - 2013
Our earlier studies show that maternal diets imbalanced in micronutrients like folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the offspring at birth and postnatal d21. This study followed the offspring till 3months to examine the ...
Chen Chuck T - - 2013
Brain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels are 250-300 folds lower than docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at least partly, because EPA is rapidly β-oxidized and lost from brain phospholipids. Therefore, we examined if β-oxidation was necessary for maintaining low EPA levels by inhibiting β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP). Furthermore, because other metabolic differences ...
Thang Tran D - - 2013
Essential oils hydrodistilled from the leaves and stem barks of Goniothalamus macrocalyx Ban., Goniothalamus albiflorus Ban. and Goniothalamus tamirensis Pierre ex Fin. & Gagnep. growing in Vietnam were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-coupled with mass spectrometry. α-Pinene (1.7-50.0%), β-pinene (tr-6.8%), β-myrcene (tr-1.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (tr-4.6%), β-caryophyllene (9.9-12.8%), aromadendrene (0.2-6.0%), ...
Moreno-Sanz Guillermo G Drug Discovery and Development, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova, - - 2013
The peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB937 (3, cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) is extruded from the brain and spinal cord by the Abcg2 efflux transporter. Despite its inability to enter the central nervous system (CNS), 3 exerts profound antinociceptive effects in mice and rats, which result from ...
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